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Full text of "Annual reports of the President and Treasurer of Harvard College"

"LI BR. A FLY 

OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 

C 
1882/83 -1984/S5 



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ANNUAL REPORTS 



OF THE 



PRESIDENT AND TREASURER 



OF 



HARVARD COLLEGE. 



1882-83. 




CAMBRIDGE : 

UNIVERSITY PRESS: JOHN WILSON AND SON. 

1883. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/annualreportsof8285harv 






PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1882-83. 



To the Board of Overseers : — 

The President of the University has the honor to sub- 
mit the following Report for the Academic year 1882-83 ; 
namely, from Sept. 28, 1882, to Sept. 27, 1883 : — 

On the 29th of October, 1882, Mr. Lester Sackett 
Ford, Demonstrator in Zoology at the Bussey Institution, 
and at the time a house-officer at the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital, died at that hospital of typhoid fever, after 
a brief illness. Mr. Ford took the degree of Bachelor of 
Agricultural Science in 1879, being the first graduate 
of the Bussey Institution, and at the time of his death 
had also completed his course for the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine. He was a young man of great promise, who 
by remarkable mental powers and rare beauty and force 
of character, had won his way through serious obstacles 
to the gateway of a profession which he would have 
adorned. His untimely death was mourned by all who 
knew him. 

Assistant-Professor Adrien Jacquinot died in Cam- 
bridge on the 21st of September, 1883, near the end of 
the long vacation and soon after his return from a sum- 
mer visit to France. He had been in the service of the 
University for eleven years, and had so won the respect 
and affection of his colleagues and his pupils by his sim- 
plicity, amiability, and disinterestedness, that although he 
died far from his kindred and in a strange land, he died 
among friends whose attachment could hardly have been 



4 RESIGNATIONS. 

greater had they been the friends of his youth. Professor 
Jacquinot's teaching gave evidence not only of thorough 
acquaintance with French literature, but of keen appre- 
ciation of what is best in all literature. He loved his 
College work, and gave in his devotion to it a precious 
example of industry and fidelity. 

RESIGNATIONS. 

Daniel Denison Slade, Professor of Applied Zoology, November 6, 

1882. 
Francis Winthrop Dean, Tutor in Engineering, November 6, 1882. 
Henry Burleigh Wenzell, Proctor, November 6, 1882. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Professor of Anatomy, November 20, 1882. 
Samuel Hubbard Scudder, Assistant Librarian, December 11, 1882. 
Edwin Perley Bradbury, Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 

December 22, 1882. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Professor of Law, January 8, 1883. 
Dwight Moses Clapp, Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry, January 

29, 1883. 

Calvin Ellis, Dean of the Medical Faculty, June 25, 1883. 

David Humphreys Storer, ^ 

Henry Jacob Bigelow, ( . ,„„ 

-o T. T TT > Bovlston Prize Committee, June 25, 1883. 

Richard Manning Hodges, [ J ' ' 

Samuel Cabot, J 

Frank Er Balch, Steward of the Harvard Dining Association, June 25, 

1883. 
Manuel Jacob Drennan, Instructor in English, June 27, 1883. 
Henry Champion Jones, Assistant in Botany, June 27, 1883. 
George Henry Browne, Proctor, September 1, 1883. 
Charles Elliott St. John, Proctor, September 1, 1883. 
George Lyman Ivittredge, Proctor, September 1, 1883. 
William Schofield, Proctor, as of September 1, 1883. 
Henry Champion Jones, Proctor, as of September 1, 1883. 
Henry Nathan Wheeler, Proctor, as of September 1, 1883. 
Edward Cornelius Briggs, Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 

as of September 1, 1883. 
Charles Frederic Mabery, Assistant in Chemistry, September 26, 

1883. 
Edward Hale, Proctor and President's Secretary, September 26, 1883. 

The Corporation accepted with great regret the resig- 
nation of Dr. Daniel Denison Slade, Professor of Applied 
Zoology at the Bussey Institution since 1871. Professor 
Slade had always given the instruction in his department 



RESIGNATIONS. 



with perfect punctuality and acceptance, until serious ill- 
ness came upon him in the winter of 1881-82. The suc- 
ceeding summer in great measure restored his health ; 
but it was not considered prudent for him to undertake 
to keep the stated appointments which are incumbent 
upon a teacher. The University thus lost a teacher of 
scientific spirit, wide information, and strong sense of 
duty. 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes resigned the professorship 
of Anatomy in November, 1882, after a continuous ser- 
vice of thirty-five years as Park man Professor, first of 
Anatomy and Physiology, and then of Anatomy. Dur- 
ing all these years, Dr. Holmes has given a large part of 
his time and strength to the routine of instructing med- 
ical students in the elements of human anatomy (and of 
physiology until 1872), and he has done this work with 
as much punctuality, thoroughness, and ardor, as if he had 
no other interest or occupation. Accustomed for twenty- 
four years to the old regime of the School, Dr. Holmes 
was not an active promoter of the revolution of 1870-71 ; 
but he readily entered into the new plans, and greatly 
enjoyed the improvements which resulted from their 
adoption. The Corporation and Overseers endeavored 
to express their sense of the obligations under which Dr. 
Holmes had laid the Medical School, by electing him 
Professor Emeritus. The students and the Faculty gave 
strong expression to their regret at his withdrawal, and 
will long miss the influence of his erudition, literary 
fame, and kindly wit. 

In June last, Dr. Calvin Ellis, Professor of Clinical 
Medicine, resigned on account of ill health the position of 
Dean of the Medical Faculty, which he had held since 
1869, during a period of rapid and fundamental changes 
in the organization and spirit of the School. His influ- 
ence as Dean was always exerted on the side of thorough- 
ness, liberality, and highmindedness ; he preferred the 



6 APPOINTMENTS. 

interest of the School to the interest ot any individual, 
whether teacher or student, and the interest of the com- 
munity to the immediate interest of the School ; he 
actively furthered all the many improvements made by 
the Faculty during his long term of office ; and the great 
change made in 1870-71 could not have been effected 
without his support, — a support which was as steady and 
strong as it was indispensable. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

[UNLIMITED, OR FOR TERMS LONGER THAN ONE YEAR.] 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, to be Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, No- 
vember 20, 1882. 

Thomas Fillebrown, to be Professor of Operative Dentistry, January 8, 
1883. 

Manuel Jacob Drennan, to be Assistant Professor of English for five 
years from September 1, 1883, February 26, 1883. 

Asa Gray, to be Director of the Herbarium, April 9, 1883. 

James Greenleaf Croswell, to be Assistant Professor of Greek and 
Latin for five years from September 1, 1883, April 9, 1883. 

Silas Marcus Macvane, to be Assistant Professor of History for five 
years from September 1, 1883, April 9, 1883. 

Ernest Young, to be Assistant Professor of History for five years from 
September 1, 1883, April 9, 1883. 

James Bradstreet Greenough, to be Professor of Latin, April 23, 1883. 

Clement Lawrence Smith, to be Professor of Latin, April 23, 1883. 

George Herbert Palmer, to be Professor of Philosophy, April 23, 1883. 

Arthur Searle, to be Assistant Professor of Astronomy for five years 
from June 1, 1883, April 30, 1883. 

William Albert Keener, to be Assistant Professor of Law for five years 
from September 1, 1883, May 14, 1883. 

James Laurence Laughlin, to be Assistant Professor of Political Econ- 
omy, for five years from September 1, 1883, May 14, 1883. 

Charles Albert Brackett, to be Professor of Dental Pathology and 
Therapeutics, May 14, 1883. 

Thomas D wight, to be Parkman Professor of Anatomy, June 11, 1883. 

Henry Pickering Bowditch, to be Dean of the Medical Faculty, June 
25, 1883. 

William Morris Davis, to be Instructor in Geology from September 1, 

1882, April 23, 1883. 
Barrett Wendell, to be Instructor in English, June 25, 1883. 
Le Baron Russell Briggs, to be Instructor in English, June 25, 1883. 



APPOINTMENTS. 7 

Frederick Bradford Knapp, to be Instructor in Surveying and Draw- 
ing, June 25, 1883. 

Charles Pomeroy Parker, to be Tutor in Greek and Latin for three 
years- from September 1, 1883, June 25, 1883. 



Maurice Howe Richardson, to be Demonstrator of Anatomy, June 11, 

18S3. • 

John Rayner Edmands, to be Assistant in Observatory in charge of Time 
Service, February 14, 1883. 

John Ritchie, Jr., to be Assistant in Observatory in charge of Distribu- 
tion of Astronomical Information, February 14, 1883. 



Frederick Bradford Knapp, to be Superintendent of Buildings and 

Grounds from April 24, 1883, April 23, 1883. 
Jeremiah J. Sullivan, to be Steward of the Memorial Hall Dining 

Association from September 1, 1883, August 27, 1883. 

[FOR ONE YEAR OR LESS.] 
For 1882-83. 

Edward Hale, to be President's Secretary, October 9, 1882. 
Barrett Wendell, to be Instructor in English, October 9, 1882. 
Charles Maynard Barnes, to be Instructor in Sales, October 9, 1882. 
Henry Grosvenor Carey, to be Instructor in Vocal Music, November 6, 

1882. 
Frederick Bradford Knapp, to be Instructor in Surveying and Draw- 
ing, November 6, 1882. 
Francis Am as a Walker, to be University Lecturer on the Tenure of Land, 

November 20, 1882. 
G. Stanley Hall, to be University Lecturer on Pedagogy, December 22, 

1882. 
Charles Pomeroy Parker, to be Instructor in Greek and Latin from 

January 3, January 8, 1883. 
Dwight Moses Clapp, to be Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry 

November 6, 1SS2. 
Daniel Taylor Hinckley, to be Demonstrator in Anatomy, November 

20, 1882. 

Oliver Mayhew Whipple Huntington, to be Assistant in Chemistry, 
October 9, 1882. 

George Lyman Kittredge, to be Proctor, November 20, 1882. 
Herbert Morison Clark, to be Proctor, November 20, 1882. 
Arthur Lawrence Hall, to be Proctor, November 20, 1882. 

For 1883-84. 
Joseph Henry Thayer, to be Lecturer on Biblical Theology, April 23, 

1883. 



8 APPOINTMENTS. 

Edward Perkins Channing, to be Instructor in History, May 30, 1883. 
Albert Bushnell Hart, to be Instructor in American History, May 30, 

1883. 
Harold Whiting, to be Instructor in Physics, May 30, 1883. 
Frank William Taussig, to be Instructor in Political Economy, May 30, 

1883. 
Charles Edward Faxon, to be Instructor in Botany, June 11, 1883. 
Benjamin Marston Watson, to be Instructor in Horticulture, June 11, 

1883. 
Edward Burgess, to be Instructor in Entomology, June 11, 1883. 
Freeman Snow, to be Instructor in Forensics, June 11, 1883. 
Josiah Royce, to be Instructor in Philosophy, June 11, 1883. 
Henry Dixon Jones, to be Instructor in Elocution, June 25, 1883. 
Joseph Randolph Coolidge, to be Instructor in Spanish, June 25, 1883. 
Alfred Church Lane, to be Instructor in Mathematics, September 26, 

1883. 

Charles Frederic Mabery, to be Assistant in Chemistry, June 11, 1S83. 
George Trumbull Hartshorn, to be Assistant in Organic Chemistry, 

June 11, 1883. 
Oliver Mayhew Whipple Huntington, to be Assistant in Chemistry, 

June 11, 1883. 
George William Perkins, to be Assistant in Biology, June 11, 1883. 
Charles Harrington, to be Assistant in, Chemistry, June 25, 1883. 
Charles Pomeroy Worcester, to be Assistant in Chemistry, September 

2G, 1883. 

Robert Henry Harrison, to be Instructor in Anatomy, April 23, 1883. 

John Homans, to be Clinical Instructor in the Diagnosis and Treatment 
of Ovarian Tumors, June 11, 1883. 

Francis Boott Greenough, to be Clinical Instructor in Syphilis, June 
11, 1883. 

Oliver Fairfield Wadsworth, to be Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmos- 
copy, June 11, 1883. 

Samuel Gilbert Webber, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of the 
Nervous System, June 11, 1883. 

Clarence John Blake, to be Clinical Instructor in Otology, June 11, 
1883. 

John Orne Green, to be Clinical Instructor in Otology, June 11, 1883. 

Amos Lawrence Mason, to be Clinical Instructor in Auscultation, June 
11, 1883. 

James Read Chadwick, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Women, 
Jane 11, 1883. 

Abner Post, to be Clinical Instructor in Syphilis, June 11, 1883. 

James Jackson Putnam, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of. the 
Nervous System, June 11, 1883. 

Joseph Pearson Oliver, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Chil- 
dren, June 11, 1883. 



APPOINTMENTS. V 

Frederick Cheever Shattuck, to be Clinical Instructor in Ausculta- 
tion, June 11, 1883. 

Thomas Morgan Rotch, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Children, 
June 11, 1883. 

Frank Winthrop Draper, to be Lecturer on Forensic Medicine, June 11, 
1883. 

Charles Sedgwick Minot, to be Lecturer on Embryology, June 11, 1883. 

Edward Newton Whittier, to be Instructor in the Theory and Practice 
of Physic, June 11, 1883. 

William Palmer Bolles, to be Instructor in Materia Medica, June 11, 
1883. 

Francis Augustine Harris, to be Demonstrator of Medico-Legal Exam- 
inations, June 11, 1883. 



Joseph Weathkrhead Warren, to be Instructor in Oral Pathology and 

Anatomy, May 30, 1883. 
Timothy Otis Loveland, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 30, 1883. 
Charles Wilson, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, May 30, 

1883. 
Albert Benton Jewell, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 30, 1883. 
Eugene Hanes Smith, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 30, 1883. 
Edward Cornelius Briggs, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 30, 1883. 
George Franklin Grant, to be Demonstrator in Mechanical Dentistry, 

May 30, 1883. 
Virgil Clarence Pond, to be Demonstrator in Operative Dentistry, 

May 30, 1883. 

Henry Parker Quincy, to be Assistant in Histology, June 11, 1883. 
Edward Hickling Bradford, to be Assistant in Clinical Surgery, June 11, 

1883. 
Francis Henry Davenport, to be Assistant in Gynaecology, June 11, 

1883. 
George Minot Garland, to be Assistant in Clinical Medicine, June 11, 

1883. 
Joseph Weathkrhead Warren, to be Assistant in Physiology, June 11, 

1883. 
William Whit worth Gannett, to be Assistant in Pathological Anatomy, 

June 11, 1883. 
William Carroll Emerson, to be Assistant in Chemistry, June 11, 

1883. 
Samuel Jason Mixter, to be Assistant in Anatomy, June 11, 1883. 
Walter Joseph Otis, to be Assistant in Anatomy > June 11, 1883. 
Robert Henry Harrison, to be Assistant Surgeon of the Veterinary 

Hospital, June 25, 1883. 



10 INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS. 

John Downer Pennock, to be Proctor, September 26, 1883. 
Charles Pomeroy Worcester, to be Proctor, September 26, 1883. 
Edward Southworth Hawes, to be Proctor, September 26, 1883. 
Charles Austin Hobbs, to be Proctor, September 26, 1883. 
Frederick Silas Gregory Reed, to be Proctor, September 26, 1883. 



Julian Clifford Jaynes, to be Proctor of Divinity Hall, June 11, 1883. 
Arthur Anderson Brooks, to be Librarian of the Divinity School, 
June 11, 1883. 

William Gray, Henry J. Bigelow, and Thomas G. Appleton, to be 
Trustees of the Museum of Fine Arts for one year, from January 1, 
1883, December 11, 1882. 

The moderate- increase in the number of students at- 
tending the University which the past eight years have 
witnessed has come, not from New England, but in the 
main from the Middle and Western States. The slow 
increase of the native population in New England, the 
efflux of enterprising young men and well-to-do families 
to the Western States and Territories, and the influx of 
foreigners, many of whom belong to the church of Rome, 
would cause, temporarily at least, a decline of the New- 
England colleges, were not these colleges fed more and 
more from the other States of the Union. Sixty years 
ago seventy-nine per cent of the students in the Uni- 
versity came from New England ; thirty years ago sev- 
enty-five per cent ; three years ago seventy-two per cent ; 
but now only sixty-seven per cent. During the past 
three years the percentage of students from Massachu- 
setts has fallen from sixty-one and a half to fifty -four. 
Sixty years ago the Southern States contributed nearly 
one fifth of the whole number of students ; but that sec- 
tion of the country, though greatly expanded in the 
mean time, now contributes only a little over three 
per cent. The following table exhibits the progressive 
increase in the percentage of students from the Middle 
and Western States. 



INCREASE FROM THE MIDDLE AND WESTERN STATES. 11 





1820-21. 


1850-51. 


1880-81. 


1883-84. 


Middle 

Western : . . . 


2.4 

0.0 


8.6 
2.6 


13. 
9.6 


16.8 
11.7 



The most remarkable increase is that from the Middle 
States, and this increase is particularly striking in the 
College proper. More than one fifth of the College stu- 
dents now come from the Middle States. The number of 
graduates of the University who settle in the Middle and 
Western States has been rapidly increasing of late, many 
of them soon filling places of trust and influence. They 
exert themselves to improve the preparatory schools ■ in 
their vicinity, or to found new ones ; and by example and 
precept they suggest to young men that it is expedient to 
get thorough training for professional or active life. Con- 
spicuous examples of the influence thus exerted by Har- 
vard graduates have been seen in recent years in New 
York, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Indi- 
anapolis, and San Francisco. It is an influence which 
not only benefits this University, but also improves the 
secondary and higher education in general throughout the 
country. Since about three hundred young men are 
now graduated yearly at the University, and are dispersed 
hence far and wide over the Union, and since the country 
becomes constantly more compact through the rapid ex- 
tension and improvement of railroads and telegraphs, so 
that the situation of the University upon the eastern edge 
of the continent is less and less an obstacle to its growth, 
it is to be expected that the proportion of its students 
from beyond New England will continue to increase. 



The number of special students in the University 
(students not candidates for a degree) increases, and is 
likely to increase ; for all the privileges of University 



12 



SPECIAL STUDENTS. 



membership are open to them, except that of winning a 
degree and so gaining admission to the quinquennial 



catalogue. 



Special Students in the 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


College ....,- 




15* 

7 
29 
26 

77 


34* 
9 

29 

17 
89 


46 
6 

19 
11 

82 


67 

7 

27 

13 

114 


Divinity School . 
Law „ 
Scientific „ 











Unrnatviculated students. 



The amount of the tuition-fees paid by special students 
during the current year will be about $16,000, and dur- 
ing the three preceding years the amount of these fees was 
on the average about $11,000 a year. The special stu- 
dents in the College proper are on the average nearly two 
years older than the Freshmen ; and sixty-one per cent of 
them come from beyond New England. Of the sixty- 
seven persons registered in College as special students for 
the current year, nine are persons who failed in June or 
in September, or in both months, to pass the examinations 
for admission to the Freshman class, thirteen are present 
for a second year, and one for a third year. In all four 
of the departments included in the table every grade of 
scholarship, from very high to very low, is found among 
the special students. Upon this point interesting details 
are given in the report of the Dean of the College Faculty 
(p. 49). It will also be seen in the Dean's report that of 
the forty-two special students who completed the year 
1882-83 in the College, ten were subsequently admitted 
to some College class. The provisions now made for 
special students are useful: 1. To persons who wish to 
devote themselves to single subjects, and do not care for 
a degree ; 2. To young men of good parts who have been 



INCREASING ATTENDANCE OF GRADUATES. 13 

prevented from getting, at the usual age, the common 
training preparatory to college life ; 3. To those who are 
physically unequal to the labor and competition of the 
regular course, but who can do well a smaller amount of 
quiet work ; 4. To the slow and dull whose fathers can 
afford to give them the general advantages of a residence 
at the University. 

As all these varieties of ability, purpose, and condition, 
are now represented in every degree among the special 
students, these students constitute, as might be supposed, 
a miscellaneous body of young men without common 
characteristics or common life. It was precisely to meet 
these diverse needs, which arise so naturally in the pres- 
ent condition of American society, that special students 
were admitted to the University. Among them have 
been found, in each of the last five or six years men of 
excellent capacity and character who were very poor, and 
who suffered, or failed, for that reason in their struggle 
for education. The University possesses no scholarships, 
or other beneficiary aids, accessible to persons who are 
not candidates for a degree. In so considerable a body of 
special students as is now in attendance, good use could be 
made of some endowments for aiding capable men, after 
suitable probation, in any of the various departments to 
which special students resort. 

For many years a large proportion of the regular stu- 
dents in the Schools of Divinity, Law, and Medicine at this 
University have been graduates of Harvard College or of 
other institutions. At present nearly three fifths (238 out 
of 410) of the regular members of these Schools have pre- 
viously taken academic degrees, one hundred and thirty- 
five at Harvard University, and one hundred and three 
at other institutions. On the other hand, the attendance 
of graduates in any number, whether of this institution 
or of others, for purposes of study outside of the regular 



14 



GRADUATE STUDENTS IN ARTS. 



classes of these three professional schools, was hardly wit- 
nessed here until within the past ten years, with the 
important but temporary exception that the Lawrence 
Scientific School, before 1867, generally contained from 
twelve to twenty bachelors of arts or science who were 
pursuing chemistry, engineering, comparative anatomy or 
zoology as specialties. During the past year seventy-nine 
graduates (48 of Harvard, and 31 of other institutions) 
were pursuing their studies here, not including graduates 
who were members of the regular classes in the three 
professional schools ; and the catalogue of the current 
year exhibits ninety-eight such graduates (54 of Harvard, 
and 44 of other institutions). The following tables show 



Persons studying here after taking degrees 
at other institutions (not including regular 
members of the three professional schools). 


CO 


CO 

5 


CO 

t~ 

CO 

7 

1* 
1 

3 

7 
19 


CO 

o 

CO 
CO 

2 

1* 

i 

1 

4 

12 


CO 

cc 

CO 

12 

3 

1 

2 

2 

8 

28 


CO • 
CO 

N 

18 
3 
3 
1 
1 

5 
31 


-*" 

CO 

CO 
CO 

CO 

16 
2 
3 
2 
3 

7 

11 
44 


As candidates for the A.B. (members of the 
College classes) 


As College special students 




As resident graduates at the Divinity School 
As Divinity special students 


i 




As Scientific students 

As resident graduates not candidates for any 


3 

1 


2 

7 


As candidates for the degree of A.M., Ph.D., 
or S.D 


Total . . . . ... 


.*-6 







* Then called unmatriculated. 



Harvard A.B.s and S.B.s pursuing studies 
here (not including regular members of the 
three professional Schools). 


CO 


in 
T 

CO 


CO 
CO 


CO 

gg 

CO 


CO 

CO 

CO 


33 


Tj5 

CO 

CO 
CO 

CO 


As Divinity resident graduates 

As Divinity special students 


*1 


1 


1 

2 

8 
44 
55 


i 

2 

2 

30 

37 


1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

33 

38 


i 

4 
43 

48 


1 

3 

7 
43 
54 


As Law special students 






As Scientific students 

As resident graduates not candidates for a 
degree 


3 

8 

2 

14 


6 

10 
38 
55 


As candidates for the degree of A.M., Ph.D., 
or S.D 


Total 



University student of Theology. 



ADMISSION OF GRADUATES. 15 

the various ways in which these graduates of other col- 
leges and of Harvard College have connected themselves 
with the University in every year since 1880 and at three 
periods taken three years apart before 1880. 

These ways of entering the University are all open to 
graduates without any examination, except that a graduate 
of another institution who desires to enter the College as 
a candidate for the Harvard degree of Bachelor of Arts 
must satisfy the College Faculty as to his previous course 
of study and his proficiency therein, and that a graduate 
of another institution who desires to become a candidate 
for a degree higher than that of Bachelor must satisfy the 
appropriate Faculty that the course of study for which he 
received his Bachelor's degree (reinforced perhaps by ex- 
tra studies) is equivalent to that for which the same degree 
is given in Harvard University. The tables show that 
good progress has been made within ten years in this im- 
portant branch of the work of the University ; but they 
also indicate that there is ample room for further develop- 
ment. The various and abundant instruction here offered 
has been made reasonably accessible to all persons who 
are able to profit by it, so far as regulations conceived in 
a liberal and hospitable spirit can make it accessible. 
There remain two hindrances to the growth of the gradu- 
ate department, — in the first place, it is a new and com- 
paratively unknown department, the privileges of which 
are as yet but little understood ; and in the second place 
it possesses no scholarships or other beneficiary aids. An 
annual income of ten thousand dollars could be well used 
at once in scholarships for graduate students in arts. 

The Academic Council early in the year 1883 adopted 
two new rules with regard to the Master's degree (see the 
report of the Secretary, p. 78) which are expected to 
increase considerably the number of suitable candidates 
for that grade. The first of the new rules provides that 



16 THE MASTER'S DEGREE. 

studies pursued in the Professional and Scientific Schools 
will be approved by the Council as constituents of the one 
year's course of liberal study which is required of every 
candidate for the Master's degree, on condition that the 
candidate do not count the same studies towards a profes- 
sional degree ; and the second provides that members of 
the Schools of Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Science, who 
are already Bachelors of Arts, may obtain the degree of 
Master of Arts simultaneously with their professional 
degree, if they pass the examinations of their respective 
Schools with high credit, and follow the longest course of 
study and residence provided for the professional degree. 
The first of these rules treats professional studies as liberal, 
and encourages young men to give one year to subjects 
selected from the professional school programmes, although 
they have no purpose of entering any profession. The 
second rule offers an inducement to the Law student, who 
is a Bachelor of Arts, to remain three years in the School 
rather than two, and to a Medical student who is a Bachelor 
of Arts to remain four years rather than three, and to all 
professional students, who have already taken the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts, to distinguish themselves at their ex- 
aminations. The degree will thus be placed within the 
reach of a considerable proportion of the graduates of the 
University; yet the conditions upon which it is to be 
obtained are such as must command respect and furnish 
proper security against too ready bestowal. The degree 
will continue to be, — what it has been at this University 
since 1872, — good evidence that the recipient has made 
serious attainments in addition to those for which he 
received the Bachelor's degree in arts. 

The College Faculty is the body in which almost all 
the considerable changes, made during the past sixteen 
years in the educational methods of Harvard College and 
of the schools which regularly feed it, have been first 



CONSTITUTION OF THE COLLEGE FACULTY. 17 

studied in detail, and then wrought into practical shape ; 
and it is at present engaged, not for the first time, in the 
discussion of .the gravest question of University policy 
which has arisen, or is likely to arise, in this generation, 
— namely, the extent to which option among the different 
subjects should be allowed in the examination for admis- 
sion to College. Changes in the constitution of a body 
which exercises such functions are interesting for two rea- 
sons, — first, because they indicate in a general way the 
directions in which the College instruction has been devel- 
oped, and secondly because they may affect far-reaching 
decisions upon questions of educational policy. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the constitution of the College Faculty 
on September 8, 1869, the last day of the summer vacation, 
three months and a half after the beginning of the present 
administration. It is to be observed that then, as now, 
several teachers, who gave instruction to undergraduates 
in important departments, were not members of the Fac- 
ulty. In natural history, Professors Agassiz, Gray, and 
Wyman were regular teachers ; in Italian and Spanish 
Instructor Nash, in music Instructor Paine, in philosophy 
Instructor Newell, and in mathematics Instructor Leverett 
gave stated instruction ; but none of these gentlemen 
were members of the Faculty, and the departments of 
natural history and music had no representative in that 
body. 

COLLEGE FACULTY. September 8, 1869. 

Greek S Professors 2 

t Tutor JL 3 

Latin J Professor 1 

I Tutors 2 3 



(Pro 

(Tut 



Mathematics J Professors 2 

itor • 1 3 



Philosophy and Ethics .... Professors 2 

History (Professors 2 

( Tutor J 2£ 

2 



18 CONSTITUTION OF THE COLLEGE FACULTY. 

Professor 



English . 

Tutor (elocution) 

Modern Languages and Literature ) 10 . essor 

(not English) } Assistant Professor 

Physics I Professor 

J I Tutor 



H 



^ 



Chemistry (Professor 

J I Tutor £ 1$ 

23 

The next table exhibits the constitution of the Faculty 
fourteen years later, just before the beginning of the cur- 
rent academic year. Eight Instructors, who bear an im- 
portant part in the departments of modern languages (2), 
English (2), physics (1), political economy (1), history (1), 
and mathematics (1) respectively, are not included in the 
table, because they hold annual appointments, and conse- 
quently do not belong to the Faculty. 

COLLEGE FACULTY. September 26, 1883. 

r Professors 2 

Greek . . . '. < Assistant Professors 2 

( Tutor _1 5 

r Professors 3 

Latin ,....< Assistant Professor 1 

( Tutor _1 5 

Classical Philology . *. . . . Professor 1 

Hebrew, Assyrian, and Arabic . Professors 2 

Sanskrit Professor 1 

r Professors 3 

Mathematics ■< Assistant Professor 1 

( Instructor 1 5 

Philosophy and Ethics . . . . 5 Professors 2 

(. Assistant Professor 1 3 



History and Roman Law 
History of Art . . . 



( Professors 3 

< Assistant Professors 2 

( Professor 1 

\ Instructor 1 



CONSTITUTION OF THE COLLEGE FACULTY. 19 

Music Professor 1 

«*,.,.«« ( Professor 1 

Political Economy 1 Assistant Professor 1 2 



English -J 



Professors 2 

Instructors 2 

Professors 2 



Modern Languages and Literature j Assistant Professors 2 

(not English) 1 Instructor 1 

L Tutor _1 6 

Physics (Professors 3 

( Instructor 1 4 

Chemistry (Professors 2 

( Assistant Professor 1 3 

/- Professors 4 

Natural History J Assistant Professors 2 

( Instructor 1 7 

Physical Training Assistant Professor 1 

57 

The following statement of the number of teachers in 
the Faculties of 1869 and 1883 respectively, compared by 
departments, brings out some interesting facts; but it 
must be remembered that of twenty-two teachers in the 
Faculty of 1869, eight were tutors, while in the much 
larger Faculty of 1883, only ten were of a rank below 
that of assistant-professor. 

Department. Number of teachers. 

1869. 1883. 

Greek, Latin, and Sanscrit 6 12 

Semitic 2 

English 2 4 

Modern languages 3^ 6 

Philosophy, ethics, and political science . 2 5 

History, Roman Law, and history of art . 2\ 7 

Music 1 

Mathematics 3 5 

Physics and chemistry 3 7 

Natural history 7 

Physical training 1 

22 57 



20 ADMISSION EXAMINATIONS. 

The new subjects represented in the Faculty of 1883 
are Sanscrit, Semitic languages, Koman Law, history of 
art, music, natural history, and physical training, the first 
four of which are closely connected with the classical lan- 
guages and literatures. The representatives of the new 
subjects being deducted, it appears that each department 
has about doubled its number of teachers during the four- 
teen years, the development being, on the whole, remark- 
ably symmetrical. The department of natural history 
has made a greater relative gain than any other, partly 
because the professors in that department were not mem- 
bers of the old Faculty, and partly because the importance 
of the department as regards endowment, equipment, and 
quantity of instruction offered has greatly increased. 

The June admission examinations conducted simultane- 
ously at Andover, Exeter, New York, Philadelphia, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco, answer a 
good purpose, and cost but little. The expenses attend- 
ing them in June last amounted to $982.01, and the 
receipts from fees amounted to $635. The number of 
candidates examined at these places was eighty-six for 
the final examination and eighty-seven for the prelimi- 
nary, distributed as follows : — 









M 




p 


o 


00 


o3 




> 
o 

d 


-1-3 

Q 

M 


O 




a 

'a 




3 
O 


CI 
g3 




< 


H ■ 


fc ' 


PLH 


O 


O 


W 


W 


Final examination . . . 


5 


31 


21 


10 


7 


4 


3 


5 


Preliminary examination . 


9 


22 


28 


9 


5 


5 


2 


7 



This method of carrying the examination-papers to the 
candidates, instead of obliging all candidates to travel to 
Cambridge, only dates from 1876, when examinations 
were first conducted at Cincinnati ; having proved prac- 
ticable and serviceable, it has been gradually extended, 
and bids fair to become the normal method for large 
academies, and for cities which possess schools capable of 
preparing boys for this University. 



ADMISSION EXAMINATIONS. 21 

For several years past a considerable number of can- 
didates for admission have been examined, who, when 
admitted, did' not become students in the University. 
This number has been year by year increasing until last 
summer it reached fifty-six, of whom not more than half 
have any intention of entering the University at a future 
time (see the Dean's report, p. 54). Twenty-two of 
the fifty-six have already connected themselves with 
other institutions. In giving these persons a thorough 
examination the College renders a gratuitous service, 
partly to them, and partly to the schools from which they 
come ; and it will continue freely to render this service 
until the labor which these examinations impose upon it 
becomes unreasonably heavy. If there prove to be an 
increasing demand for this service — as is not unlikely — 
it may ultimately become expedient to charge a fee for 
the admission examination at Cambridge as well as at the 
other places of examination. It is obviously convenient 
that all the boys in the first and second classes of a well- 
organized school should aim at passing the Harvard ex- 
aminations, although some of them may not be going to 
Harvard College, and some are not going to college at 
all. Again, every ambitious pupil in the graduating class 
of a school or academy desires, for his own credit, to pass 
all the examinations which his comrades are passing, lest 
some one should imagine him to be less capable or less 
faithful than his fellows ; and the more reputable the ex- 
aminations the stronger will be this desire. The College 
recognizes the force of these motives, and has thus far 
made no objection to examining for admission persons who 
have no definite intention of entering the University. 

In the following table a comparison is instituted upon 
certain points between six good and large schools which 
habitually send boys to Harvard College, two of the num- 
ber being endowed schools, two public schools, and two 
private schools. The statistics cover a period of eight 



22 SIX SCHOOLS COMPARED. 

years for the private schools, and of ten years for the 
others. 





Percentage of candidates 
who entered without con- 
ditions. 


Percentage of candidates who 
entered with not more than 
two conditions. 


Percentage of boys 
who graduated at 
College in the first 
half of their re- 
spective classes. 


1. 


55. 




81.1 








54.1 


2. 


50.5 




75.1 








58. 


3. 


44.2 




73.8 








39.2 


4. 


42.1 




61.4 








32.6 


5. 


35.3 




59. 








50.5 


6. 


32 9 




57.6 








57.2 



These schools, all of which are deservedly held in high 
estimation, differ very much in the results they attain at 
the admission examinations, but even more in regard to 
the College standing of their graduates. The boys from 
three of these schools stand at the end of the College 
course decidedly above the average in their respective 
classes, from two of them much below the average, and 
the boys from the sixth school have just the average 
standing, half of them being in the first half of their 
respective classes. The facts prove that there is not 
so sure a connection between good work as a schoolboy 
and good work as a college student as there ought to be, 
many of the ill-prepared boys surpassing during college 
life many of the well-prepared. In the freedom of col- 
lege life differences between individuals in respect to 
ambition, strength of will, physical and mental alertness, 
and habits created by luxury on the one hand or poverty 
on the other, produce much greater effect than they do 
among boys who are under constant observation and 
pressure at school. 

Intercollegiate contests in athletic sports demand fur- 
ther regulation by agreement between the colleges whose 
students take part in them. They are degrading both to 
players and spectators if conducted with brutality, or in 
a tricky or jockeying spirit ; and they become absurd if 
some of the competitors employ trainers, and play with 



INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC CONTESTS. 23 

professional players, while others do not. The opinion 
of the authorities of Harvard College upon this subject is 
perfectly distinct ; they are in favor of forbidding college 
clubs and crews to employ trainers, to play or row with 
" professionals," or to compete with clubs or crews who 
adopt either of these practices. They are opposed to all 
money-making at intercollegiate contests, and to the 
acceptance of money or gratuitous service from railroads 
or hotels, and therefore to all exhibitions or contests which 
are deliberately planned so as to attract a multitude and 
thereby increase the gate-money. In short, they believe 
that college sports should be conducted as the amuse- 
ment of amateurs, and not as the business of professional 
players. The distinction between amateur and profes- 
sional players is one easily made and easily maintained, 
as the experience of the numerous amateur athletic asso- 
ciations in this country and in Europe abundantly proves. 
The opposite view is that all games should be played to 
win, and that whatever promotes winning should be done, 
— that the best trainers should be employed, and the 
most expert professional clubs be hired to play with col- 
lege clubs, and to meet these expenses that the largest 
amount of gate-money and the largest subsidies from rail- 
roads and hotels should be sought for in a business-like 
way. Between these opposing views there seems to be 
no tenable middle ground ; whoever tries to occupy an 
intermediate position soon finds himself pushed to one 
extreme or the other. It should be observed that the 
evils and excesses which now need to be checked have 
grown up in connection with intercollegiate athletic con- 
tests, — contests which attract undue public attention, 
but in which only a few persons from each college actu- 
ally participate,— and that they have no tendency to 
weaken the force of the arguments in favor of promot- 
ing physical exercise and manly sports among college 
tudents. 



24 PHYSICAL TRAINING. — POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

In general, the department of hygiene and physical 
training is in good condition ; the Hemenway Gymnasium 
is more used, and more intelligently used every year ; 
and during the spring and fall the river and the ball- 
fields invigorate and refresh hundreds of young men who 
will greatly need in their after lives all the strength and 
soundness here acquired or preserved. As evidence of 
the increasing resort to the Gymnasium it may be men- 
tioned that the number of lockers originally deemed suf- 
ficient was 474, and that lockers to the number of 357 
have since been added to the original provision. Many 
lockers are used by two students in common. The site of 
the new Physical Laboratory having encroached upon the 
former foot-ball ground, the Corporation, by a grant of 
$1,000, helped the Athletic Association to grade the 
northerly portion of Holmes Field, and to prepare there 
a new ground for ball games and a new running track. 
The Association procured the rest of the money needed for 
these purposes. Two additional provisions for physical 
exercise and recreation are still needed at Cambridge, 
namely, a swimming-bath, and enclosed tennis courts. 

It appears from the Dean's report that the programme 
of elective studies prepared by the College Faculty in 
the spring of 1883 for the year 1883-84 offers a larger 
amount (373 exercises per week) and greater variety of 
instruction than ever before (p. 76). The most consider- 
able gain was in the important department of Political 
Science. Professor Dunbar having retired from the labo- 
rious office of Dean, and having returned refreshed from a 
year's vacation in Europe, was able to add one course and 
one half course to his previous work ; and through the 
generosity of Henry Lee, Esq., of Boston (see Treasurer's 
Statement, p. 11) the Corporation was enabled to appoint 
an assistant professor in the department. The results are 
that fourteen and a half hours of instruction in political 
science are now given each week against seven hours per 



PUBLIC LECTURES. — DIVINITY SCHOOL. 25 

week in each of the two preceding years, and that the 
resort of students to the department has greatly increased. 
The range of choice of studies now offered to the Harvard 
undergraduate may be inferred from the fact that no un- 
dergraduate is expected to attend during the last three 
years of his college course more than one tenth of the elec- 
tive instruction which the College provides, the require- 
ment for the degree being twelve exercises a week, and 
the amount of instruction given being three hundred and 
seventy-three exercises a week. The Dean calls attention 
(p. 72) to the advantages freely offered to students and 
other residents of Cambridge in the large number of pub- 
lic lectures and readings given at the University each 
year by scholars eminent in their respective departments. 
In 1882-83 the number of such lectures was one hundred 
and twelve, and the number of readings forty-three. 

In pursuance of the general policy of the Divinity 
School to put fairly before its students, so far as its re- 
sources permit, the various theological opinions which 
prevail in the different Protestant denominations, Pro- 
fessor George T. Ladd, D. D., of Yale College, was invited 
to give a course of eight lectures before the School in the 
spring of 1883 on the doctrine of inspiration ; and the 
course was given by this eminent teacher and author with 
great acceptance in the month of April. At about the 
same time Rev. J. Henry Thayer, D.D., lately a profes- 
sor in the Andover Theological Seminary, was appointed 
Lecturer on Biblical Theology for the ensuing academic 
year, and he is now delivering a course of weekly lectures 
on the doctrines of sin and redemption, as taught in the 
New Testament. 

The number of students continues to be small, but their 
quality has greatly improved under the stringent regula- 
tions adopted during the past few years, and now leaves 
little to be desired. They come from several denomina- 



26 DIVINITY SCHOOL. — CHOICE OF STUDIES. 

tions, bringing hither a good preliminary training, and 
manifesting while here an ardent desire for sound scholar- 
ship, and a sincere enthusiasm for truth, religion, and 
their humane calling. The ample scholarships which are 
at the disposal of the Faculty are awarded for merit and 
need without any reference to the opinions of the appli- 
cants, and it has happened of late that students of evan- 
gelical opinions have carried off a large share of the best 
scholarships. 

The Dean of the School describes in his report (p. 86) 
the limited option among the subjects taught by the 
members of the Divinity Faculty which it was last year 
decided to permit to candidates for the degree of Bachelor 
of Divinity. It seems probable that the liberty of choice 
thus introduced will gradually be widened, and perhaps 
be extended to appropriate subjects taught by professors 
in other departments of the University. Under the exist- 
ing regulations with regard to admission, candidates for 
the degree of Bachelor of Divinity are likely to be already 
Bachelors of Arts. They will therefore be presumably 
eligible for the degree of Master of Arts or of Doctor 
of Philosophy ; and if the conditions under which these 
degrees may be sought are more attractive than the con- 
ditions under which the degree of Bachelor of Divinity 
must be sought, they will prefer to become candidates for 
the degree in arts or philosophy rather than for the de- 
gree in divinity. The degree of Bachelor of Divinity gets 
little artificial protection ; for churches cannot be relied 
on to demand it of all young candidates for settlement. 

Divinity Hall has been made, by judicious repairs and 
improvements during the past two years, a pleasant and 
convenient building. The grounds about it are now kept 
in good order, and the extension of the University north- 
ward has made it seem less isolated than formerly. Ac- 
cordingly the chambers in the Hall are in demand, and for 
the first time in many years they are all let. The refer- 



LAW SCHOOL. — A NEW APPOINTMENT. 27 

ence library of the School occupies several chambers on 
the lower story. A separate fire-proof building is needed 
for the proper storing of this valuable collection ; and the 
same building might well contain a small reading-room, 
and a museum into which should gradually be gathered 
maps, models, and photographs to illustrate Biblical stud- 
ies, casts of cuneiform inscriptions, and other objects of 
philological or archaeological interest. 

The year 1882-83 was not a prosperous one in the Law 
School. The number of students was not so large by 
twenty as in the previous year ; Professor Thayer was in 
Europe on vacation, and his place was temporarily filled 
by three younger instructors ; Professor 0. W. Holmes, 
Jr., who had been appointed in January, 1882, and had 
begun to teach at the opening of the School in October, 
resigned his chair in December, and it became necessary 
to divide the work which he had assumed among the other 
three professors ; and finally in spite of watchful economy 
the expenses of the year exceeded the receipts by $1,674.46. 
After much discussion in the Faculty and the governing 
boards the vacancy in the Faculty created by the resig- 
nation of Professor Holmes was filled in June last by 
the election of William A. Keener, Esq., of New York, to 
an assistant professorship. Mr. Keener graduated at the 
Law School in 1878, and had been for five years in prac- 
tice in the city of New York. From the first, however, 
he preferred the life of a student and teacher, had em- 
braced all opportunities to teach law, and had given de- 
cided promise of success as a teacher. The appointment 
was of a kind less common in the law schools of the United 
States than in those of Europe ; but its results have 
already proved satisfactory. 

At the close of the summer vacation the very hand- 
some and commodious building which the school owes to 
the munificence of Edward Austin, Esq., of Boston, was 



28 LAW SCHOOL. — AUSTIN HALL. 

ready for occupancy, although not quite finished on the 
outside. The law library was moved thither in the last 
weeks of September, and lectures began there on the first 
of October. It would be hard to exaggerate the advan- 
tages which the School derives from the possession of this 
admirable building. The reading-room, which is the chief 
resort of the students, is a noble room, light, airy, and 
handsomely furnished ; the book-room is fire-proof, well- 
lighted, and capacious enough to hold the present library 
and the probable accessions of fifty years ; the lecture 
rooms are well ventilated ; the rooms for the Dean and 
Librarian are ample ; and the locker-rooms and other pro- 
visions for the convenience and comfort of the students 
are sufficient for present needs and capable of extension. 
Internally and externally Austin Hall is very substantially 
constructed ; and it is by far the most ornate building which 
the University possesses. The architect was Mr. H. H. 
Richardson, to whom the University owes the design of 
another much admired building, Sever Hall ; and the 
committee of the Corporation in charge of the under- 
taking was the Treasurer, Mr. Hooper, to whose good 
judgment and care in supervising the work the School is 
much indebted. 

The new book-fund ($32,021.25), to which many mem- 
bers of the profession handsomely contributed, is a very 
useful addition to the resources of the School. 

The current year opened favorably with the full staff of 
five resident teachers, and an increase of fourteen in the 
number of students ; but it is very evident that, with its 
present scale of expenditure, the School needs an addi- 
tional endowment of at least $100,000, the income of 
which should be applicable to salaries. 

The completion of its new building was the event of 
principal interest to the Medical School in 1882-83. The 
cost of the building, with all its fittings and furniture, 



MEDICAL SCHOOL. — THE NEW BUILDING. 29 

is (31 December, 1883) $237,465.38, to which must be 
added $83,950,24 (April, 1880) as the cost of the land, 
including expenses incidental to the purchase, making a 
total of $321,415.62. The lot of land is large enough for 
two buildings of the size of the present structure, and the 
new building would accommodate a school twice as large 
as the present School ; so that a prudent provision has been 
made for the growth which may reasonably be antici- 
pated. Great pains have been taken to adapt the build- 
ing, not only in its main features, but in every detail, to 
its destined uses. A committee of the Medical Faculty 
supervised the preparation of the plans, and watched over 
their execution ; the architect of the building, Mr. Henry 
Van Brunt, elaborated with much patience and care, under 
the guidance of the professors most nearly concerned, the 
complicated and numerous Hues and drains, the water, 
steam, and gas pipes, and the counters, sinks, and cabinets, 
which were required in the numerous laboratories, and the 
peculiar fittings and furniture of the lecture-rooms and 
preparation-rooms. As the work advanced, the committee 
of the Faculty held frequent stated meetings at the build- 
ing, and from the beginning gave their time and labor 
without stint. The result is a spacious and convenient 
fire-proof building which is thoroughly adapted in all 
respects to the needs of the teachers and students who 
are to use it. 

In May last a fire broke out late in the evening in the 
floor of the principal lecture-room on the second story. 
The floor was of wood, and rose in steps, upon which had 
been built high-backed wooden benches. The fire was 
soon intensely hot, and there was delay in getting water, 
so that everything in the room which could burn was com- 
pletely destroyed, and much superficial damage was done 
all over the building by the heat and smoke ; but the fire 
did not get beyond the room in which it originated, the 
solid wooden floor of the lecture-room over the room in 



30 ENDOWMENTS FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION. 

which the fire occurred being perfectly protected by its 
tight envelope of plaster on wire lathing. 

The building was begun in June, 1881, and its con- 
struction took six months longer than was expected. So 
many additions and improvements were made during the 
progress of the work that the building cost, with its furni- 
ture, $30,000 more than it was expected to cost at the 
start. Nevertheless the savings made by the School since 
1875 ($70,875.13) will be drawn upon to only a moderate 
extent in paying for furniture and fittings. The land 
and building are the fruit of two public subscriptions, — 
the first made in 1874-75, and the second in 1881, — with 
the interest which accumulated thereon. Both these sub- 
scriptions were raised with noticeable ease. It seemed 
as if the community were all ready to give, — as if medical 
education were recognized at last as a peculiarly inter- 
esting and promising object for endowment, — interesting, 
because of the universal pressure of the evils with which 
medicine contends, and promising, because the astonishing 
achievements of medical science and skill within the past 
forty years give such earnest of further relief for man- 
kind from pain, disease, and misery. Now that an ade- 
quate building has been provided, it is desirable that the 
attention of persons who wish to improve medical edu- 
cation, or promote medical research, should be directed 
to professorship funds, scholarship funds, and funds for 
maintaining laboratories devoted to instruction and inves- 
tigation. The needs in these directions are many and 
urgent; for example, the University has no professor- 
ship of public health, or preventive medicine, — a mod- 
ern subject of great importance which can be properly 
dealt with only through an endowed professorship, be- 
cause the professor, if properly devoted to his subject, 
would be cut off from private practice. It would be a 
great service to humanity to divert even a tithe of the 
money annually given to charities of pauperizing ten- 



THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 31 

dency towards the promotion of medical teaching and 
research. 

The Medical School has been painfully reminded dur- 
ing the past two years, by resignations, sickness, and 
death among its senior professors, that the only way to 
keep its Faculty strong is to admit young men of promise 
freely to subordinate positions in which merit and power 
can be exhibited, and then to advance the most successful 
teachers among them as rapidly as possible to places of 
responsibility. The vacancy created by the resignation of 
Dr. Holmes in November was filled in June by the elec- 
tion of Dr. Thomas D wight to the professorship of anat- 
omy, after careful inquiry had been made both in Europe 
and the United States for available candidates among 
anatomists of reputation. When Dr. Ellis resigned the 
office of Dean, Dr. Fitz also retired from the office of 
Secretary of the Faculty, the duties of which he had 
discharged with great diligence and efficiency for ten 
years. At the end of June, Dr. Henry P. Bowditch was 
chosen Dean by the Corporation and Overseers, and Dr. 
William F. Whitney was subsequently appointed Secre- 
tary by the Corporation. The administration of the School 
thus passed into the hands of younger men whose rela- 
tion to medical teaching and the medical profession is 
somewhat different from that of their predecessors, because 
neither of them is a practising physician, but from whom 
there is every reason to expect an equal devotion and an 
equal success in the conduct of the School. 

The Dental School has made in three years a substan- 
tial gain in the number of its students. 

1880-81. 1881-82. 1882-83. 1883-84. 

Number of students, 18 21 25 30 

The past year was one of some embarrassments, because 
of the vacancy in the professorship of operative dentistry, 



32 SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. 

and of the interruption of work in the Dental Infirmary 
caused by the rebuilding of the out-patients department 
of the Massachusetts General Hospital ; but on the whole 
the work of the year was successful, the income of the 
School increased, its debt was diminished, and the pay- 
ment of small salaries to its professors was resumed after 
an interval of five years. In January last, Dr. Thomas 
Fillebrown, of Portland, a member of the first class which 
graduated at the Dental School (1869), was chosen Pro- 
fessor of Operative Dentistry, and in May following Dr. 
Charles A. Brackett, of Newport, Assistant Professor of 
Dental Therapeutics, was promoted to the long-vacant 
chair of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics. The School 
therefore entered upon the current year with a complete 
and strong Faculty. 

There is no department of the University which has a 
heartier support from its own graduates than the Dental 
School. They know its struggles, needs, aims, and deserts, 
and they give every possible assurance of their belief in 
its present and future usefulness. The School has also a 
European reputation, attracting more students from abroad 
than any other department of the University. Neverthe- 
less, after fifteen years of existence, it has no property 
whatever, except a few chairs and implements, and a fund 
of $955.00 (Aug. 31, 1883), which has been chiefly con- 
tributed by its own young graduates. Were it not for 
the continued hospitality and assistance of the Medical 
School, it could not be maintained. 

The Faculty of the School of Veterinary Medicine was 
organized during the year 1882-83, and the first annual 
report of its Secretary will be found below (p. 106). 
An excellent hospital situated on Village Street, Boston, 
was built and equipped during the spring and summer, 
and was occupied before the close of the academic year, 
thanks to the energy and good judgment of Professor 



BUSSEY INSTITUTION. 33 

Lyman, and to .the generous and judicious assistance of 
the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, of Dr. William F. Whitney, and of Mr. Henry 
L. Higginson. By arrangement with the Medical School 
and the Bussey Institution, the Veterinary School was 
made a permanent guest of these two departments, and 
its students were made welcome to their lecture-rooms 
and their classes. At the beginning of the current year 
eleven candidates offered themselves for admission to the 
School, of whom nine were accepted. 

The operations of the Department are necessarily con- 
fined for the time being almost entirely to the treatment 
of paying patients ; but it is the desire of the surgeons to 
conduct a free clinique on an adequate scale as soon as 
possible. So strong is now the affectionate and compas- 
sionate feeling of many persons towards domestic ani- 
mals, so important are the questions of public health with 
which veterinary science deals, and so vast are the pecu- 
niary interests of the community in horses, neat cattle, 
and other live-stock, that this new department of the 
University finds many cordial friends, and will ask, at the 
proper time, for suitable endowment with fair chance of 
obtaining what it needs. 

Instruction was given as usual at the Bussey Institution 
during 1882-83, except that Professor Lyman gave, for 
that year only, the course heretofore given by Professor 
Slade. The Corporation adopted in May last a new mea- 
sure in regard to the carrying on of the Bussey Farm. 
Since the trust requires that the Farm be kept in good 
condition, it has been the practice of the Corporation to 
sell the standing grass and apply the proceeds to the pur- 
chase of manure. They have now appointed Mr. D. T. 
Hinckley, a graduate of the Institution, superintendent of 
the Farm, expecting him to get the best possible crop 
of hay from the estate, and to take horses and other 



31 LIBRARY. 

animals to board in the large barns on South Street, 
which have been standing empty for many years. The 
establishment of the Veterinary School and Hospital was 
the occasion of this change of plan with regard to the 
Bussey Farm ; for it was obvious that the Veterinary 
Department could use the commodious buildings and 
yards at the Farm for convalescents and chronic cases 
with great advantage, and, on the other hand, that board- 
ers coming from the Hospital would help consume the hay 
on the Farm. The expectations with which the change 
was made have thus far been fairly fulfilled ; but several 
years will be required to develop the full effects of the 
new policy. 

For several years past the average annual expenditure 
in the Library, apart from money paid for books, has 
been $20,000, — a large sum which is taken from the 
College tuition-fees. Yet this heavy expenditure has not 
availed to keep the cataloguing abreast of the accessions 
of books and pamphlets, beside meeting the cost of ser- 
vice and administration. The report of the Librarian 
for 1882-83 states (p. 113) that 6,000 uncatalogued titles 
from the accessions of recent years have already accumu- 
lated. Persons who are not familiar with the adminis- 
tration of the Library are apt to attribute far too large 
a part of the annual expenditure to the cataloguing 
department, and therefore to complain that the cost of 
ordering a book, and getting it placed in due course 
upon the Library shelves ready for use, bears too large 
a proportion to the cost of the book itself. But less than 
half of the total expenditure in the Library, excluding 
the purchase of books, is connected in any way with the 
cataloguing of books and pamphlets. From the total of 
$20,000 the following items must be deducted as regular 
expenses incident to carrying on the establishment : — 



CATALOGUING DEPARTMENT. 35 

Salary of the Librarian $4,000.00 

Bulletin and other printing . . 1,250.00 

Binding (the portion done in this country) . 1,250.00 
Fuel, cleaning, stationery, postage, repairs, &c. 2,500.00 
Wages paid for service of books and attend- 
ance 2,000.00 

Total $11,000.00 

There remain $9,000 with which to meet the cost of 
ordering $15,000 worth of new books each year, receiv- 
ing and collating the books thus bought and all books 
given to the Library, keeping the money accounts, cata- 
loguing all accessions, and placing them on shelves in 
their proper classes. When it is remembered that two 
or three persons possessing extensive scholarship and 
good judgment must be employed in this part of the 
Library work, and that all the labor must be skilled labor, 
$9,000 will appear a moderate expenditure for the pur- 
poses above described. At the present rate of expendi- 
ture all hope must be abandoned of making any progress 
in recataloguing the thousands of books, received before 
1860, which have never been entered upon the short-card 
catalogue then begun. 

It is very desirable that a plan should be made for finish- 
ing the catalogue which was begun in 1860 in a given 
number of years, by adding to the annual expenditure for 
cataloguing, and gradually increasing the force employed, 
until it can catalogue all accessions and a predetermined 
number of old titles each year ; and then that this plan, 
once adopted, should be firmly adhered to until it is exe- 
cuted. Changes in the staff employed in cataloguing, 
and particularly alternate enlargements and reductions of 
the force employed, are very wasteful ; for practice and 
an intimate acquaintance with the catalogue are essential 
to efficiency in the work. There is some hope that such 
a plan may be entered upon during the current year. 

The Librarian states convincingly the objections to such 
benefactions as those of the late Joseph J. Cooke of Provi- 



36 HERBARIUM. 

dence, who gave $5,000 to each often libraries, provided 
that they should spend the money in buying books at the 
auction sale of his library after his death. The Library 
succeeded in obtaining at the sale books to the amount 
of $5,000 at prices not very much above their market 
value ; but the method creates an artificial competition 
which hurts the sale for other buyers, and impairs in the 
beneficiaries the sense of obligation to their benefactor. 

A report upon the Herbarium by the Director, Professor 
Asa Gray, is included for the first time in this Keport (p. 
114). The Herbarium is one of the most interesting and 
valuable of the scientific collections belonging to the Uni- 
versity. It is one of the permanent fruits of Professor 
Gray's long and diligent life as a systematic botanist, and 
of his recognized position as the highest authority in the 
world upon the flora of North America. The strongest 
impression received on reading this first annual report is, 
that two such learned men as Dr. Gray and Dr. Watson 
ought not to be giving their precious time to the examina- 
tion of the multifarious collections which are incessantly 
poured in upon them, and to the selection and preparation 
of such specimens as the Herbarium lacks, — particularly 
when unfinished works of great importance, which no one 
else can execute so well, are waiting for completion at their 
hands. This first impression will be somewhat modified 
by the subsequent reflection that some part of the work 
thus done for the Herbarium, and for the collectors and 
contributors who constantly enrich it, is work which de- 
mands the most comprehensive knowledge and the largest 
experience ; but the conviction will remain, that the Direc- 
tor and Curator ought to be furnished with as much skilled 
assistance as they can possibly employ for the less difficult 
parts of their work, to the end that their own time may 
be devoted, as far as possible, to investigation and author- 
ship. It will be seen in the report of the Director that 



BOTANIC GARDEN — ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 37 

the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, who contributed effectively to the establish- 
ment of the professorship of natural history in 1805, and 
of the Botanic Garden in 1807, still give their intelligent 
and liberal support to the botanical department. 

The report of the Director of the Botanic Garden 
(p. 116) shows a prudent and economical administration 
directed mainly to the repair of damages caused by 
drought and decay, to the increase of the Museum, to the 
systematic arrangement and exhibition of those living 
plants which are of interest to students of systematic 
and economic botany, and of vegetable morphology and 
physiology, and to the promotion of botanical investi- 
gations. 

On the 30th of December, 1882, an important inden- 
ture was executed between the Board of Park Commis- 
sioners of the City of Boston and the President and 
Fellows of Harvard College (see Appendix I.) concerning 
the use of the Arnold Arboretum as a public park. Under 
this contract the City acquires gratuitously for the pur- 
poses of a public park about one hundred and twenty acres 
of land, beautifully diversified, and in part handsomely 
wooded, upon which the University is to maintain a collec- 
tion of all the trees and plants which will live in the open 
air at West Roxbury. The University, on the other hand, 
gains security in the uninterrupted execution of the Bussey 
and Arnold trusts on the tract taken by the commission- 
ers, permanent exemption from taxation on this tract, the 
construction by the City of roads enough to give suitable 
access to the whole Arboretum, the maintenance of a 
police sufficient to protect the collections and plantations, 
and security against the laying out of streets or railways 
through or over any part of the Arboretum without the 
consent of the President and Fellows. It is believed that 
this contract will prove very advantageous both to the 
City and the University. The management of the Arbo- 



38 CHEMICAL LABORATORY — OBSERVATORY. 

return as a scientific establishment, and as a collection o 
living trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, remains in 
the hands of the President and Fellows, and the admission 
of the public at reasonable hours and under proper regu- 
lations will only add to its usefulness as a means of in- 
struction. The City began to build the roads through 
the Arboretum last July. The Director of the Arboretum 
reports (p. 137) that the large collections of plants which 
ave accumulated during the past ten years are in a 
flourishing condition. 

The report of the Director of the Chemical Laboratory 
directs attention to the large number of students who 
worked in the department (208), to the continued pro- 
ductiveness of the Laboratory in chemical researches, to 
the usefulness of the summer courses carried on by Dr. 
Mabery, and to the increase of the mineralogical collec- 
tion. At the end of the year the Laboratory lost its two 
principal assistants, — Dr. Charles F. Mabery being ap- 
pointed to a professorship in the Case School of Applied 
Science at Cleveland, and Dr. Leonard P. Kinnicutt to a 
professorship in the Worcester Free Institute. The simul- 
taneous withdrawal of these two gentlemen was a serious 
loss ; but, on the other hand, such promotion of its assist- 
ants is serviceable and honorable to the Laboratory in 
which they were trained. 

The work of the Observatory in 1882-83 is fully set 
forth in a very interesting way in the annexed report of 
the Director (p. 122). It is obvious that all the resources 
of the establishment in instruments and money were intel- 
ligently and economically employed, and that its influ- 
ence, usefulness, and reputation are increasing from year 
to year. The effort to replace the annual subscription 
of $5,000, which expired in 1883, by the income of a 
permanent fund of $100,000 was only partially success- 
ful, — a fund of $50,000 being the result of the persistent 
exertions of the Visiting Committee of the Observatory. 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 39 

It will therefore soon be necessary to reduce the annual 
expenditures by about $2,200, unless further contribu- 
tions to the permanent endowment are received. 

Whoever desires to understand the development of 
instruction in zoology and geology at the University 
since 1873, and the progressive increase of interest in 
biological and geographical studies among the students, 
should read the concise report for 1882-83 of the Curator 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (p. 139), in which 
he describes the growth of the establishment during the 
past ten years. It appears from this report that $900,000, 
in addition to the current expenditures, have been devoted 
to the Museum since 1873, of which sum $500,000 have 
been used for building and for the purchase of collec- 
tions, and $400,000, including the Sturgis-Hooper fund, 
have gone to increase the permanent endowment. The 
$500,000, which have been spent outright for building 
and for collections, have not been wastefully or carelessly 
expended ; on the contrary the building is severely plain, 
its furniture and cases are constructed for service only 
without regard to appearance, and every purchase of a 
collection has been made with deliberation and under 
circumstances favorable to the purchaser. At the end of 
the year 1882-83 three laboratories for students in biol- 
ogy, three for students in geology and palaeontology, two 
private laboratories for instructors, and one large lecture- 
room, were completed at the Museum, and are now occu- 
pied by the instructors and students in these departments. 
Such a munificent provision of the means for instruction 
in natural history has, of course, brought about a decided 
increase in the amount of biological and geological in- 
struction, both elementary and advanced, offered by the 
University, and in the number of graduate and under- 
graduate students who elect natural history courses. Since 
no other department of instruction has received such 
re-enforcement within the same period, or any furtherance 



40 



DINING-HALL. 



at all resembling the support given to natural history 
by the development of the Museum, the relative weight 
or influence of the department of natural history in all 
University affairs has inevitably and properly increased. 
The arrangement of the exhibition-rooms advances stead- 
ily, and the productiveness of the Museum as a place of 
of. biological research is fully maintained. 

The average weekly membership of the Dining-Hall 
Association ranged in 1882-83 from 619 in the first third 
of the year to 487 in the last third, the average member- 
ship for the whole year being 546. In the preceding 
year the Directors had difficulty in keeping members 
enough in the Association to carry on the Hall ; but in 
1882-83 the number of members was satisfactory through- 
out the year. Nevertheless, upon evidence that dissatis- 
faction existed in the Board of Directors, Mr. Balch, who 
had been Steward since January, 1876, sent in his resig- 
nation, which was accepted by the Corporation at the end 
of the year. Late in the summer Mr. J. J. Sullivan was 
appointed Steward, and the Association began the current 
year with a large membership and every evidence of pros- 
perity. In nine years the Hall has had two Stewards, 
of whom the first served two years and four months, 
and the second six years and eight months. The follow- 
ing table exhibits the fluctuations in the price of board at 
the Hall during; the nine vears of the existence of the 
Association : — 





I— 

00 


CO* 
CO 


CO 
CO 


CO* 

T 

CO 


C5 

CO 
00 


o 

CO 

1 

CO 


CO 

o 


1 


W 

CO 


3 

S3 

CO 


First half-year 
Second half-year 
First third of year 
Second " " 
Third " " 
Average price of 
year .... 


4.60 
4.35 

4.42£ 


4.50 

4.80 
5.00 

4.76| 


4.80 
4.50 
4.15 

4.48* 


4.10 
4.00 
4.00 

4.03J 


4.00 
4.00 
4.20 

4.06 jj 


4.10 
4.10 
4.24 

4.1H 


4.40 
4.40 
4.60 

4.46§ 


5.00 
5.00 
4.54 

4.84£ 


4.46 

4.58 
4.40 

4.48 


4.16 



RESTRICTED AND UNRESTRICTED GIFTS. 41 

The Dining-Hall Association may now be considered 
one of the established institutions of the University ; for 
its organization and methods have been tested by time. 
It is of great service in several ways ; — first, by pro- 
viding a substantial diet at a low price for students who 
wish to live inexpensively ; secondly, by keeping down 
the price of board at other places in Cambridge ; thirdly, 
by facilitating the formation of new acquaintances ; and 
fourthly, by exerting a strong influence, through its demo- 
cratic constitution, against all provincialism. 

The President and Fellows have observed with great 
satisfaction the beginning of what they trust will prove a 
flow of unrestricted bequests, — in 1879-80 the modest 
bequest of Eev. Daniel Austin of Kittery, in 1880-81 that 
of John C. Gray of Boston, in 1882-83 the very consider- 
able bequest of George B. Dorr of Boston, and recently 
that of Henry T. Morgan of New York. The reiterated 
statement of the many objections to minute restrictions 
upon the use of endowments intended to be permanent 
has apparently taken effect upon the public mind. But 
lest reluctance to restrict the application of an in- 
tended benefaction should sometime cause the diversion 
of bounty to other channels, it may be well to point out 
that there are many restrictions which are not prac- 
tically inconvenient. Thus the designation of a compre- 
hensive object like salaries, scholarships, maintenance of 
laboratories, or administration and service in the Gymna- 
sium, Chapel, Library, or Dining Hall, has never been 
found inconvenient. Again the selection of some one 
department of the University, — such as the Observatory, 
the Law School, or the Veterinary School, — for the gen- 
eral benefit of which the giver desires his gift to be used, 
cannot give rise to any embarrassments. Neither are spe- 
cific interdictions objectionable, if not too broad. Thus 
the Museum of Zoology has no difficulty in conforming to 
the direction that no part of the income of the Gray Fund 



42 FINANCIAL POLICY OP THE CORPORATION. 

shall be used for repairs of real estate ; and John B. Bar- 
ringer's order that no part of the income of his fund shall 
be used for prizes does not make his benefaction less 
useful or less welcome. The designation of a preferred 
application, failing which the application is to be at the 
discretion of the President and Fellows, can give trouble 
only when the preferred application is eccentric or diffi- 
cult of discovery. In short, while unrestricted gifts must 
be for many years to come peculiarly welcome to the 
President and Fellows, there are many natural wishes, 
preferences, predilections and even prejudices of benefac- 
tors which may find expression in their gifts without 
impairing the value of those gifts to the University. 

Among the gifts of the year which are acknowledged 
in the Treasurer's Statement (p. 9) is a fund of about 
$60,000, raised by subscription, the income of which is 
to be applied to the increase of the President's salary. 
The President and Fellows gratefully accept this gener- 
ous gift, believing that increase of salary will add to the 
dignity and attractiveness of an office which has already 
great privileges, if also serious perplexities and respon- 
sibilities. 

It is the general purpose of the Corporation to spend 
every year all their income. They believe that well- 
instructed young men are the best investment or accu- 
mulation which the University can make from year to 
year for the benefit of future generations. As fast as new 
resources are placed in their hands, whether from increase 
in the amount of tuition fees, or from the income of 
new endowments, the Corporation incur new permanent 
charges. Experience has shown that new buildings will 
be provided by gift nearly as fast as they are needed ; 
but that enlargements, improvements, and repairs fall upon 
the Corporation. Unexpected calls for expensive improve- 
ments or repairs are apt to cause deficits, as in the years 
1879-80, 1880-81, and 1881-82. The purchase of land 



AGE OF THE OVERSEERS. 



43 



in Cambridge also- falls chiefly upon the Corporation, and 
during the past twenty years purchases to a considerable 
amount have necessarily been made, — whence that unde- 
sirable item among the general investments called " un- 
occupied lands," an item which the Corporation are 
constantly trying to reduce, and have reduced since 
1879 by $32,399.70. The financial policy proper to a 
University is, of course, entirely different from that of a 
corporation whose final object is to make money; it should 
be conservative in regard to the preservation of capital, 
but free in regard to the prompt and complete expen- 
diture of income. For the future enlargement of their 
resources the Corporation rely upon the increase in the 
number of students and the influx of gifts. 

The lucid statement of the Treasurer needs no com- 
ment, except perhaps the single remark that the increase 
of the quick capital (p. 3) would appear much larger 
than it does, were it not for the withdrawal of building 
funds, temporarily in possession of the Treasurer but 
spent during the year. 

When the act of 1865 gave to the Alumni the power of 
electing the Overseers, it was imagined that the electors, 
the larger part of whom would be young men, might 
choose a youthful and inexperienced board. The actual 
result has been quite the reverse. Only one of the pres- 
ent Board is under forty, only ten of the thirty elected 
members are under fifty, and the average age of the 
elected members is fifty-seven. No member of the Board 
graduated in arts later than 1866, and on the average the 
Board may be said to have graduated more than thirty- 
five years ago, at a time when the University was very 
unlike the institution of to-day. Such elderly men may 
be distinguished representatives of the Alumni, and may, 
perhaps, be in position to enjoy the advantage of advice 
from sons or grandsons now or recently members of the 
University; but their personal recollections of College 



44 ACCOMPANYING REPORTS. 

life are less serviceable to them as University legislators 
than the recollections of much younger men would be. 

The usual information concerning the number of stu- 
dents, and the honors, prizes, and degrees given in 1882— 
83, together with a list of the examining committees ap- 
pointed for that year by the Board of Overseers, will be 
found in the Appendix (II.-VL). The attention of the 
Overseers is respectfully invited to the following reports 
from the Deans of the several Faculties, the Secretary of 
the Academic Council, the Librarian, the Directors of the 
Herbarium, Botanic Garden, Observatory, Chemical Labo- 
ratory, and Arnold Arboretum, and the Curator of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

CHARLES W. ELIOT, President. 
Cambridge, Jan. 4, 1884. 



REPORTS 



DEANS OF THE FACULTIES, THE SECRETARY OF THE ACA- 
DEMIC COUNCIL, THE LIBRARIAN, THE DIRECTORS OF 
THE HERBARIUM, BOTANIC GARDEN, OBSERVATORY, 
CHEMICAL LABORATORY, AND ARBORETUM, AND THE 
CURATOR OF THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



To the President of the University: 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
administration of the College during the academic year 1882-83. 

At the beginning of the year the whole number of students was 
nine hundred and thirty-one, distributed as follows : — 

Seniors 203 

Juniors 210 

Sophomores 208 

Freshmen 264 

Whole number of undergraduates 885 

Special Students 46 

Total 93T 

Of the Seniors, one died early in the year, and another was 
obliged to leave on account of ill health. All the rest com- 
pleted their course, and for the first time in many years no Senior 
failed to graduate with his class by reason of deficiencies of 
scholarship. Two former members of the class, whose work 
completed at the beginning of the year had only entitled them to 
he classed as Juniors, succeeded in making up their deficiencies 
and obtained their degrees ; and two other Juniors, who had been 
permitted, for special reasons, to do the work of the last three 
years of the course in two years, were likewise admitted to the 
degree. The net result was a graduating class of two hundred 
and five. 

The number of Seniors who graduated at each commencement 
of the last seven years, with the number of failures in each class 



46 



THE COLLEGE. 



due to deficiencies of scholarship, is shown in the following 
table : — 





lSt7. 


■ iys. 


.1879 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


* 1883. 


Graduated 

Failed, but can make up . . 
Failed, and must repeat the year 


170 

17 

2 


144 

11 

4 


189 
5 


162 
6 


182 
9 


177 

7 


203 



Four of those who failed in 1882, three who failed in 1881, and 
one who failed in 1876, made up their deficiencies at the exami- 
nations of last year ; and these eight, together with one member of 
the class of 1882, who, for persistent neglect of the regulations, 
had been refused his degree with his own class, were recom- 
mended for the degree out of course. 

The numbers of the three classes of last year which are still 
in college, and their aggregate losses and gains, from October, 
1882, to October, 1883, are as follows : — 



Class of 1884 
Class of 1885 
Class of 1886 


Present, October, 1882. 


Loss. 


Gain. 


Present, October, 1883. 


(Juniors) 210 
(Sophomores) 208 
(Freshmen) 264 


12 

25 
32 


12 
12 
15 


(Seniors) 210 
(Juniors) 195 
(Sophomores) 247 



The nature of the losses and gains of the several classes is 
shown by the following table : — 



Losses. 

Left College without completing the year .... 

Left College after completing the year 

Removed to a lower class 


Class of 

1884. 


Class of 
1885. 


Class of 
1886. 


Total for 
three 
Classes. 


4 
4 


13 
6 
1 
5 


11 

15 

3 

3 


28 

25 

4 

12 


Advanced to a higher class 

Total loss 

Gains. 
From higher classes 


4 


12 


25 


32 


69 






3 
12* 




From lower classes 


5 

7 


3 
9 


Newly admitted 

Total gain 

Net loss 


12 


12 


15 


39 




13 


17 


30 



UNDERGRADUATES. 



47 



Of the twenty-eight persons newly admitted to these three 
classes, ten were here as Special Students last year. Of these 
ten, two who came to us a year ago from other colleges have 
now gained admission to the Senior class ; two who were formerly 
members of other classes in this college have been admitted, one 
to the Senior, the other to the Junior class ; and six, who had 
never been members of any college class, have satisfied the re- 
quirements of the Faculty for admission, one to the Junior and 
five to the Sophomore class. Of the eighteen newly admitted 
who were not here last year, six had been in college before and 
have returned after an interval of absence ; three entered the 
Sophomore class by passing the usual examinations ; and nine 
graduates of other colleges were admitted without examination, 
or with only partial examination, one to the Sophomore, four to 
the Junior, and four to the Senior class. 

Of the twenty-five students in the three classes who completed 
the work of the year, but have not returned to college, one was 
drowned during the summer vacation ; the rest withdrew volun- 
tarily to go into business, or to begin professional study, or for 
other reasons of a personal nature. Twenty students withdrew, 
for personal reasons, without completing the year's work. Two 
of these have returned and entered a lower class, and one has 
returned as a Special Student. Five students were required to 
leave before the end of the year for persistent neglect of their 
college duties, but three of them have been permitted to return 
this year and join a lower class. Three withdrew voluntarily 
at the end of the year on being informed that their deficiencies 
of scholarship were such that they could not go on with their 
classes. The following table gives a comparative view of the 
losses suffered by all of the classes, in each of the last eight 
years, owing to deficiencies of scholarship : — 





1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1 

1883. 


Removed to lower classes . . 
Withdrawn during the year . 

Total 

Whole number of under- 
graduates 


28 

8 
36 

776 


17 

16 

33 

823 


25 
4 

29 
813 


14 

11 

25 
819 


22 
4 

26 
813 


18 

7 

25 

829 


14 
3 

17 

823 


7 
5 

12 

885 



48 THE COLLEGE. 

The numbers of Special Students from October, 1882, to Octo- 
ber, 1883, were as follows : — 

Registered October, 1882 46 

Registered later in the year 2 

48 

Withdrew during the year 6 

Completed the year 42 

Left college at the end of the year . 20 ■> 
Admitted to a college class .... 10 ) ' ' ' 

Returned as Special Students, October, 1883 ... 12 

Admitted, October, 1883 54 

Present number 66 

As the regulations described in my last Report, by which the 
Faculty gave Special Students a well-defined position in the Col- 
lege, and subjected them to more careful supervision, went into 
effect at the beginning of the year 1882-83, it may be well to 
present with some fulness the results of the system during the 
first year of its operation ; and as the number of students was 
small, this can be done within sufficiently brief compass. The 
following tables exhibit the amount and quality of the work done 
by each of the forty-two Special Students who completed the year. 
Forty of these passed all the examinations in at least one study ; 
two omitted either the mid-year or the final examinations in all 
of their studies. 

The numbers in the first column stand for individual stu- 
dents arranged according to the amount of work they accom- 
plished. The first table exhibits the record of those whose work 
consisted wholly or chiefly of elective courses. They were thirty- 
three in number, and sixteen of them succeeded in passing satis- 
factorily in ail their studies. Of the remaining seventeen, two 
failed to take all of the required examinations in any of their 
studies, and fifteen passed in only a part of their work, having 
either omitted to take some of the examinations, or having taken 
the examinations and failed, in the rest. The deficiencies due 
to each of these causes are shown in the tables. The figures 
indicating the number of courses do not usually show the number 
of studies, but express the amount of the work done as it would 
be estimated for an undergraduate, the unit being one full elec- 
tive course. Prescribed studies are estimated on the same basis, 
a study having three exercises a week being regarded as a full 



SPECIAL STUDENTS. 



49 



course, and other studies estimated in proportion. For the pur- 
pose of comparison it may be stated that a full year's work for a 
Senior is equivalent to 4.2 courses ; for a Junior, to 4.5 courses ; 
for a Sophomore, to 5 courses ; for a Freshman, to 5.3 courses. 



I. Special Students who passed 
iu all their work. 


II. Special Students who did not pass in all their work. 


Stu- 
dents. 


Number of 
courses. 


Average 
per cent. 


Stu- 
dents. 


Number of 
courses 
taken. 


Number of 
courses in 
which the 
work was 
not com- 
pleted. 


Number of 

courses in 

which the 

student 

failed. 


Number of 

courses in 

which the 

student 

passed. 


Average 

per cent, in 

courses 

passed. 


1 


6.7 


85 


18 


6.3 




.3 


6 


49 


2 


6.3 


80 


19 


5.5 


. . . 


1 


4.5 


47 


3 


5.5 


71 


20 


4.6 


.6 




4 


70 


4 


5 


83 


21 


4.3 


.... 


1 


3.3 


47 


5 


5 


55 


22 


4 


1 




3 


77 


6 


4.5 


70 


23 


5 




2 


3 


55 


7 


4 


94 


24 


4 




1 


3 


46 


8 


4 


66 


25 


4.9 




2.3 


2.6 


50 


9 


4 


52 


26 


4.5 


2 




2.5 


77 


10 


3.5 


64 


27 


3 


1 




2 


71 


11 


3.5 


48 


28 


5.6 


1 


2.6 


2 


56 


12 


3 


52 


29 


3 




1 


2 


47 


13 


3 


52 


30 


2 


1 




1 


95 


14 


2.9 


65 


31 


2 


1 




1 


86 


15 


2 


90 














16 


2 


73 


32 


3.2 


3.2 






.... 


17 


2 


61 


33 


2 


2 










The next table presents the record of nine Special Students, 
whose work consisted exclusively of prescribed studies : — 



Students. 


Number of 
courses taken. 


Number of 
courses in 
which the 
work was not 
completed. 


Number of 
courses in 
which the stu- 
dent failed. 


Number of 
courses in 
which the stu- 
dent passed. 


Average per 

cent in the 

courses passed. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


5.3 

6.3 

5.3 

5.3 

5.3 

3 

2.6 

5.3 

3.9 


i' ' 

2.9 


1.6 

2.2 

2.3 

.3 

.2 

2.6 

.7 


5.3 
5.3 
3.7 
3.1 
3 

2.7 
2.4 
1.2 
.3 1 


68 

50 . 

65 

50 

56 

50 

73 

61 

40 



A Special Student may obtain a certificate of proficiency in any 
study in which his mark for the year is not less than seventy- 
five per cent. This standard was attained last year, — 

4 



50 THE COLLEGE. 

In studies amounting to less than one full course, by 4 students. 
" " u " 1, but less than 2 courses, by 10 " 

« " " " 2, " " " 3 " "4 " 

« u u t< 4 ? << u u 5 u it' 3 u 

" » " " 6 courses, " 1 " 

The Faculty further offer a general certificate, with mention 
on the Commencement programme, to any Special Student who 
shall have passed in twelve elective courses with an average 
mark of not less than seventy-five per cent. The student would 
ordinarily accomplish this by taking four courses a year for three 
years. The number of Special Students who last year passed in 
four or more elective courses was twelve, of whom only four at- 
tained an average of seventy-five per cent in the courses they 
completed. 

In the examinations for admission the Faculty made a slight 
change in the requirements in Physics, by displacing Arnott's 
text-book, and substituting for it Avery's Elements of Natural 
Philosophy under Prescribed Physics, and under Elective Physics, 
Balfour Stewart's Elementary Lessons, which requires some knowl- 
edge of Trigonometry. The object of this change was not merely 
to secure a better training in Physics through the use of better 
text-books, but also to strengthen the elective group in Physical 
Science, which has proved to be considerably easier for the candi- 
date to prepare than any of the other three groups. The differ- 
ence has been by no means eliminated by this change, but it is 
thought that the state of the instruction in Physics in the schools 
will not justify any greater increase at present. 

The Faculty also adopted two measures calculated to lighten 
the burden of the examination, — first, by permitting a candidate 
who takes the whole examination in the same year to be ex- 
amined on a part of the requirements in June, and to postpone 
the rest (not exceeding six subjects) till September ; and sec- 
ondly, by providing examinations on the work of the Freshman 
year in June, as well as in September, and permitting a candi- 
date to be examined on any of the subjects at either time. But 
under neither of these provisions can a candidate be examined 
again in September on a subject in which he failed in June. 

The June examinations were held, as heretofore, at Cambridge, 
Exeter, N. H., New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. 
Louis, and San Francisco, and, for the first time, at Andover, 



EXAMINATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 



51 



Mass., which was added to the list in compliance with the request 
— made with the approval of their Principal — of the pupils of 
the Phillips Academy at that place. 

The number of candidates examined was three hundred and 
twenty-six. The results of the examinations in the several sub- 
jects, compared with those of previous years, are shown in the 
following table : — 



1878. 
133 Candidates. 






PRESCRIBED SUBJECTS. 






1879. 
179 Candidates. 












53 


C 
e3 . 
















1 




1880. 


bfl 




o> 






£ 




0D 


i 


236 Candidates. 

1881. 
258 Candidates. 

1882. 


> 

ri 
c3 


•2 2 

bjrj 


u 




a 

a 
01 


2, ^ 




a 


ce 


a 






to 


a 



A 


O 



315 Candidates. 

1883 
326 Candidates. 


a 

a 
O 


a S 




g 


a 3 


bJD 
3 


2 


"3 

ft 


^.2 

w 


'is 

2a 
ft 


Percentage failing 
























in each study. 
























1878 


14 


7.5 


29 


18 


20 


13 


31.5 


43 


14 


19 


36 


1879 


8 


11 


20 


23 


18 


14.5 


28.5 


37 


19 


28.5 


21 


1880 ...... 


14 


6 


17 


17 


15 


14 


29 


36 


11 


17 


13 


1881 


8 


6 


12 


13 


15 


14 


25 


27 


7 


10 


18 


1882 


7. 


11 


7 


16 


11 


12 


27 


20 


14 


15 


15 


1883 


10 


4 


11 


17 


' 9 


7 


32 


16 


14 


14 


25 




ELECTIVE SUBJECTS. 


,_; 




a 








1 




m 


>> 




E 




ce 










>5 




a 




> 




bos 

* a 




3 
O 


Pi 

a 





>> 

u 
<u 

a 



(4 

I 

03 




•a 

ft 

> 


5 

c 
ft 
u 





O 

u 
e 

O 




■5 

i-5 




O 


M 

in 


>6 

* 


.be 
H 


2 

'o 


O 


a 


Percentage failing 
























in each study. 
























1878 .... 


7 




15 




17.5 


36 


21 


29 


65 


38 


57 


1879 


16 




28 




22 


33 


13 


32.5 


60 


48 


24 


1880 


14 




22 




12 


33 


14 


39 


48 


18 


9 


1881 


15 




13 




12 


19 


12 


30 


41 


16 


27 




Virgil 








Cicero. 


and 


Co 


np. 
















1882 




Ovid. 






10 


19 


9 


45 


27 


17 


13 


13 


11 


2 


9 


1883 


12 


6 


1 


7 


8 


20 


7 


45 


12 


28 


13 



The next table presents the general results of the examinations 
in each of the last four years. The present requirements have 
been in exclusive use for only three years ; but in 1880 their use 



52 



THE COLLEGE. 



was so general, — only forty-two candidates were examined on 
the old method, — that the statistics for that year may properly 
be included in the comparison. 



Candidates examined .... 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


236 


253 


315 


326 


" admitted .... 


216 


231 


286 


298 


clear . . 


82 


99 


116 


121 


" rejected 


20 


22 


29 


28 


Per cent " 


8.5 


8.7 


9.2 


8.6 



Of the four groups of elective subjects, each candidate is re- 
quired to present two, but any candidate may, if he wish, be ex- 
amined on three, or on all. That from nine to twelve per cent 
of the candidates have each year availed themselves of this liberty 
will appear from the following table, which shows the various com- 
binations of elective groups offered in the last four years : — 



Number of Candidates who 
offered 

Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Physical Sci- 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


2 
15 

7 
2 

159 
17 

20 


4 

14 

5 

1 

1 

177 

13 

25 

2 

11 


6 
17 
11 

3 

204 

12 

41 

5 

3 

13 


7 
8 

12 
4 

216 

15 

41 

4 

7 
12 


Latin, Greek, and Mathematics 

Latin, Greek, and Physical Science .... 
Latin, Mathematics, and Physical Science . . 
Greek, Mathematics, and Physical Science . . 

Latin and Greek 

Latin and Mathematics 


Latin and Physical Science 

Greek and Mathematics 


Greek and Physical Science 

Mathematics and Physical Science 

Total number of candidates 


4 
10 


236 


253 


315 


326 



The next table shows, for the same period, the number of can- 
didates who offered each of the four elective groups : — 



EXAMINATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 



53 



Whole number of candidates 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


236 




253 




315 




326 


Number offering 




Per ct. 




Per ct. 




Per ct. 


Per ct. 


Latin .... 


222 


94 


239 


94 


294 


93 


303 93 


Greek .... 


187 


79 


203 


80 


246 


78 


254 78 


Mathematics 


46 


19 


46 


18 


56 


18 


50 15 


Physical Science 


45 


19 


47 


18 


77 


24 


83 25 



It will be seen that the proportion of candidates offering each 
of the four groups has remained about the same in the last two 
years. The percentages for Latin and Greek are identical : the 
falling off in Mathematics is fully accounted for by the fact that 
the small number of candidates offering Mathematics in addition 
to Latin and Greek has been abruptly reduced by more than half, 
and the slight gain in Physical Science is due to a sudden increase 
in the still smaller number offering the rare combination of Greek 
and Physical Science. Both of these circumstances must be re- 
garded as exceptional. 

The Latin and Greek elective groups, together with the pre- 
scribed subjects, represent, in the present system, the require- 
ments that were in force before the Faculty began the experiment 
of allowing a limited option in the examinations for admission. 
The amount of classical preparation required has indeed been 
somewhat reduced, and the present examinations demand, and 
have brought about, better methods of instruction in the classics 
than were formerly in use; but the end sought is substantially the 
same. The Mathematical and Physical groups, on the other hand, 
are pure additions to the old requirements, and are made up of 
studies which were formerly pursued by the student after his ad- 
mission. In establishing these groups, the Faculty gave the can- 
didate the liberty of reducing by about a year his study of Latin, 
or of Greek, or of both, and of substituting additional study in 
Mathematics or Physical Science. The following table has been 
prepared to show to what extent and in what ways the candidates 
who have entered on the present method in the past four years 
have made use of this liberty : — 



54 



THE COLLEGE. 





1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


236 
77.5 


253 
79.1 


315 
75.5 


326 
74.5 


Proportion of this number offering Latin and Greek 
(with or without other groups) .... Perot. 


Number of candidates offering all the groups . . . 


2 


4 


6 


7 


Number of candidates offering three groups .... 

Proportion of these offering Latin and Greek. Per ct. 
„ offering Latin without Greek . . „ 
„ „ Greek without Latin . . „ 


24 

91.7 
8.3 


21 

90.4 

4.8 
4.8 


31 

90.3 
9.7 


24 

83.3 
16.6 


Number of candidates offering two groups .... 

Proportion of these offering Latin and Greek. Per ct. 
„ offering Latin without Greek . . „ 
„ „ Greek without Latin . . „ 
,, „ neither Latin nor Greek ,, 


210 

75.7 

17.6 

1.9 

4.8 


228 

77.6 

16.6 

.9 

4.8 


278 

73.4 

19.1 

2.9 

4.7 


295 

73.2 

19 
3.7 
4.1 



The variations here shown are not greater than might reason- 
ably be expected to occur from year to year, and it would not be 
safe to infer from them any tendency in the choices of candidates. 
It appears that in these four years about three-quarters of the 
candidates have presented the full classical requirements ; from 
seventeen to twenty-three per cent have offered one of the two 
language groups without the other, while a very few — never 
rising as high as one twentieth of the whole number of candi- 
dates offering two groups — have come prepared in the minimum 
language requirements only. 

Of the two hundred and ninety-eight candidates admitted to 
college, five by passing further examinations, or in virtue of work 
they had done as Special Students, gained admission to the Sopho- 
more class, two hundred and thirty-seven entered the Freshman 
class, and two have registered as Special Students. The votes 
admitting two others were rescinded when it was found they had 
been guilty of fraud in the examinations. Of the remaining fifty- 
two, it appears on inquiry that twenty-two have gone to other 
colleges ; that six of these, with eighteen others, intend to enter 
this college at some future time ; and that eleven for various 
reasons do not intend to go to college at all. One has not been 
heard from. As a result, the present Freshman class, in spite of 
the larger number of candidates admitted, is somewhat smaller 



PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS. 



55 



than that of last year. The composition of the present class is 
as follows : — 

Admitted to College in 1883 237 

Previously admitted 11 

Removed from a higher class 5 

Total 253 

The present number of students of all kinds is nine hundred 
and seventy-one. The increase over last year in the number 
of undergraduates is twenty ; in the whole number of students, 
forty. 

The whole number of candidates who offered themselves for a 
preliminary examination this year was two hundred and eighty- 
four, of whom two hundred and forty-four obtained certificates, 
having passed in at least five subjects. The following table ex- 
hibits the general results of the preliminary examinations on the 
present requirements for four years : — 



Number of candidates who passed in 

Five subjects 

Six " 

Seven " 

Eight " 

Nine " 

Ten " . 

Eleven " 

Received certificates 

Failed to pass in five subjects 

Total number of candidates . . 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


30 
21 
31 
33 
22 
10 


38 
30 
46 
65 
17 
19 
5 


40 

28 
46 
58 
33 
24 
4 


27 
30 
60 
66 
29 
24 
8 


150 
64 


220 
46 


233 
54 


244 
40 


214 


266 


287 


284 



The next table shows, for the same period, the proportion of 
candidates examined in each subject under the present method, 
and the proportion of failures in each : — 



56 






THE 


COLLEGE 


* 
















Tii 






to 


£?>> 
















Preliminary Examinat'n. 


> 






09 

a 
a 

0) 


.3 cS 
















1880, 214 Candidates. 

1881, 266 

1882, 287 


a 

u 
02 


t/2 
a 


C «8 
o 0> 

4) 4) 


a 

0) 


4J O 


.2 

"S 
S 
M 


u 

05 


I 


03 




o 

a 

45 


a 

eS 

S 


1883, 284 " 


cS 


cS 


^o 


£ 


5 a 


*d 




O) 


,c) 




H 


4) 




o 


Hi 


o 


«1 S 


< 


"^ 


O 


Ph 


m 


h 


o 


Percentage of the whole 


























number of candidates 


























who were examined in 


























each study. 


























1880 


92 


88 


78 


76 


84 


97 


87 


46 


61 


53 


64 


5 


1881 


88 


86 


78 


79 


76 


97 


82 


46 


74 


61 


54 


5 


1882 


93 


93 


77 


83 


83 


97 


88 


41 


75 


64 


51 


5 


1883 


93 


92 


76 


81 


84 


98 


91 


49 


81 


66 


51 


9 


Percentage of failure 


























among those examined 


























in each study. 


























1880 


25 


25 


25 


26 


39 


22 


50 


61 


7 


34 


21 


30 


1881 


15 


19 


28 


24 


22 


21 


35 


41 


17 


19 


17 


14 


1882 


20 


26 


9 


30 


27 


17 


37 


27 


12 


37 


17 


14 


1883 


6 


14 


15 


24 


15 


15 


53 


19 


13 


28 


28 


8 



The discipline of the College during the past year required the 
action of the Faculty in very few cases. Three Sophomores were 
suspended for various periods, one for taking into an examination 
room a paper containing notes on the subject of the examination, 
another for presenting a theme which was not his own, the third 
for intoxication ; and a student belonging to another department 
of the University was required to vacate a room he occupied in a 
college building for harboring a disorderly party there. The gen- 
eral good order of the College was interrupted in one instance, 
when the excitement of a victory in a ball match led to a serious 
disturbance, and a large crowd of students celebrated the success 
of their champions not merely with the boisterous demonstrations 
of delight that are natural under the circumstances, but with a 
bonfire and the explosion of fireworks, which are not without 
danger to college property. Such occurrences, however, are rare ; 
on all ordinary occasions the unruly element which may be pre- 
sumed to exist in any body of a thousand young men, is kept in 
control by the powerful sentiment of the great majority, which 
has proved a far more effective instrument for the maintenance 
of good order and gentlemanly conduct than the system of mi- 
nute regulations formerly in force. The Faculty has recognized 



INSTRUCTION. 57 

the value of this sentiment, which is not likely to err so far as it 
is rightly informed, by appointing committees to confer with 
students on subjects of current interest, to ascertain their wishes 
and feelings, to aid them with counsel or suggestion, and to ad- 
vise the Faculty, in case any action of that body appears to be 
called for. These conferences have not been fruitless. The com- 
mittee on athletic sports has already removed some serious abuses, 
and without infringing on the reasonable liberty of the student, 
will no doubt effect still further improvements in this important 
feature of college life. A committee appointed to inquire into 
the subject of initiations into college societies has, it is hoped, 
done something to mitigate the barbarity of some of the practices 
which tradition has still maintained in connection with these 
ceremonies. It was at the suggestion of the committee on initia- 
tions that the Faculty, near the close of the year, decided to 
appoint, for the purpose of providing a regular mode of commu- 
nication with the students, a standing committee, who shall from 
time to time invite students to join them in conference on such 
subjects as it may be useful to discuss in this manner. The 
committee, of which the President of the University is, by the 
terms of the vote, chairman, is to try this interesting experiment 
during the present academic year. 

Full information concerning the instruction given in the College 
in the year 1882-83 will be found in the tables on pages 58-71, 
which contain a detailed statement of the work done in each 
course, the names of the instructors, the number of hours a week 
of instruction, and the numbers of students of various classes 
and departments,* as well as the total number of students, in 
regular attendance. 

In addition to the regular prescribed and elective studies count- 
ing towards the degree, instruction in certain subjects was given 
to voluntary classes. In Elocution instruction was given by Mr. 
H. D. Jones to forty-two Seniors, thirty-nine Juniors, thirty-nine 
Sophomores, and eighty-one Freshmen. The students were taught 
mainly in classes, but separate instruction was given to individ- 

* To designate the various kinds of students in the several courses, the follow- 
ing abbreviations are used : Se. for Senior, Ju. for Junior, So. for Sophomore, Fr. 
for Freshman, Sp. for Special Student, Gr. for Graduate Student, Law for Law 
Student, Di. for Divinity Student, Sc. for Scientific Student, and Bu. for Bussey 
Student. 



58 



THE COLLEGE. 






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INSTRUCTION. 59 



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— Whitney's Grammar. — Lanman's 
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68 THE COLLEGE. 



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INSTRUCTION. 



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70 



THE COLLEGE. 



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INSTRUCTION. 



71 




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72 THE COLLEGE. 

uals, when needed, so far as the time of the instructor permitted. 
The Seniors and Juniors were taught in four sections, each sec- 
tion receiving two hours of instruction a week ; the Sophomores 
and Freshmen in two sections each, with one hour of instruction 
a week. In Physics a course of weekly lectures was given by 
Professor Lovering, and a similar course on Physiology and Hy- 
giene by Professor Sargent. Further opportunities of instruction, 
used to a considerable extent by the students of the College, are 
offered by the University in the courses of public lectures given 
each year by distinguished specialists. In 1882-83 one hun- 
dred and twelve such lectures were given on subjects connected 
with Theology, Philosophy, Classical Philology, Archaeology, 
History, Political Economy, English Literature, Physiology, and 
Lithology. The Evening Readings in Ancient and Modern Clas- 
sics, given by instructors in the College, were forty-three in 
number. Selections were read from Assyrian Literature by Pro- 
fessor Lyon ; Homer, by Professor Palmer ; Sophocles, by Pro- 
fessor Dyer ; Euripides, by Professor Dyer ; Theocritus, by 
Professor Croswell ; Plato by Professors Allen and Dyer ; 
Plautus, by Mr. Hawes ; Terence, by Mr. Preble ; Catullus, 
by Professor Croswell; Virgil, by Mr. Parker; Chaucer, by 
Professor Child ; German Authors, by Mr. Lutz. 

The scheme of instruction for the year 1883-84, which chiefly en- 
gaged the attention of the Faculty during March and April, pre- 
sents a large number of new courses and a better organization of 
the studies in some departments. The appointment of an assist- 
ant professor in Political Economy enabled the Faculty to double 
the amount of instruction in a subject which is now pursued 
with great zeal by large numbers of students. Of the seven 
courses now offered, the first two present the theoretical side of 
the subject. Course 1 is an introductory course, designed to 
meet the wants both of the general student, and of those who 
propose to extend their studies to the special topics which form 
the subjects of the advanced courses. It is devoted chiefly to the 
exposition and illustration of the general principles of Political 
Economy, but also includes a course of lectures on the elements 
of banking, with a critical review of the public finance of the 
United States, chiefly since the year 1861. Course 1 is the 
only course required as a preparation for any of the advanced 
courses; but for the benefit of students who wish to make more 



INSTRUCTION. 



73 



thorough and extended studies in Political Economy, a second 
theoretical course is provided, in which the subject is treated his- 
torically by a critical examination and comparison of the theo- 
ries of leading writers. These are both full courses. In the first 
Professors Dunbar and Laughlin both give instruction ; the second 
is conducted by Professor Dunbar. Of the remaining five courses, 
of which four are new, two are full courses, with three or two 
exercises a week, while three, having each one exercise a week, are 
rated as half-courses. The latter are devoted to the treatment of 
special topics: The Economic Effects of Land Tenures in Eng- 
land, Ireland, France, and Germany, by Professor Laughlin ; 
Tariff Legislation in the United States, by Dr. Taussig ; Com- 
parison of the Financial Systems of France, England, Germany, 
and the United States, by Professor Dunbar. One full course, 
conducted by Professor Laughlin, is devoted to the investigation 
of practical economic questions of contemporary interest, such as 
Bimetallism, Reciprocity with Canada, National Bank Issues, 
American Competition, and similar topics that may arise from 
year to year. The preparation and discussion of theses by the 
students is an essential feature of this course. Finally, a full 
course, consisting of three lectures a week by Professor Dunbar, 
on the Economic History of Europe and America since the Seven 
Years' War, opens an attractive field to students of history, 
who may elect it without having taken any other course in 
Political Economy. 

In the department of Semitic Languages, three courses which 
are of more especial interest to students of Theology have been 
removed from the college list. On the other hand, an advanced 
course in Assyrian, by Professor Lyon, and an advanced course 
in Arabic, by Professor Toy, have been established, so that in 
each of these languages, as well as in Hebrew, there is now pro- 
vision for a course of study extending through two years. The 
course in Aramaic remains on the list, and a half-course on the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament, by Professor Lyon, 
has been added. 

In Greek two courses are provided for Sophomores, one being 
designed especially for candidates for second-year honors. This 
is the same arrangement that existed before 1882-83, except that 
each of the courses now has three exercises a week, instead of 
two. The first course is to be conducted by Professor Croswell, 



74 THE COLLEGE. 

the second by Professors J. W. White and Dyer. The courses of 
Professor Sophocles, who, owing to failing health, has not been 
able to teach since the beginning of the past year, do not appear 
in the list. Professor J. W. White's course on the Life of the An- 
cient Athenians is omitted for the present year, but is to be given 
next year as a three-hour course. In Latin a new course, to be 
conducted by Mr. Preble, is designed especially for Sophomores 
who wish to acquire greater facility in reading. Professor Allen 
has substituted a course in the Critical Study of Ovid for his 
course on the Roman Drama ; his course for practice in speaking f° r 
Latin has been consolidated with the second course in Composi- \ 
tion, which he will now conduct ; and his course of lectures on 
the History and Methods of Classical Study, given in 1881-82, 
is announced again for this year. 

In English, Professor Child's course in Anglo-Saxon has been 
enlarged to a three-hour course, but is to be given in alternate 
years with the course in Early English. In this department also 
was placed a course of study not heretofore admitted among those 
for which the degree is given, — Elocution. The course is open 
to those students only who have already pursued the study in a 
voluntary class for a year with marked success, and who are will- 
ing to give a considerable amount of time to it. For those who 
do not wish to give so much time, voluntary instruction is still 
provided. The work is to consist partly of a study of the princi- 
ples of elocution, with training in the use of the voice, partly of 
the study of selections from English classics. The course is con- 
ducted by Mr. H. D. Jones, and is rated as a half-course. 

In French, the courses heretofore given have embraced the liter- 
ature of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 
To supplement these, two new courses have now been added, one 
treating of the literature of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
the other of French literature before the fifteenth century. The 
two courses are to be given in alternate years by Professor 
BOcher. A third additional course has been established in 
French and Provencal Philology, to be given by Mr. Sheldon 
alternately with his course in Germanic Philology and Gothic. 
Each of the three new courses is to have one exercise a week, and 
to count as a half-course. 

In Philosophy Professor James has substituted for his introduc- 
tory course two half-courses, one on Psychology, the other on the 



\\ 



h. 



II, 



INSTRUCTION. 75 

Mnlosophy of Evolution. These half-courses have each three exer- 
ises a week for a half-year, — a plan which has not been used here- 
ofore in elective studies, but which has many advantages, and will 

robably be adopted by other instructors. In History a course of 
wo exercises a week has been added, to be conducted by Pro- 

ssor Emerton, on the Conflict of Christianity with Paganism to 
he end of the Eighth Century ; and in Roman Law a new half- 
ourse with one exercise a week, on the Law of Property, to be 
onducted by Professor Young, will alternate with Professor 
Jurney's half-course on the Law of Inheritance. Professor Nor- 
Dn's course on Romanesque and Gothic Art has been enlarged to 

full course of three lectures a week. In Music the instruction 
ti Harmony has been extended to occupy a full course of three 
.ours, and the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, 
nd their successors, which was last year treated in the former 
ourse, has been made the subject of a separate half-course. In 
Mathematics, a new one-hour half-course on the Elements of 
lechanics, for students who have taken the first course in the 
Calculus, will be given by Dr. B. 0. Peirce, and a second course 
a Quaternions, with two exercises a week, has been added by 
'rofessor Peirce. In Physics, Professor Trowbridge's course 
n the Conservation of Energy has been enlarged to a three- 
our course, and a new half-course, with two exercises a week, 
n the Theory of Probability, with application to the Kinetic 
?heory of Gases, will be given by Dr. Hall. h\ Natural History, 
'rofessor Shaler's course in Geology is this year to have two, 
nstead of three, exercises a week, and to count as a half- 
ourse. 

The result of these changes is a list of one hundred and twenty- 
hree courses offered for the present year. The number of hours 
f instruction cannot be given accurately. In a few courses, in 
vhich the nature of the subject suggested a somewhat elastic ar- 
angement, the plan was adopted of appointing two exercises a 
veek, with a third to be used at the pleasure of the instructor ; and 
he number of hours in laboratory courses cannot be definitely 
tated. If we allow two hours and a half a week to a course of 
he former class, and three hours to a full laboratory course, — 
m estimate undoubtedly below the truth in both cases, — the 
otal amount of instruction offered this year is three hundred 
nd seventy-three hours a week. The number of hours per week 



76 THE COLLEGE. 

of instruction in each department, compared with 
offered in previous years, is as follows : — 


the 


numtr 


Number of exercises 
per week in elec- 
tive courses offered 
in 

Semitic Languages . 

Sanskrit and Zend . 

Greek 

Latin 

Greek and Latin . . 

English 

German .... 

French 

Italian and Spanish 

Philosophy . . . 

Ethics 

Political Economy . 

History 

Roman Law . . . 

Music 

Fine Arts .... 


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14 

11 

12 

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24 

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197 


196 


228 


37 



While it thus appears that the College offers a larger amouj; 
and greater variety of instruction than ever before, its resource 
have also been enriched in ways that are not shown by the meM 
enumeration of studies. This has been effected by improvlj 
methods of instruction which experience has suggested, and pit] 
ticularly by the greater facilities and encouragement given 11 
advanced students to do independent work. Many of the regf J' 
lar courses are devoted largely or wholly to independent researk 
and the preparation of theses on the part of the students ; a 
outside of the regular courses, the opportunities offered to pre 
erly qualified students for the investigation and discussion 
special topics, and for the pursuit of private study, with the 1 
and guidance of their instructors, are increasing yearly. 
" Semitic Seminary," with two meetings a month, and a me< 
ing for Mathematical discussion once a week, are the n< 
announcements of this kind for the present year. The 
structors in Mathematics and in Physics have further suggest 

* Elective courses amounting to four hours a week in Philosophy and six ho 
in History were established in 1878 to take the place of the prescribed work 
those subjects, which was abolished at that time. They formed no actual incre 
in the amount of instruction given. 



ADVANCED INSTRUCTION. 77 

^jrtain courses of reading for graduate students in those depart- 
ents, and announced their readiness to assist such students in 
lis work, meeting them once a week for explanation and dis- 
lssion. 

The number of advanced students who seek these ample oppor- 
mities is perhaps as large as could be expected in the present 
J ate of education in this country, which demands no training be- 
i 3nd the college course for any but a college teacher, and not even 
>r him in most cases ; but it is far below what is desirable. The 
smand for better trained teachers is surely increasing; but there 
ill always remain another serious obstacle to hinder the growth 
' a large graduate class, in the poverty of a great number of 
[Jkoee who would gladly continue their studies after graduation, 
any others wdio have been supported in comfort during their 
)llege course, feel that they ought not to draw on the resources 
their parents or their friends any longer. The fellowships en- 
"iyed by graduates are few in number, and in most cases are very 
^•operly used for study abroad. The only other form of aid here- 
fore open to graduate students has been a limited number of 
jpointments to proctorships. With a view to make such pro- 
sion as was in their power for aiding these students, the Faculty, 
iviiig previously obtained the consent of the Corporation, last 
jar awarded two Townsend and two Shattuck scholarships, — 
ie former yielding an income of two hundred and fifty, the latter 
! one hundred and fifty dollars each, — to four candidates for the 
-ee of Doctor of Philosophy. For the present year the Faculty 
is set aside for a similar purpose four Townsend scholarships, 
e most valuable of the few that are not by the terms of their 
undations restricted to the use of undergraduates. The amount 
this aid is necessarily small, but it is hoped that it may do 
mething towards keeping here some of our best graduates, or 
tracting hither those of other colleges, and that more ample 
eans may soon be provided for promoting this most important 
>ject. Nothing is now so much needed to strengthen the ad- 
nced courses which have been established, as a vigorous body 
trained students, whose zeal and sympathy would stimulate at 
tee their instructors and one another. The presence of such 
to body, moreover, could not fail to exert a beneficial influence on 
llk e College, by keeping before the eyes of the undergraduates not 
ily an example of earnest work, but also a higher standard 



78 GRADUATE DEPARTMENT — MASTER'S DEGREE. 

of scholarship than that which makes the first degree in arts tl 
normal goal of an academic course. 

CLEMENT L. SMITH, Dean. 

November 27, 1883. 



To the President of the University: 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following Report on tl 
state of the Graduate Department for the year 1882-83 : — 

The practice of forming a separate list of studies designed f 
graduates has been abandoned, as I mentioned in my last repor 
and one list, comprising all the courses offered by the Universit 
except those of a strictly professional character, is now prepar 
under the auspices of the College Faculty. The numbers 
graduate students in attendance on these courses will be fou:' 
stated in the Report of the Dean of that Faculty. 

The Academic Council devoted much time, during the ye 
1882-83, to the consideration of the precise conditions, und 
which the degree of A.M. should be given for professional a 
technical studies, in pursuance of the new provision adopted 
the Corporation and Overseers, at the instance of the Acaden 
Council, in the preceding academic year. The result of th 
deliberations was the adoption of the following rules, which { 
numbered 6 and 7 among the Standing Rules of the Acadei 
Council : — 

" 6. The Academic Council will approve studies pursued in 1 
Professional and Scientific Schools as constituents of the ( 
year's course of liberal study to be pursued by candidates for j 
degree of Master of Arts ; but no study in a Professional or 
Scientific School will be approved as part of such one yea 
course, unless the Council is satisfied that the candidate offer 
it has no intention or expectation of counting the same study 
wards the degree of Bachelor of Divinity, Bachelor of La 
Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Science, or Civil Engineer. 

" 7. The Council will also recommend for the degree of Mas 
of Arts students, otherwise properly qualified (see § 1 of 
Standing Rules of the Corporation and Overseers^), who 
recommended by the appropriate Faculty for the degree 
Bachelor of Divinity, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Medic 
Bachelor of Science, or Civil Engineer, after the longest coi| 






I!' 

'ii'. 

y 

nil 

M 

Fou, 

...... 

He 



DEGREES CONFERRED. 79 

of study and residence provided for such degree, and upon ex- 
aminations passed with high credit. Members of the Schools of 
Divinity, Law, Medicine,' and Science, who are already Bachelors 
of Arts of Harvard University, and who wish to obtain the Mas- 
ter's degree simultaneously with their professional degree, should 
present their applications 4 to the Faculty of the School with which 
they are connected, on or before the 1st of June in the year of 
their graduation." 

These rules were put into operation at the close of the academic 
year. 

Fourteen persons were admitted to candidacy for the degree of 
Master of Arts, and the whole number of candidates for that 
degree was fifteen ; of whom three withdrew, and twelve received 
the degree. This enumeration does not include those who were 
admitted to the degree under Rule 7, above cited. 

Ten persons were admitted, or readmitted, to candidacy for 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts, and 
the whole number of candidates for that degree was thirty-five ; 
of whom one has died, six have withdrawn, two have transferred 
themselves to the list of candidates for the degree of Master of 
Arts, five received the doctor's degree at the end of the year, and 
twenty-one are still candidates for it. 

Four persons were, and still remain, candidates for the degree 
of Doctor of Science, all of whom were admitted to candidacy in 
previous years. 

The following are the names of persons admitted to degrees, 
on recommendation of the Academic Council, at Commencement, 
1883 : — 

A.M. 
Frederic Almy, A.B., 1880. 
Joseph Austin Coolidge, A.B., 1882. 
George Trumbull Hartshorn, A.B., 1882. 
Henry Churchill King, A.B. {Oberlin Coll.), 1879, 

A.M. and D.B. {Oberlin Sem'y), 1882. 
Philip Coombs Knapp, A.B., 1878, M.D., 1882. 
Robert Luce, A.B., 1882. 
John Edward Maude, A.B., 1881. 
Harry Leverett Nelson, A.B., 1881. 
Edward Knights Stevens, A.B., 1882. 
Frederic Mather Stone, A.B., 1882. 
Duren James Henderson Ward, A.B. {Hillsdale Coll.), 1878, 

A.M. {Hillsdale Coll.). 
Horace Leslie Wheeler, A.B., 1881. 



80 GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 

Of these, Messrs. King, Knapp, Maude, Nelson, and Ward 
received the degree under Rule 6. 

Ph.D. and A.M. 
Farley Brewer Goddard, A.B., 1881. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Greek and Latin. Thesis, " Studiorum Cyre- 
nensium Capita Antiquaria Historica." 

John Norton Johnson, A.M., 1882. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Sanskrit. Thesis, " The Priests and Patrons of 
the Vedie Age." 

William Taggard Piper, A.M., 1881. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Greek and Latin. Thesis, " De Ratione No- 
minum Romanorum praesertim de Numero Praenominum Prisco." 

Arthur Wellington Roberts, A.B., 1881. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Greek and Latin. Thesis, " De Ilomicidiis apud 
Graecos." 

Frank William Taussig, A.B., 1879. 

Department, Political Science. Subject, Political Economy. Thesis, "Protection 
to Young Industries as applied in the United States." 

Under Rule 7 : — 

A.M. with D.B. 

James David Callahan, A.B. {Univ. Mich.), 1879. 
Charles Elliott St. John, A.B., 1879. 

A.M. with LL.B. 

Frederick Hobbs Allen, A.B., 1880. 

Frank Brewster, A.B., 1879. 

Henry Eliot Guild, A.B., 1880. 

Thaddeus Davis Kenneson, A.B., 1880. 

Leonard Eckstein Opdycke, A.B., 1880. 

Samuel Hanson Ordway, A.B. {Brown Univ.), 1880. 

George Pellew, A.B., 1880. 

William Schofield, A.B. 1879. 

A.M. with M.D. 

Franklin Asaph Dunbar, A.B., 1878. 
Philip Coombs Knapp, A.B., 1878: cum laude. 
Edward Winslow Warren, A.B., 1877. 
Henry Austin Wood, A.B., 1878: cum laude. 

The name of Dr. Knapp occurs twice in the above lists, because 
he was entitled to the degree under Rule 7, and also on the 



Air. 

k ; 

Irelj. 

k 



Kappo 



FELLOWSHIPS. 81 

ground of an additional year of study devoted to a special 
course. 

The Parker, Kirkland, and Walker Fellowships were held by 
the following persons, during the year 1882-83 : — 

John Parker Fellowships. 

Frank Nelson Cole, A.B., 1882. 

JosErH Silas Diller, S.B., 1879. 

Edward Emerson Phillips, A.B., 1878, Ph.D., 1880. 

George Lincoln Walton, A.B., 1875, M.D., 1880. 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship. 
Paul Shorey, A.B., 1878. 

James Walker Fellowship. 
Benjamin Rand, A.B., 1879, A.M., 1880. 

Mr. Diller and Dr. Walton withdrew from their fellowships at 
the close of the academic year, each having completed the full 
term of three years. These gentlemen have distinguished them- 
selves by their thorough and valuable work of study and research 
in the departments of Geology and of Nervous Diseases respect- 
ively. Mr. Diller, on his return from Europe, presented to the 
Committee in Natural History, as a candidate for the degree of 
S.D., a thesis, which that committee has approved, on " The 
Geology of the Troad." He defers his examination for the de- 
gree to a later year. Dr. Walton has published several highly 
important papers on the specialty to which he devotes himself. 

Messrs. Cole, Phillips, Shorey, and Rand, having presented 
satisfactory reports of their progress in their studies, were 
reappointed to their respective fellowships for the year 1888-84. 
The two vacancies remaining in the Parker Fellowships were 
at first filled by the appointment of 

James Laurence Laughlin, Ph.D., 1876, and 
William Patten, S.B., 1883; 

but Dr. Laughlin having withdrawn, on his appointment as Assist- 
ant Professor in Political Economy, his fellowship was given to 

Harold North Fowler, A.B., 1880. 
6 



82 THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

The Harris Fellowship and the Rogers Scholarship are be- 
stowed in accordance with recommendations of the College 
Faculty, and are under the supervision of that Faculty. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

JAMES MILLS PEIRCE. 



k 
To the President of the University: 

Sir, — As Dean of the Faculty of Theology, I respectfully sub- 
mit the following Report for the academic year, 1882-83: — 

Twenty-nine students were connected with the School during 
the year, namely : — 

Resident Graduates 5 

Senior Class 8 

Middle Class 5 

Junior Class 4 

Special Students 7 



!!'i< 



Of these, one resident graduate and one special student re- 
mained in the School but a short time. 

The nature and amount of the instruction given may be learned 
from the accompanying table, pp. 84, 85. 

Several courses were attended by undergraduates of the College. % 
These are reckoned together with the students of the School in 
the numbers which, in the table just referred to, represent the 
attendance at each course. The courses thus attended by under- 
graduates, and the number of undergraduates attending them 
respectively, are as follows : — 



Junior Hebrew 2 

Philosophy of Religion' 3 

History of the Reformation 24 

Ethics 5 

Quotations from the Old Testament 1 

Some of the professors of the School gave other courses which 
are not referred to in the table, either because they do not belong 
strictly to the Theological course, or because no divinity students 
attended them. Professor Toy gave lessons in the Arabic lan- 
guage, and Professor Lyon in the Assyrian, each two hours a week. 
Each of these courses was attended by one divinity student, as 



itrc 

I to 
The 



COURSES — LECTURES. _ 83 

well as by others not connected with the School. Professor 
Emerton gave a course on u Practice in the Study and Use of 
Historical Sources ; " two hours a week. Tins was attended by 
four undergraduates and one candidate for the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy. 

The course last mentioned, the courses on Aramaic, on the 
4t Quotations from the Old Testament in the New," and those on 
the Assyrian and Arabic languages, were announced as optional ; 
the two latter being foreign to the specific work of the School, 
and the rest being regarded as less essential to it than the studies 
that were required. This distinction was, however, looked upon 
as artificial and temporary. 

Besides the courses that formed the regular work of the School, 
two special shorter courses were given during the year. One of 
these consisted of eight lectures by George T. Ladd, D.D., of Yale 
College, on the Inspiration of the Bible. These were fully at- 
tended by students of the School, and by persons unconnected 
with it, and were listened to with great interest. 

Another course was given by gentlemen connected with the 
University, but not teachers of the School. In this course lec- 
tures were given as follows : — 

On the Education of the Ministry : President C. W. Eliot. 

Negative Preaching: Professor A. P. Peabody. 

English in the Pulpit: Professor A. S. Hill. 

The Function of a Library in a Community of Professional Students : 
Justin Winsor, Librarian. 

Parish Botany: Professor G. L. Goodale. 

The Boundary Line between Science and Religion: Professor Trow- 
bridge. 

The Physical Exercise suitable to a Minister's Life: Professor D. A. 
Sargent. 

These lectures were given in the chapel of the School, which 
in every case was well filled and sometimes crowded. They 
were not only important in themselves, but were interesting as 
showing the help which the School may receive from persons 
engaged in other departments of study. Each lecturer spoke 
wholly from his own standpoint, and thus threw fresh light upon 
the topics considered. 

The lectures by Professor Lyon on Assyrian antiquities with 
reference to the illustration of the Old Testament were also 



84 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 



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THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 






largely attended by persons not connected with the School. The 
number of attendants given in the table refers merely to the 
students who made it a regular part of their studies and sub- 
mitted to an examination upon it. 

I have in a former Report called attention to the fact that the 
special students of the School represent two distinct classes of 
scholars. Under the same name are enrolled men who cannot 
pass the required examinations for entering as candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity, and men of high scholarship 
who are drawn to the School for some special courses of study. 
The fact that the degree of Master of Arts is now given to stu- 
dents otherwise properly qualified for a year of theological study 
will probably tend to increase the number of this latter class. 
Two special students already bachelors of arts, received at the 
last Commencement the degree of Master of Arts. 

The most important question which the Faculty has been called 
upon to decide during the year is that of allowing to students 
a certain amount of choice in the studies that shall be offered by 
them for the degree of Bachelor of Divinity. The Faculty were 
not drawn to the consideration of this question by any merely 
theoretic interest, although it might well deserve consideration 
as a matter of fundamental importance in the theory of theo- 
logical education. The question was forced upon them by a prac- 
tical necessity. It was found that owing to the increase in the 
teaching force of the School, and to the ability and readiness I 
of some teachers to offer more lectures than could regularly be I 
expected of them, more hours of class-work were offered than I 
could reasonably be required of students. While thirty-nine hours I 
were offered, it was thought that thirty hours were as many as I 
should be required for the degree. These would give each stu- 
dent an average of ten hours a week for three years. Of course 
more hours then could be taken by any student without taxing 
too severely his power of study. The work of a theological 
student, however, is very imperfectly done, unless some margin 
is left for independent study, beyond that absolutely required 
by his class exercises. In fixing the number of hours that shall 
be insisted upon, enough should be required to insure a proper 
use of the time, and to furnish evidence that the degree has not 
been given for inadequate work ; and not so many as to leave the, 
student no freedom for that thought and research which will] 
contribute so much to his mental growth. 



year. 

ratii . 
studei;' 

fill* 
thyAi 

study. 

eicellei 
for the 



The 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 87- 

If out of thirty-nine hours of class-work only thirty shall be 
required, it becomes an important question what disposition shall 
be made of the rest. Two courses are open. One is to name 
certain hours that shall be required, and to leave the rest optional. 
This was done provisionally in reference to the studies of the last 
year. This course does, however, injustice both to the studies 
marked optional and to the degree itself. It does injustice to the 
studies marked optional, not merely by the appearance of under- 
rating their importance, but especially through the fact that if the 
student is pressed for time these will be the studies that must suffer. 
It does injustice to the degree, by excluding from the studies that 
will be accepted for it those that mark a special degree of attain- 
ment in certain directions. There are good reasons, for instance, 
why Aramaic should not be required ; there are none why it should 
not be accepted for the degree. The degree that may be given for 
the amount of Hebrew ordinarily studied, and not for an exten- 
sion of this line of work into the Aramaic, seems marked by this 
fact as a degree to be given for elementary rather than for advanced 
study. All the courses marked optional would naturally belong 
to this class ; that is, they would naturally be of a kind to indi- 
cate special advance in certain directions, and thus a marked 
excellence in some lines of study. Certainly the requirements 
for the degree should be elastic enough to meet these conditions. 

If election is to be allowed, a further question is whether it 
shall be absolute within the limits of the courses offered ; or nar- 
rowed by the designation of one or more studies that shall be 
required, while freedom of choice shall extend to all the rest. 
In regard to this, it may be stated that there was a wide differ- 
ence of opinion in the Faculty. This difference was both in 
regard to the advantage of requiring any studies in particular, 
and, among those who favored such requirement, in regard to the 
studies which should be marked as essential. 

The result was that no studies were designated as specially to 
be required. Students are to be allowed to select the courses 
that they will offer for the degree. Such selection is, however, to 
be submitted to the Faculty for approval. The only rule that the 
Faculty laid down for its own guidance in the matter, is that no 
one of the fundamental departments of theological study should 
be neglected. 

The choice thus granted is too small to be dignified by the 



88 THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

name of an elective system. It is enough, however, to be of real 
advantage to students. The studies required for preparation for 
the ministry are of a different nature from those required by any 
other profession. There is little that is technical. The studies 
are more of the nature of those which belong to the college. 
They all open possibilities much greater than any student can 
accomplish. The line drawn in any case is to a great extent 
arbitrary. There can be no reason, then, why the student may 
not be allowed to draw it to some extent for himself. He can 
thus follow his own tastes, and gain more real good than if he 
were compelled to follow a prescribed routine. Thus, so far as 
this liberty extends, it may be expected to produce the same kind 
of beneficial effects that have resulted from the introduction of 
the elective system into the College. It will be noticed that the 
rule which the Faculty has laid down for itself is very vague. 
This vagueness was intentional. The movement is in some de- 
gree an experiment. As the matter stands, the Faculty is left 
free to adapt its action to the needs that may arise. The rule 
will, however, doubtless be interpreted in a liberal manner. 

Another advantage of the change that has thus been made is, 
that the student will be able to select his own methods of work, 
and to group the studies of any one year in such a way as may 
seem to him best. There is indeed a possible logical order in the 
studies that make up the course in Theology. This, however, 
cannot be carried out strictly ; and the schools that have done 
most in this direction have made only an approach to a true 
logical order. Where this has been done most thoroughly, one 
great inconvenience has been felt. To many students, work very 
largely in one direction for a whole year has proved monotonous. 
Especially has this been found true of the year spent in exegetical 
study. The habit of the Harvard School has been, for the most 
part, to make no attempt at logical order of study. All the fun- 
damental branches of study have been carried on through the 
three years. Of late the attempt has been made to bring the 
study of Systematic Theology, so far as possible, into the last 
year. In other respects, studies have been carried on side by side 
as before. In fact, different students need different methods. 
Some work best if their labor can be concentrated on a single 
department. Others need various degrees of variety in their 
work. As the matter now stands, the opportunity is given to 






METHOD IN STUDY — IMPROVEMENTS. 89 

each student to adopt such a method as he may prefer. At the 
same time the Faculty is relieved of the difficult task of dividing 
the studies into three equal parts, corresponding to the three 
years of the course. The studies will henceforth be arranged 
according to departments, and not according to years. 

The change thus described marks the completion of a movement 
in the direction of a larger liberty, that has been going on in the 
School for the last few years: first, the habit of marking absences 
from lectures was given up ; next, a similar freedom was estab- 
lished in regard to attendance at morning prayers. A person 
looking at the School merely from the outside would not suspect 
that any change had been made. Absence from lectures is very 
rare, and the attendance at chapel is as good as when the monitor 
was present. The liberty now granted in regard to the choice of 
studies, and of method in study, will doubtless bring as little 
disorder into the work of the School as the changes above 
referred to. 

The School is to be congratulated on the fact that Joseph Henry 
Thayer, D.D., has accepted a position in the School as lecturer on 
Biblical Theology. His course will extend through the year, and 
will be reckoned among the studies that will be accepted for the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity. 

During the last two years Divinity Hall has been very much 
improved. Summer before last, the chapel was refurnished and 
decorated, and is now a pleasant and attractive place, wholly 
suited to its purpose. The last summer other parts of the Hall 
have been improved. The entries have been made much 
lighter, both by day and evening, and seem thereby to have been 
made broader ; the vestibules have been enlarged and other 
important changes made. The field at the north of the building 
has been levelled. This not only improves the appearance 
of the locality, but will in time furnish a very convenient place 
for out-of-door sports. 

The Library has been well cared for the past year by A. A. 
Brooks, A.B., the Librarian. Seventy-three volumes have been 
added to the Library during the year, of which forty-three were 
gifts. The card-catalogue has increased slowly. A larger force 
needs to be employed in the work of cataloguing, as it is a very 
serious as well as important undertaking. 

The recent decision of the Supreme Court in regard to the 



90 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 



Williams Fund is a very fortunate one for the School. It not 

only secures the fund to the purpose for which it was designed, 

but allows the society having it in charge to use any surplus that 

may accrue, for the general interests of the School. Much good 

may be expected from this source. 

C. C. EVERETT, Dean. 



To the President of the University: 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following Report upon the Law 
School for the academic year 1882-83 : — 

The table on pp. 92, 93 gives the courses of study and instruc- 
tion during the year, the names of the instructors, the text-books 
used, the number of exercises per week in each course, and the 
number of students who offered themselves for examination in 
each course at the end of the year. 

The following table exhibits the attendance at the School dur- 
ing the last twelve years : — 





© 

00 


00 


CO 

IN 

00 


CO 
OO 


\6 

00 


CD 

lO 
00 


to 
i— 

00 


CO 

t- 

00 

196 
172 

24 
183 


00 
CO 

169 
137 
32 
154 


00 

177 

138 

157 


CO 

© 

g 

161 
138 
25 
149 


CO 

00 
00 

161 
139 
22 
146 


CO 
00 

(M 

00 
00 

138 
120 
18 
129 


Whole no. of students in the School 
Number that were in the School 

during the whole year .... 
Number that were in the School 

only part of the year .... 

Average number 


165 

lo- 
ss 

136 


138 

107 

31 

123 


117 

109 

8 

113 


141 
121 

20 
131 


144 
130 
14 
137 


173 
153 

20 
163 


199 

168 

31 

184 



The following table exhibits the School as divided into classes 
since the establishment of the three-years' course and the exami- 
nation for admission : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


First Year .... 


72 


63 


78 


57 


61 


59 


Second Year . . . 


79 


50 


32 


58 


41 


38 


Third Year. . . . 


— 


— 


21 


14 


25 


20 


Special Students . . 


31 


47 


46 


32 


34 


21 



RESULTS OF EXAMINATIONS. 



91 



In regard to the foregoing table it is to be observed that, al- 
though the three-years' course went into operation at the begin- 
ning of 1877-78, there was no third-year class until 1879-80. 
It is also to be observed that the second-year class of 1877-78 did 
not take the three-years' course, but was graduated at the end of 
the second year, that class having entered the School before the 
three-years' course went into operation. 

The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for 
admission in each year since they were established : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


Oflered . . 
Admitted . 


16 

7 


15 

7 


18 
12 


25 
13 


19 
16 


12 
10 



The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for 
a degree in each year since the establishment of the three-years' 
course : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Pas d. 

Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Faile . 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


First Year . . 
Second Year . 
Third Year . . 


66 51 15 

66 47 19 


50 42' 8 

40 39 1 


73 69 4 

28 26 2 
22 18 4 


45 43 2 

49 46 3 
18 18 


49 44 5 

38 37 1 
36 33 3 


46 44 2 
36 34 2 
21 19 2 



In regard to the foregoing table, it is to be observed that it in- 
cludes no special students, and hence that all the applicants 
included in it were either graduates of colleges or had passed the 
examination for admission. Of course this remark does not apply 
to the second-year class of 1877-78, and this accounts in part for 
the much greater number of failures in that class. 

The following table exhibits the number of students who, since 
the establishment of the three-years' course, have been examined 



92 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 






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INSTRUCTION. 93 



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94 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 



for a degree in the studies of any year without having been mem- 
bers of the School during that year : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


First Year . . 
Second Year . 
Third Year . 


5 2 3 


3 2 1 


6 4 2 
1 1 
5 4 1 


6 4 2 
4 4 


2 1 1 
10 8 2 


3 3 
3 2 1 



The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for 
the honor degree in each year since it was established : — 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Second Year . 
Third Year . 


26 12 14 


17 7 10 
9 7 2 


39 16 23 

5 3 2 


27 11 16 

13 10 3 


32 11 21 
11 10 1 



The following table exhibits the number of students who have 
entered the School in each year during the last twelve years, and 
shows how many of them were graduates of colleges, and of the 
latter, how many were graduates of Harvard and how many of 
other colleges : — 





£ 


oi 


CO 


"i 


iO 


CO 


i~ 


CO 


OS 


S 


CO 


CO 


CO 
CO 






,_!, 










CO 


l~ 


OO 


as 


o 


rH 


52 
































OO 


CO 


OO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


OO 


CO 




OO 


CO 


CO 


Whole number 








of entries 


105 


92 


87 


95 


102 


119 


128 


111 


102 


124 


91 


97 


84 


Graduates of 




























collea.es . . 


60 


56 


47 


58 


55 


67 


77 


79 


62 


76 


60 


53 


56 


Harvard grad- 




























uates . . . 


19 


26 


22 


29 


40 


39 


47 


47 


38 


59 


41 


29 


33 


Graduates of 




























other colleges . 


41 


30 


25 


29 


15 


28 


30 


32 


24 


17 


19 


24 


23 


Non-graduates 


45 


36 


40 


37 


47 


52 


51 


32 


40 


48 


31 


44 


28 



At the close of the year 1882-83 an event took place which is 
likely to exert a great and lasting influence upon the prosperity 
of the Law School ; namely, its removal from Dane Hall to 
Austin Hall. One year ago no department of the University — 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 95 

at all events, no one of those situated in Cambridge — was so 
badly housed as. the Law Sehool ; and that circumstance doubt- 
less had its influence in diminishing the prosperity of the School. 
Now, thanks to the munificence of Mr. Austin, the School has 
its home in a building which, in its provisions for material com- 
fort, need not fear comparison with any other, and which, in 
architectural beauty and adornment, excels all others belonging 

to the University. 

C. C. LANGDELL, Dean. 
Austin Hall, Nov. 30, 1883. 



To the President op the University: 

Sir, — As Dean of the Medical Faculty, I submit the following 
Report upon the Medical School for the academic year 1882-83 : — 

The whole number of students in attendance during the year 
was two hundred and forty ; during the first term two hundred 
and thirty-four ; during the second term two hundred and nine- 
teen. Of these, one hundred and sixteen had a literary or scien- 
tific degree. There were eighty-five applicants for the degree*bf 
Doctor of Medicine, of whom nine were rejected. Seventy re- 
ceived the degree of M.D. after a three years' course of study ; 
six received the degree of M.D. after a four years' course ; of these 
six, four received in addition the degree of A.M., two of these 
cum laude. The Fourth Class was composed of ten students, 
four of whom postponed graduation in order to become candidates 
for hospital appointments. One of the Barringer Scholarships 
was awarded to Ashbury Gilbert Smith of the fourth class. The 
Faculty Scholarships were awarded to Oscar Joseph Pfeiffer and 
Leonard Wood of the third class, and to Owen Colburn and Wil- 
lis Willard Copp of the second class. The Bright Scholarship 
was awarded to Charles Wendell Townsend of the second class. 

The table on pages 96-98 shows the amount and character of 
the instruction given. 

The results of the examinations for admission to the School are 
given in the following table : — 



Physics. 


Latin. 


English. 


Elective. 


Rejected. 


Uune j° ffCTed • ' 25 
I ( Conditioned 8 
1883. I 


25 

8 


25 
4 


25 
3 


V 


| Sept (Offered . .18 
J ( Conditioned 2 


18 


18 


18 


l\ 


9 


4 


o 



96 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



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INSTRUCTION. 97 



second half-year, 
after March, 
first half half-yez 
till April, 
second half-year. 


6 


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till April. 

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January till Apr 
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98 






THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



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100 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



The table on page 99 gives a statement of the rejections al 
the annual examinations in June for four years past. 

The following table shows the increasing recognition of the 
value of the opportunities offered by the School for obtaining a 
medical education : — 

NUMBER OF TERMS SPENT AT THE SCHOOL BY GRADUATES. 





1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


Spent six 
terms 


22 


14 

47% 


25 

09% 


40 
G5% 


41 

85% 


62 

88% 


39 

8G% 


49 
81% 


79 
91% 


67 

88% 


Spent five 
terms 


2 


7 


5 

1% 


9 


4 


2 

2% 


\% 


6 

10% 


\% 


4 

5% 


Spent four 
terms 


6 


6 


4 

n% 


8 


3 


\% 


4 

aOf 


4 

6% 


4 

4% 


4 

5% 


Spent three 
terms 


5 





2 

57 


1 





2 

2% 
1 

1% 

70 





1 

1% 





1 

1% 


Spent two 
terms 


3 


3 

10% 





3 




48 


1 

2% 





1 

1% 





Total grad- 
uated 


38 


30 


36 


61 


45 


60 


86* 


76t 



I : 



* Includes nine students of the Fourth Class, 
t Includes six students of the Fourth Class. 

The most important event of the year in the history of the 
School is the retirement of Dr. O. W. Holmes from the Professor- 
ship of Anatomy, which he has held since 1847. Although the 
withdrawal of this gifted teacher, as well as that of Dr. Bigelow 
in the preceding year, must of course be felt as a serious loss by 
the School to which they have so long given their valued services, 
yet the work which they have laid down has been taken up by able 
and willing hands, and it is believed that the instruction in Anat 
omy and Surgery, though it may perhaps lack some of the peculiar 
brilliancy and charm imparted to it by these distinguished pro- 
fessors, still fully sets forth the present state of our knowledge 
in these important branches. 

A fire which occurred in the New Building of the Medical 
School on Boylston Street during the course of its construction, 
so far delayed our occupation of it that the whole work of the 
School in the past year was carried on in our old quarters in 
North Grove Street. 

H. P. BOWDITCH, Dean 



% 



• 






THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 101 

ro the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Dean of the Dental Faculty I beg leave to submit 
my Report for the year 1882-83 : — 

The number of students was twenty-six, — thirteen of the first 
rear, six of the second, and seven of the third. 

The students of the first year, as usual, attended the medical 
ictures of this year in connection with the medical students, and 



passed with them the examinations. Five failed to pass these 
examinations, of whom three failed utterly in all three subjects, 
3ne in two subjects, and one in one. Those who fail to pass 
in two of the three are not permitted to go on witli the class, 
but must take the year's work again. They can, however, try 
igain at the September Examinations. One did so, and succeeded 
in passing. The studies for the year were General Anatomy, 
including dissections, Physiology, and General Chemistry. 

Twelve lectures in Surgical Pathology and three in Surgery are 
required of the second-year students, which are also had in con- 
nection with the medical students. One only failed to pass the 
examination. 

The School has this year been without a Professor of Operative 
Dentistry, the place vacated by Professor Shepard at the expi- 
ration of the previous year not having been filled. The duties 
mve been performed by the Dean, in addition to those of his own 
orofessorship, by delivering eighteen lectures of about an hour and 
|x halt each on the subjects appertaining to this branch. He has 
)ecn ably assisted in the clinical instruction by the five clinical 
nstructors and the Demonstrator, who have faithfully and con- 
scientiously performed the duties of their offices. This body was 
prganized with a chairman as a board of instruction at the begin- 
ning of the year, the Dean being a member ex officio, and met 
nice a month for consultation and comparison of notes, thus keep- 
ng the progress and standing of each student in view of the 
vhole body throughout the year. This plan has worked so well 
:hat it is proposed to continue it. The out-patients department 
)f the Massachusetts General Hospital has been used for the pur- 
poses of this department, and at no time has there been a lack of 
Datients. In March operations were begun upon the foundations 
)f the new out-patients department, and a portion of the outer 
vail was removed, exposing both instructors and patients to the 
nclemency of an exceptionally inclement spring. Notwithstand- 






102 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 



ing, work was continued at great disadvantage until, some three 
weeks before the end of the term, complete cessation of work was 
enforced. At no time in the history of the School have so many- 
untoward circumstances combined to hinder the work of instruc- 
tion ; yet such has been the devotion of the instructors that the 
full amount of work was accomplished. 

The Demonstrator, with one of the instructors, has been in 
attendance on every School afternoon throughout the year to 
superintend the operations which are all performed by the stu- 
dents, and give advice and assistance whenever either was 
necessary. 

The Professor of Mechanical Dentistry has given nineteen 
lectures of about an hour and a half each, alternating with lec- 
tures on Operative Dentistry, previously referred to, on the sub- 
jects pertaining to his department. He has also been present in 
the Laboratory for Clinical Instruction about one hour of each 
week during the term. The Demonstrator has also been present 
every School morning of the year for instruction. Patients have 
at no time been wanting to give the students abundant opportu- 
nities for practising every branch of this specialty. 

Drs. Pond and Grant, Demonstrators respectively of Operative 
and Mechanical Dentistry, have performed the duties of their 
offices with exemplary fidelity and success. 

Dr. Brackett, Assistant-Instructor in Dental Therapeutics, has 
given thirty hours' of instruction in his course, including the 
daily " quizzes" on preceding lectures, with which it has alway 
been his custom to begin the hour. He is satisfied that this 
course adds greatly to the efficiency of the instruction by serving 
to call attention to and fix points that would otherwise inevitably 
be lost. 

The Instructor in Oral Surgery and Pathology, Dr. J. W. 
Warren, has lectured one hour each week until within a few 
weeks of the end of the term, which were employed in the prepa- 
ration and examination of specimens for the microscope. 

The number of students who came up for the degree was thir- 
teen, of whom five failed to pass. 

It seems useless at this time to make any allusion to the pecu 
niary needs of the school, inasmuch as previous pressing appeals 
have produced no result. These needs are just now more press 
ing than ever. 



I 



THE LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 103 

In the fifteen years of the School's existence, hardly a dollar 
has been given to aid its advancement, except what the alumni, 
all young men struggling with the beginnings of their chosen 
profession, have wrung from their own necessities to encourage 
and sustain a cause in which they believe. It can be of no direct 
advantage to these young men to build up a School which is 
turning out rivals for their practice ; but the elevation of their 
profession to a higher plane, the placing it on a level with its sister 
professions, so that in honoring it they themselves may be hon- 
ored, is the impelling motive. A similar motive should also 
influence the community whom they serve ; for the better the 
education of the members of a profession, the better the service 
they can render. Therefore, it would seem that the public- 
spirited and the charitable givers should turn at least a small 
rivulet from the great stream of public benefaction in our 
direction. 

THOMAS H. CHANDLER, Dean. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report upon 
the Lawrence Scientific School for the Academic year 1882-83 : — 

The number of students registered during the year was twenty- 
five. They were classified as follows : — 

I. Engineering 6 

II. Chemistry 1 

III. Natural History 6 

IV. Mathematics 1 

Special Courses 11 

Total 25 

These students attended the exercises of thirty-nine different 
instructors. The whole number of courses taken, prescribed and 
elective, was one hundred and fourteen, an average of about four 
and a half to each pupil. The distribution of studies is shown 
by the following statement : — 



104 



THE BUSSEY INSTITUTION. 






Astronomy . 
Botany . . 
Chemistry . 
English . . 
Fine Arts 
French 
Geology . . 
German . 
Greek . . . 
History . 
Lithology 
Mathematics 



1 Mechanics .... 2 
4 Mechanical Drawing . 7 

19 Music 1 

.3 Philosophy .... 2 

4 Political Economy . . 1 

6 Physics 8 

11 Rhetoric 1 

9 Surveying 5 

2 Themes 2 

7 Theology 1 

1 Zoology 7 

10 



Five persons received the degree of S. B. at Commencement, 
four in Natural History, and one in Mathematics. 

H. L. EUSTIS, Dean. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I respectfully submit the following Report upon the Bus- 
sey Institution for the year 1882-83 : — 

The usual number of students, eight, attended the various 
courses, and one student received the degree of Bachelor of Agri- 
cultural Science at Commencement. Instruction in Agriculture 
was given by Mr. Motley ; in Applied Zoology at first by Mr. 
Ford and afterward by Professor Lyman, of the Veterinary 
School, assisted by the Bussey Demonstrator in Zoology, Mr. Hinck- 
ley ; in Horticulture by Mr. Watson ; in Botany by Mr. Faxon ; 
in Entomology by Mr. Burgess ; and in Agricultural Chemistry 
by Professor Storer. A brief interruption of the course in Ap- 
plied Zoology, caused by the resignation of Professor Slade and 
the death of his assistant Mr. Ford, was met by Professor 
Lyman's volunteering to give a course of lectures on the anat- 
omy and diseases of domestic animals to the Bussey students, 
and by the appointment of a new demonstrator, Mr. D. T. 
Hinckley, B. A. S., who took charge of the dissecting-room. 

The determination of the Corporation, in May, 1883, to put the 
Bussey Farm to use can hardly fail to commend itself to the agri- 
cultural community, and to increase the teaching power of the 
School. On the appointment of Mr. Hinckley as superintendent 
of the farm, he proceeded to harvest and store the hay crop, 
and to put two of the large barns into fit condition for the recep- 
tion of horses and neat-cattle, which will be taken to board when 






HARVESTS — CARE OF ANIMALS — GIFTS. 105 

not in use by their owners. Many idle horses are thus boarded 
in the vicinity of Boston every winter, as well as cows not in 
milk, and animals recovering from lameness or the like ; and it 
is anticipated that for these purposes the public will be glad to 
avail itself of the convenient position of the Bussey Farm, and of 
its ample and commodious buildings. It is fair to suppose, more- 
over, that many persons will feel such confidence in the Univer- 
sity that they will be glad to intrust valuable animals to its care, 
in the assurance that they may. safely consign them to officers 
appointed by the Corporation and trained expressly for the posi- 
tions they occupy. By expending at the farm the hay grown 
there, manure will be obtained for fertilizing the land, while the 
methods of cultivation and the courses of crops necessary for 
procuring the largest practicable yield of hay will be constantly 
before the eyes of the students. The presence of many animals 
at the farm will be useful also for purposes of study and com- 
parison. In the course of time, it may prove possible to raise at 
the farm, incidentally, as it were, some part of the vegetables 
consumed at the Memorial Hall in Cambridge. 

By an arrangement with the Veterinary School of the Univer- 
sity, the Bussey Institution has agreed to receive from the Veteri- 
nary Hospital in Boston and to board at the farm a certain 
number of convalescent animals and chronic cases which cannot 
be economically cared for in the city proper. 

It is to be regretted that somewhat extensive repairs have had 
to be made upon the school building and the greenhouses, as 
well as upon the barns and the farm house near Roslindale. 

The institution is indebted to the Honorable Ambrose A. Ran- 
ney, M. C, for the gift of many packages of seeds from the de- 
partment of agriculture at Washington, which, in accordance 
with Mr. Ranney's request, were distributed among past and 
present students of the School and other persons known to be 
interested in testing them ; and to Messrs. Schlegel & Fottler, 
seedsmen, of Boston, for a large number of typical specimens of 
seeds of vegetables, which have been placed in the Museum. It 
is indebted also to Dr. Harold C. Ernst, of Jamaica Plain, for 
the gift of forty-six solidly bound volumes of horticultural jour- 
nals and other standard horticultural works, from Sarah Otis 
Ernst ; and to Drs. D. D. Slade and C. A. Cheever and Mr. Daniel 
Denny for files of agricultural newspapers. 

F. H. STOKER, Dean. 



106 THE VETERINARY SCHOOL. 



To the President op the University: 






Sir, — I beg to submit herewith the First Annual Report of the 
School of Veterinary Medicine. 

My appointment to the newly created chair of Veterinary 
Medicine was received Sept. 14, 1882, and the work of organ- 
ization was immediately undertaken. 

It was decided that the School should make a beginning with 
the first class only ; that its further development should be made 
year by year, as this class progressed, until the complete course 
of three years should be in full operation ; and further, that no 
advanced or special students should be received until the course 
of study for which they might apply should have been developed 
in the regular course of instruction. It was arranged that of the 
first year's studies General Chemistry and Physiology should be 
given at the Medical School ; all others, including the Practical 
Anatomy, at the Bussey Institution, — at which place the neces- 
sary class- and dissecting-rooms could be supplied. In accord- 
ance with this arrangement, notice was at once given, through 
a few of the Boston daily newspapers, that students would 
be received on and after September 28. Although this notice 
was very short, scarcely fourteen days being allowed, two candi- 
dates for admission presented themselves ; they were, however, 
not able to pass the required examinations, and were therefore 
rejected. 

On Nov. 21, 1882, the first meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary 
Medicine was held, and a secretary was elected. 

On April 23, 1883, R. H. Harrison, P. V. S., a successful 
young veterinary practitioner at Lowell, was appointed instructor 
in Veterinary Anatomy, the duties of the position to begin in 
the following September. 

At the examinations held in June and September, 1883, eleven 
candidates presented themselves for admission, of whom two were 
rejected. One, besides passing an excellent examination in the 
required English subjects, took, of, the optional ones, Latin, French, 
and Algebra, and did himself great credit in all of them. 

The Veterinary Hospital. 

It very soon became evident that, if a successful school was to 
be established, there must be connected with it a hospital, situated 






HOSPITAL — BUSSEY FAKM. 107 

at some central place within the city proper, where cases could be 
received and exhibited to students. As there was not at this 
time a single dollar at the disposition of the School, the erection 
of a hospital building seemed to be entirely out of the question ; 
and about two months were consumed in a futile effort to hire a 
stable that would for a time at least answer the purpose, as it 
was considered certain that the rent could be paid from the 
earnings of such an establishment. 

In November, 1882, I was requested to attend a meeting of a 
committee of the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for Pro- 
moting Agriculture, and to give them an account of our purposes 
and needs. This was the first of a number of such meetings, one 
result of which was that $2,000 was given to the School, to be 
used towards defraying the first year's expense of the proposed 
veterinary establishment. Early during the discussions with this 
committee it seemed so probable that, with their aid, something 
would be done, that an inquiry was begun, which ended in the 
purchase of a vacant lot of land at the corner of Village and 
Lucas Streets, and in the erection upon it of a suitable building. 
On the suggestion of a member of this same committee, the 
"subscription" plan was adopted as a further source of income. 
Money was found to buy the land and to erect the building upon 
it, on condition that a friend or friends of the proposed School 
would guarantee a net annual income of six per cent for ten years 
on the investment, — no light obligation. This guaranty was ulti- 
mately furnished by Dr. William F. Whitney, of the Faculty of 
Medicine. Dr. Whitney further offered, if $500 in cash could be 
raised, to make good any deficit, over and above this amount, 
that might occur in the first year. Mr. Henry L. Higginson 
thereupon gave the School $500, the entire amount needed. 

Four patients were received into the hospital before August 16 ; 
but the establishment was not in fair working condition until that 
day, and was not entirely finished until considerably after that 
time. From its opening until September 27, there have been 
treated in the building thirty-one (31) boarding and seven- 
teen (17) out-patients, as follows : 35 horses, 11 dogs, 1 cow, 
and 1 cat. 

The School also enjoys the use of commodious buildings an d 
exercise yards at the Bussey Farm, to which convalescents are 
sent from the Village Street building. 



108 THE LIBRARY. 

During the past summer an International Veterinary Congress 
was held in Brussels, at which the subject of veterinary education 
was somewhat fully discussed, and referred to a committee con- 
sisting of M. M. Hugues, of the Belgian army, Professor Wirtz, 
director of the Utrecht Veterinary School, and Professor Miiller, 
of the Berlin Veterinary School. Among other things, it was 
recommended that the preparatory training required for the 
study of veterinary medicine should be equal to that given in 
the highest class of a middle-class school, — i. e. a class in which 
Latin is taught, and whose graduates are admitted to universities. 
The English Veterinary schools are now beginning to require 
French or Latin in the matriculatory examination. I would sug- 
gest that after the admission examinations of 1884 have been 
held, this School require candidates for admission to pass a satis- 
factory examination in Latin, French, or German, at the option 
of the candidate. 

CHARLES P. LYMAN, Secretary. 



To the President op the University : 

Sir, — The cost of maintaining the University Bulletin during 
the year has been shared, as in previous years, by Messrs. Charles 
P. Curtis, William B. Weeden, Henry Lee, Alexander Agassiz, 
and Charles S. Sargent. The Librarian Emeritus has continued 
in the Bulletin his necrological record of the graduates. In addi- 
tion to the Bibliographical Contributions mentioned in last year's 
Report as in progress in the Bulletin, two others have been begun 
by the Librarian. 

1. The Bibliography of Ptolemy' 's Geography, in which an at- 
tempt has been made to show the importance of the successive 
editions of the Geographia of Ptolemy in the study of early 
American discovery and cartography. The publication of this 
contribution is likely to be continued through the present Aca- 
demic year. 

2. The Kohl Collection of Early Maps, in which an account is 
given of various early cartographical records of discovery, collected 
by the late Dr. John G. Kohl, and purchased of him by the United 
States Government in 1856, at a cost of nearly $6,000. So much 
advance has been made since Dr. Kohl formed this collection, and 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CONTRIBUTIONS — CLASSIFICATION. 109 

appended to it his commentaries, that it has been deemed desir- 
able to intercalate notices of other maps, so as to make the enu- 
meration as nearly a complete list of early American maps as 
circumstances permit. 

It may be also stated that the rearrangement of the map de- 
partment of the Library outside of the American maps (which 
have been already arranged) has been begun. 

The resignation of Mr. Samuel H. Scudder as Assistant Libra- 
rian has thrown during the year the direct charge of the Cat- 
alogue Department upon Mr. William C. Lane, who* had already 
been charged, as explained in last year's Report, with the care of 
the shelving and classifying of books, since the retirement of Mr. 
Arnold. 

Mr. Carney, working under Mr. Lane in the shelf department, 
reports as follows : — 

The number of volumes now permanently placed in the new stack is 
73,373, being an addition of 3,104 to classifications arranged in previous 
years, together with the 227 volumes of the Dante Collection newly 
arranged. 

The classification of the Greek and Latin classics, and attend- 
ant literature, has been in progress at the hands of Dr. Theodor 
Abetter. The scheme followed and the notation employed is 
explained by Mr. Lane, as follows : — 

The scheme of arrangement follows very closely that of Engelmann's 
Bibliotheca Scrlptorum Classicorum. Collections of Greek authors are 
placed first, divided into classes according to their Latin titles, i.e. Anec- 
dota ; Oratores ; Oratores Attici ; Poetae ; Poetae Bucolici, Didactici, 
Scenici, etc. ; Rhetores ; Scriptores ; Scriptores Biographici, Geographici, 
Grammatici, Historici, Philosophi, etc. Immediately after each class are 
put philological works on authors of that class taken collectively. 

The collections are followed by the single authors in one alphabetical 
series. The arrangement of the books under each author is as follows : 
1. Complete editions of works. 2. Selections. 3. Editions of sepa- 
rate works (alphabetically). 4. Translations: a. Latin; b. English; 
c. French ; d. German ; e. Italian, Modern Greek, etc. 5. Special Lexi- 
cons. 6. Commentaries and critical works, alphabetically by authors. 
Scholia stand together here under S. The arrangement throughout these 
classes is chronological, except that successive editions of the same book 
by the same editor or translator are kept together, taking their place 
according to the date of the earliest edition in this Library. 



110 THE LIBRARY. 

The same plan of arrangement will be carried out in the Latin authors. 

Attention should be called to the fact, that this arrangement does not 
correspond with that of the cards in the public catalogue ; each method 
has its advantages, and it is hoped each will prove to be best adapted to 
the place in which it is used. The principal points of difference are as 
follows : — 

1. In the catalogue the translations are not all brought together apart 
from the texts, but all the translations of the complete works follow imme- 
diately the editions of the text of the complete works, and all translations 
of any separate work follow the text editions of that particular work ; in 
other words, the primary division is according to subject-matter rather 
than language. 

2. Editions with both text and translation are usually put with trans- 
lations, instead of with texts as is done on the shelves, but a reference is 
inserted in the proper place among the editions of the text. 

3. Among texts the arrangement is purely chronological, i. e. no attempt 
is made to keep together editions by the same editor. Among translations, 
on the other hand, the order is entirely alphabetical by translators. 

4. The critical works on an author are divided according to their sub- 
ject, instead of standing in one alphabetical series ; e. g., under Homer 
the divisions are : General ; Arts and Customs (including Fine Art 
and Science, also works on the antiquities, private life, morals, civilization, 
law, etc., of the Homeric age), Batrachomyomachia, Characters (including 
separate persons), Cyclops, Editions (criticism of), Geography, Hymns, 
Iliad, Illustrations, Language (grammatical questions), Lexicons, Minor 
Poems, Name (i. e. of Homer), Odyssey, Proper Names, Prosody, 
Rhetoric, Scholia, Text, Theology (including Religion, Mythology, Fate, 
Future Life, Psychology, etc.), Translations and Translating. 

In numbering these books a new system of shelf-marks has been intro- 
duced in place of the " fixed-location " system generally adopted in the 
Library. Each mark is of the general form G-a9.375. The Gr is 
common to all the books under Greek authors and will be replaced by L 
for the Latin authors ; G-a is common to all the authors whose names 
begin with A, the second letter varying with the initial of the author ; 
while G-a9 is the " author-number " common to all books by or on a 
particular author (in this case, ^Eschylus). The .375 is the distinctive 
number of a particular book. In like manner the common author-num- 
ber for Plato is Gp32, for Demosthenes Grdl5. That part of the 
shelf-mark following the point is properly to be considered as a decimal, 
and as such will admit of indefinite additions and intercalations being 
made; e. g., if two books have been numbered Gh62.236 and Gh62.237 
and it is desired to introduce another book between them, this will be 
called Gh62.2365, or any number between .2361 and .2369. For the 



SHELF-MARKS — ACCESSIONS. 



Ill 



present none of these additional figures have been employed. In the 
smaller authors only two places of decimals are used, in the larger three, 
and in the few cases where three places clo not supply enough numbers 
two or more author-numbers have been used for one author, as for Homer, 
to whom Gh62, Gh63, and Gh64 have been devoted. 

Mr. Carney further reports : — 

During the year the collection of unbound newspapers has been 
arranged in bundles ; and about 150 volumes were found complete enough 
to bind, and to be placed in the collection already arranged in the base- 
ment of the old part of the building. The duplicate volumes and pamph- 
lets have been roughly classified in the same apartment. A portion of 
the lower story of the new part of the building has been shelved to hold 
the regular files of pamphlets, and on the new shelves these files have 
been arranged more conveniently than ever before. 

The accessions to the University Library for the year, and the 
present extent of the various departments, are as follows : — 




The Whitney Library of Geology, a component part of the 
collection in the Museum of Zoology, is not yet included in the 
count of the Museum Library. 

Of the accessions to the Gore Hall collection, there were added 
by gift 1,946 volumes and 6,611 pamphlets; and such accessions 
also include 437 volumes of bound serials (received in parts), 
and 576 volumes, made by binding pamphlets. The Law Library 
is diminished by 1,202 volumes, disposed of during the year. 

The following table shows the use of books at Gore Hall in 
1882-83, as compared with the last four years : — 



112 



THE LIBRARY USE. 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1. Books lent out 

2. Used in the building 

3. Overnight use of reserved books . 


41,296 

10,921 

7,519 


41,986 

7,812 
10,500 


45,481 
11,724 
11,872 


48,194 
10,498 
12,891 


48,231 

8,654 

12,678 


Total (excluding No. 3, which is in- 
cluded in No. 1) 


52,217 


49,798 


57,205 


58,692 


56,885 


Cards giving to students temporary 

admission to the shelves .... 

Times of use of such cards .... 




60 

340 


85 
870 


200 

2,542 


167 
3,340 


Officers of instruction reserving books 
Number of books reserved .... 




35 
3,330 


38 
3,418 


41 
4,251 


44 
4,316 



The increase in the number of books reserved (to which the 
students have unrestricted access), and the growing use of admis- 
sion cards, are producing a diminution, as will be seen, in the 
record of books "used in the building," no record of volumes 
used being practicable in the other cases. 

The 167 students using admission cards have been in these de- 
partments : History, 46 ; Science, 16 ; Art (including music), 
14 ; Literature, 42 ; Greek and Latin authors, 36 ; Philosophy, 5 ; 
Theology, 3 ; and Political Economy, 5. 

During 36 Sundays (till the long vacation came) 2,268 persons 
availed themselves of the opportunity of using the Library on those 
days, which is an average of 63 each Sunday, being an increase 
of 6 over last year. The hours were from one to five o'clock. 
The highest number on any one day was 92 against 91 last year. 

The work of the catalogue department is indicated by the fol- 
lowing table, which has been furnished by Mr. Lane : — 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


18S2-83. 


1. Cards put into the Public Catalogue 


36,390 


35,315 


41,215 


34,168 


29,480 


2. Cards prepared 


20,595 


24,887 


25,705 


18,235 


17,015 


3. Volumes received during the year . 







7,873 


6,848 


8,441 


4. Pamphlets received during the year 






4,469 


7,650 


5. Volumes (old and new) catalogued . 









4,271 


6,222 


6. Pamphlets (old and new) catalogued 








1,363 


1,333 



THE CATALOGUE DEPARTMENT. 



113 



More long sets have been bought this year than usual, and this 
has diminished the number of catalogue-cards in proportion to the 
volumes received. A scarcity of money for administrative work, 
compared with the sum available for the purchase of books, has 
rendered it desirable during the year to buy costly books in larger 
number than usual, and to revise the shelves for the purpose of 
completing long sets of the publications of societies, etc. By this 
means some marked deficiencies in the Library have been supplied. 
The use of a contents-book, to take the place of enumerating long 
contents in the author-cards, is another cause for the diminution 
in the number of cards prepared. It should be borne in mind that 
some discrepancy of count necessarily arises from enumerating by 
titles and volumes respectively, at different stages of the catalogue 
processes. 

The departmental cataloguing now done in Gore Hall covers 
1,659 volumes and pamphlets for the year, beside the record slips 
made of books bought for the Class Rooms. 
• The smallness of the catalogue staff has prevented any work 
on the recataloguing of the titles contained in the old printed 
catalogue, except so far as new editions of the same book has 
made it convenient to treat the older editions at the same time ; 
and it has also caused the accumulation of at least 6,000 titles 
among the accessions of recent years, which it has not been found 
possible to catalogue permanently. Temporary records of a neces- 
sarily imperfect character have, however, been made to assist in 
finding the books when wanted, and to guard against new pur- 
chases of the same titles. 

Mr. Lane has also given his attention to working out a scheme 
for a numerical notation to be applied to the proposed printed in- 
dex to the card catalogue, left incomplete by the resignation of 
Mr. Scudder ; and to rearranging some parts of the card catalogue, 
that it may be made more consistent with the methods of shelf- 
arrangement now in use. Various lesser schemes for improving 
the details of the card catalogue, and assisting in the comprehen- 
sion of its complicated system, have been also attended to. 

The ordering department has still continued in charge of Mr. 
William H. Tillinghast. 

Under the will of the late Joseph J. Cooke of Providence, this 
Library was one of ten libraries entitled to bid off |5, 000 worth of 
jooks at the public sale of his library. The two parts of the 

8 



114 THE HERBARIUM. 

collection already sold contained but little which we needed, 
and though our scale of bids was high, the prices brought were I 
in large part above our limits. The plan of producing an artificial j 
competition, and establishing factitious prices for books, which was 
adopted at this sale, in emulation of the plan first tried with ad- 
vantage to the testator's estate in the Brinley sale, probably en- 
hances the market prices of books, to the detriment of all buyers, 
and without any sound gain to the interests of letters. There 
remains a third part of the Cooke library yet to be sold. 

The Library still continues to have charge of the issue of the 
weekly Calendar of the University. 

JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Herbarium I have the honor to sub 
mit the following Report : During the last Academic year 8,775 
sheets of specimens have been prepared, mounted, and incorpo- 
rated into the collection ; and 135 volumes and 171 pamphlets have 
been added to the Library. Only 37 volumes and 5 pamphlets 
have been acquired by purchase. The remainder are gifts, oi 
which 61 volumes and 156 pamphlets are from the Director, 16 
volumes from Professor Goodale, a larger number from Professoi 
Henry J. Bigelow (not counting some duplicates), being relicts 
of his father's botanical library, and three imperial folio volumes 
from Mrs. Henry Greenough and her late husband, in memory o 
their deceased son, Henry Greenough, Jr., who brought the worfe 
from Manila. This is the sumptuous illustrated edition of the 
Padre Blanco's Flora de Filipinas ; and the volumes were pu 
into fitting and costly binding by the donors. 

The above enumeration does not include sundry Journals 
Academical Transactions, Reports, etc., received as continuation! 
or otherwise, which have no direct relation to botany. The ad 
ditions of botanical specimens to the Herbarium, moreover, ai 
counted only when mounted and ready for incorporation. Severa 
thousand specimens more have been received, examined, selecte< 
from, and distributed as duplicates to other herbaria. Of th 
8,775 sheets reported as incorporated during the year, which 



SPECIMENS — BOTANICAL CONTRIBUTIONS. 115 

closed on the 1st of September,, over 5,000 (holding probably 
7,000 specimens) were derived from the rich herbarium of the 
late George Curling Joad, of Wimbledon, near London, from 
which at least 3,000 more are still to be selected. For this most 
valuable collection of the plants of Europe and adjacent parts of 
Africa and Asia — or rather for such portion of it as we choose 
to retain — we are indebted to Sir Joseph Hooker, Director of 
the Royal Gardens at Kew, to which establishment it was be- 
queathed, and by whom, after certain selections had been made 
from it for the Kew Herbarium, it was generously made over to 
this Herbarium for the supply of our needs, the residue to be 
passed on to the National Museum at Washington. So rich and 
abundant this collection proves to be, containing as it does the 
rincipal published exsiccata, and most of the critical or local 
pecies of Europe, in authentic and attractive specimens, that, 
notwithstanding the ample' appropriation on our part, the mate- 
rials which pass from our hands will still well represent the 
principal part of the European flora. This collection is supple- 
mented by the presentation (in continuation of former gifts) of 
several hundred plants of Algeria and Tunisia on the part of 
Dr. Cosson, of Paris, who is engaged upon a Flora of Algeria. 

The demands which such foreign collections make upon the 

time of the Curator, Mr. Sereno Watson, and myself, although 

very considerable, is small in comparison with that which has to 

be devoted to the critical examination and naming of the multi- 

arious collections, large or small, which are incessantly poured 

In upon us from all parts of our own country. A response to 

these demands cannot be avoided, generally cannot be deferred, 

n justice to the collectors and donors, and without risk of divert- 

ng the streams which, flowing in ever since its establishment, 

lave enriched this Herbarium and rendered it adequate to its 

eading purpose. But they press so heavily and unceasingly 

lpon the Curator and myself that they greatly retard our prog^ 

-ess in the preparation of the works which we have undertaken 

md which ought to be proceeded with. Nevertheless, two very 

Considerable " Botanical Contributions " have here been made 

luring the past year, one by Mr. Watson, one by myself, and pub- 

ished by the American Academy ; and I am now carrying through 

he press an important portion of the Flora of North America, 

mounting to fully one-eighth part of this lifelong work. 



116 THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 

The growth of the Herbarium has made additional accommo- 
dation necessary. To supply this, new cases have been added, at 
a cost of about two hundred and forty dollars. Also — but since 
the expiration of the year — the corridor of wood and glass 
which connected the Herbarium with the Director's residence and 
study, has been reconstructed in brick with tinned roof and 
ironed doors, thus gaining a needed apartment and increased 
security against fire. This alteration has involved an outlay of 
$341.65. 

Five-sixths of the small salary of the Curator for the year past 

has been defrayed from an appropriation of $1,000, made for this 

purpose, by the Trustees of the Society for the Promotion oi 

Agriculture. Without this aid, Mr. Watson's invaluable services 

could have been secured only by the diminution to nearly thin 

extent of our small fund. The continuance of this gift is hoped 

for. 

ASA GRAY, Director, j 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Botanic Garden, I have the honor t<| 
present my Report for the year 1882-83. 

Last spring, it was found that the drought of the previous yea 
had been disastrous in its effects, our losses of herbaceous perenl 
nials in the beds bordering on Raymond and Linnaean Street mt 
being especially heavy. As far as possible, the losses were refcj 
paired by setting out young plants, but the dry summer provetM^ 
very unfavorable. The drought of this year, severer than that cl | 
last, was hardly relieved by the few light showers. It was onlfl^ 
by a liberal use of water from our hydrants, that the more deLltafaj 
cate plants were brought through the season. The large poiifc^ 
became completely dry, and the smaller one fell much lower thaflants! 
ever before. It may here be said, though not coming strictlfcr 
within the limits of the present Report, that a tubular well lial^ 
been sunk during this autumn, which yields an abundant supplBf| e , 
of good water. It is therefore probable that we shall not suffcfcj,] 
again so severely from droughts ; at least we shall be less depeifc^ 
dent upon the City water-supply. If the amount of water fuMi^ 
nished by the new well be as large as is now promised, we caBlii|j 



WATER SUPPLY — APPARATUS. 117 

uake a freer use of water than heretofore in the cultivation 
)f certain groups of plants. Notwithstanding the drought, all 
fonts and specimens needed for the Biological and Botanical 
Electives have been promptly furnished. The scarcity of mate- 
rial was felt only during the progress of the Summer Course in 
Botany. 

Owing to the perishable nature of the wood used for the labels 
in the Garden, it has been found necessary to devote much atten- 
tion to the work of replacing them by more durable ones. Un- 
labeled plants are nearly useless for the students who make use 
pf a Botanic Garden ; it is therefore important to secure, even at 
\ high first cost, labels which will remain legible for a term of 
rears. Plainly written or painted labels, of a sort shown by 
experience to be fairly durable, have been put in the places of the 
lecayed and nearly illegible wooden labels, and it is proposed to 
jidopt the same kind throughout the garden. The work has been 
ilone by Mr. L. S. Bailey, Jr. of Michigan Agricultural College. 
! By extensive repairing, the Greenhouses in the front range 
lave been put in fair condition. The frame-work of the older 
juildings is so far decayed, that it seemed hardly worth while to 
mdeavor to keep them from falling. It was thought, however, 
| )y members of the Garden Committee, whose advice was sought 
>y the Director, that it would be best to make considerable re- 
pairs of the wood-work before winter. The two Green-houses in 
;he second range have been furnished with a large Hitching's 
>oiler, and the pipes of both houses are fed from one source. 
jrhe expenditure for coal has been thereby reduced. Extensive 
■epairs have been also made in the dwelling-houses in the Garden. 

The supply of apparatus for demonstration and research, ob- 
ained through the liberality of Messrs. H. H. Hunnewell and 
r rederic L. Ames of the Garden Committee, has been further 
ncreased by several invoices. With two exceptions, the ship- 
nents of foreign goods have arrived in excellent condition, and 
tave proved satisfactory. In one of the instances just referred 
o, the loss has been adjusted by the transportation company. 

The apparatus for demonstration in Vegetable Physiology has 
een in use in the lecture-room, since its arrival, and has proved 
|f great utility. There is, however, as yet, no room which is 
.vailable for experiments requiring much time, for the whole 
uilding is open to the botanical classes, and all the table-room is 



118 THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 






required by undergraduates. During the summer, when one of 
the greenhouses was temporarily vacated, shelves and tables were 
fitted for a series of investigations upon the respiration of plants, 1 
and several other subjects ; but it must be said that this provi- I 
sional laboratory was too hot at times to be occupied with safety I 
to health. The results of the investigations which were carried I 
on under these serious disadvantages by Dr. George A. Smyth I 
are not yet ready for publication. At the close of summer, it be- I 
came necessary to refit the greenhouse for the reception of plants, I 
and the dismantled apparatus had then to be brought back and 1 
stored in our already crowded rooms. 

The timely vote of the Corporation by which Harvard Hall is I 
to be placed at the disposal of the Botanical Department at the I 
end of the current year will afford space for the apparatus for I 
research. At a moderate expense, rooms in Harvard Hall can I 
be made available for botanical laboratories. It is to be hoped I 
that the disadvantage of remoteness from the Botanic Garden, I 
whence must come the supply of material for study, will be more lat; 
than compensated by proximity to the other College buildings, j 
The lecture-room at the Garden will still be needed for those I 
courses upon Systematic and Economic Botany which require the 
use of living specimens. 

The accessions to the Museum during the year have been large 
and important. The collection of drugs, dye-stuffs, and fibres 
has been increased, and all of the specimens liable to be attacked 
by insects have been placed in glass jars. Many valuable speci- 
mens have been added also to the collection illustrating morphol- 
ogy. It is proposed to transfer to Harvard Hall the specimens 
which are of most use for lectures, retaining at the Garden all 
the others to form a Museum open to the public. 

The following changes have been begun during the year and 
are now in progress. By rearrangement of the Orders, where 
this could be done with little outlay, room has been secured for 
grouping together the living plants which are of medicinal repute, 
or are useful in tlie arts ; such a collection constitutes the best 
possible illustration of applied botany. Other places have been 
taken for groups of plants by which the ordinary and the unusual 
forms of stems, leaves, etc., can be exhibited. Other beds have 
been appropriated for Twiners, Climbers, Insectivorous Plants, 
Monstrosities, and the like. 






THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 119 

The plan contemplates the exhibition in our Garden of — 1. 
The plants which best illustrate vegetable structure and habits ; 
2. The plants which are used in medicine and the arts ; 3. The 
plants which are needed for purposes of systematic botany, and 
which cannot be well kept in an herbarium, owing to the 
changes which they undergo in drying ; 4. As full a representa- 
tion as possible of the herbaceous plants of North America, 
especially those of Gray's Manual ; 5. A selection to illustrate 
the Natural Orders. It will be seen that these plans do not give 
room for a display of plants which have an interest merely for 
the general public. The end which is kept in view is to secure 
for the students of the University, and for all students in our 
vicinity, an exhibition of the plants concerning which educated 
men should know something. 

At the close of the year, Mr. William Falconer, who has been 
mentioned in previous reports as the faithful and efficient head- 
gardener gave up his position to accept private employment. His 
successor, Mr. W. A. Manda, has received a thorough horticultural 
training in Germany, France, and England, and has entered with 
spirit upon his work. 

The Director is happy to report that the income of the Garden 
has exceeded the expenditures for the past year by more than six 
hundred dollars. The present funds are therefore sufficient for 
the running expenses upon the present scale ; but they do not 
justify the replacing of the dilapidated greenhouses by struc- 
tures worthy of the University. It is to be hoped that friends of 
the Garden will not long allow our exotic plants to remain in 
peril. The completion of the subscription, to which reference 
has been made in the reports for the last two years would enable 
us to rebuild to advantage. 

GEORGE LINCOLN GOOD ALE, Director. 



To the President op the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Chemical Laboratory, I have the 
honor to present the following Report for the Academic year 
1882-83 : — 

During the past year, the courses of instruction in the Labo- 
ratory were distributed as follows : The course of elementary 



120 THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 

lectures on general chemistry to the Freshman class was given 
by the Director ; the course of descriptive chemistry (Chemistry 
1, of the elective courses of the College) was, as usual, conducted 
by Professor Jackson, with the assistance of Dr. Mabery during 
the practical exercises in the Laboratory : the course on Mineral- 
ogy (Chemistry 2) was given by the Director, assisted by Mr. O.' 
W. Huntington; the course on qualitative analysis (Chemistry 3) 
was given as heretofore by Assistant Professor Hill, with the 
assistance of Dr. Mabery in the Laboratory work. The course on 
quantitative analysis (Chemistry 4) was given by Dr. L. P. Kin- 
nicutt, under the supervision of the Director ; the course on^i 
organic chemistry (Chemistry 5) was given, as in past years, by 
Professor Hill ; the advanced course in mineral chemistry (Chem- 
istry 6) was given by the Director; the advanced students in 
organic chemistry (TJhemistry 9) worked under the special direc- 
tion of Professor Hill. The several laboratories were under the 
constant oversight of the assistants ; the qualitative laboratory, 
under that of Dr. Mabery; the quantitative laboratory, of Dr. 
Kinnicutt ; the organic laboratory of Mr. Stevens ; and the mined 
alogical laboratory, of Mr. Huntington. 

The total number of students occupying desks at the labora- 
tory was one hundred and seventy-eight, as follows : Seniors 
28, Juniors 54, Sophomores 47, Freshman 1, Lawrence Scien- 
tific students 8, Graduate students 3, Summer course 35. These 
students were distributed among the several courses as follows : — 

Chemistry 1 68 

Chemistry 2 28 

Chemistry 3 42 

Chemistry 4 18 

Chemistry 5 9 

Chemistry 6 4 

Chemistry 9 1 

Graduate courses 3 

Summer course 35 

208 

Last year was marked by continued activity in the scientific 
work of the Laboratory. 

Most of the results obtained were published under the follow- 
ing titles : — 



PUBLICATIONS — SUMMER COURSE. 121 



In the Proceedings of the American. Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
Volumes XVIII. and XIX. 

1. On Certain Substances obtained from Turmeric (Second Paper). By 

C. Loring Jackson and A. C. Menke. 

2. On Certain Substituted Acrylic and Propionic Acids. By C. F. 

Mabery and F. C. Robinson. 
' 3. On the Products of Wood at Low Temperatures. By C. F. Mabery. 

4. On the Vapor Density of the Chloride, the Bromide, and the Iodide 

of Antimony. By C. P. Worcester. 

5. On Certain Parabrombenzyl Compounds. By C. Loring Jackson 

and G. F. Hartshorn. 

6. A New Method of preparing Borneol from Camphor. By C. Lor- 

ing Jackson and A. E. Menke. 

7. The Volumetric Determination of Combined Nitrous Acid. By 

Leonard P. Kinnicutt and J. U. Nef. 

8. The Phenyltribrompropionic Acid. By Leonard P. Kinnicutt and 

George M. Palmer. 

9. On the Crystalline Form of Chlordibromacrylic Acid. By Oliver W. 

Huntington. 

10. On Certain Substances obtained from Turmeric (Third Paper). By 

C. Loring Jackson. 

In the American Journal of Science. 

11. Possible Variability of the Law of Definite Proportions. By 

Josiah Parsons Cooke. 

12. A Simple Method of correcting the Weight of a Body for the 

Buoyancy of the Atmosphere when the Volume is unknown. By 
Josiah Parsons Cooke. 

In the Proceedings of the German Chemical Society. 

13. On the Substituted Pyromucic Acids. By H. B. Hill. 

In the American Chemical Journal. 

14. On a Modification of Troack's Process for preparing Carbonic 

Oxide. By L. P. Kinnicutt. 

The eleventh summer course of instruction in Chemistry, 
given in 1883, under the direction of Dr. Mabery, was* attended 
by thirty-five persons, many of whom were teachers in other col- 
leges or in secondary schools. Courses were given in descriptive 
chemistry, in qualitative and quantitative analysis and also in 



122 THE OBSERVATORY. 

organic chemistry. The remarkable success of these summer 
courses has been due wholly to the exertions of Dr. Mabery, and 
they have served a very useful purpose in diffusing the methods of 
practical teaching used in this Laboratory, and in awakening 
among teachers the spirit of original investigation. The courses 
are open to students of both sexes, and have from the first at- 
tracted many women teachers, who have thus been able to se- 
cure the advantages which the University offers for science 
teaching. 

The equipment of the Laboratory has been fully maintained 
during the past year, although not materially increased. The 
mineralogical collection has been constantly growing, and at the 
close of the year was largely increased by the addition of the very 
valuable collection of meteorites formerly belonging to the late 
Prof. J. Lawrence Smith. This collection was purchased by 
private subscription and presented to the University. 

JOSIAH P. COOKE, Director. 






To the President op the Unviersity : 

Sir, — During the past year the subscription of five thousand 
dollars annually for five years, which was secured in 1878, has 
expired. To replace it an attempt has been made to raise by 
subscription the sum of one hundred thousand dollars as a per- 
manent fund. Up to the present time about fifty thousand dol- 
lars have been promised for this purpose, the income of which 
will permit a large amount of useful work to be carried on per- 
manently by the Observatory. This sum will be sufficient to pre- 
vent the sudden restriction of scientific operations, which would 
otherwise have been inevitable on the expiration of the subscrip- 
tion of 1878. It is hoped that additional donations may eventu- 
ally increase this fund to one hundred thousand dollars, and thus 
permit the same degree of activity to be maintained as during the 
past five years. 

I give my best thanks to the ladies and gentlemen who by 
their generous gifts have aided the Observatory at this critical 
period in its history. Their names, with the amount of the sub- 
scription of each, are given below in alphabetical order. Aster- 









ADDITIONAL ENDOWMENT. 



123 



isks indicate subscribers to the temporary fund of 1878, as well 
as to the present permanent fund. 



A Friend . . 

* W. Amory 
Francis Blake . 
*J. I. Bowditch 

* Martin Brimmer 
Shepherd Brooks 
T. Q. Browne . 
*J. A. Burnham 
*C. F. Choate . 
Wm. Claflin . . 
Alex. Cochrane 

* C. P. Curtis . 
J. C. Delano 
W. Endicott, Jr. 

* J. M. Forbes . 
*Geo. Gardner . 

* J. L. Gardner 
R. C. Greenleaf 
•Mrs. A. Hemenway 
*G. Higginson . 



List of Subscribers. 



AMOUNT. NAME. 

$10,000 * H. II. Hunnewell 

2,000 S. Johnson . . . 

500 *H. P. Kidder . . 

5,000 A. A. Lawrence 

500 A. T. Lyman . . 

500 * T. Lyman . . . 

500 * W. P. Mason . . 

1,000 *F. H. Peabody . 

500 *0. W. Peabody . 

200 *E. C. Pickering . 

200 H. B. Rogers . . 

1,000 * Stephen Salisbury 

250 *Mrs. D. Sears . 

2,000 * N.Thayer. . . 

1,000 *C. E.Ware . . 

100 * Miss Wiggles worth 

500 *R. C. Winthrop . 

500 R. C. Winthrop, Jr. 

2,000 Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Wolcott 
5,000 



AMOUNT. 
$1,000 

250 

2,485 

500 

500 

200 

200 

500 

250 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

200 

5,000 

500 

200 

250 

100 

200 



I take this occasion to gratefully acknowledge the aid of the 
Visiting Committee, to whose efforts both this fund and the sub- 
scription of 1878 are due. It is hoped that the results attained 
will satisfy the friends of the Observatory that this increase in 
income has been a judicious application of money to scientific 
purposes. The increase in the number of assistants and of in- 
struments in active use is especially to be noted. 

In the present distribution of observatory work, my own obser- 
vations are chiefly made with the large equatorial and the me- 
ridian photometer. Mr. Wendell takes part in the observations 
with both these instruments, and Professor Searle in those made 
with the equatorial. Messrs. Cutler and Eaton assist in recording 
these observations. Their reduction is carried on by Miss Farrar, 
Mrs. Fleming, and Mr. Cutler, with the aid and partly under the 
supervision of Mr. Wendell. Their preparation for the press and 
publication are conducted by Professor Searle and myself. The 
meridian circle remains in charge of Professor Kogers, who is 
aided in the observations by Mr. Pratt, and in their reduction 



124 THE OBSERVATORY. 

also by Mrs. Rogers, Miss Saunders, Miss Bond, Miss Winlock, 
and Mr. Eaton. The equatorial mounted in the small dome is 
actively employed by Mr. Chandler, mainly in the observation of 
variable stars. He is assisted in the reductions by Mr. Metcalf. 
The time signals are in charge of Mr. Edmands. The meteor- 
ological observations and the ordinary business matters of the 
Observatory are usually conducted by Professor Searle. The 
computation of cometary orbits is undertaken by Mr. Chandler, 
and the announcements of astronomical discoveries and results 
by telegraph or by published circulars are in charge of Mr. 
Ritchie. 

East Equatorial. 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. — Photometric observations of 
these eclipses have been continued upon the system adopted in 
1878. In all, two hundred and forty eclipses have now been 
observed, fifty-five since the end of October, 1882. Some obser- 
vations were also made last spring to determine the accuracy 
with which occultations and transits of Jupiter's satellites could 
be observed. The method heretofore in use has been to observe 
the times of contact, but these are not easily determined, from 
the indefinite outlines of the planet and its satellites. The ob- 
servations just mentioned were made with a double image mi- 
crometer. An image of the satellite was placed midway between 
the two images of Jupiter, and the time of the setting was re- 
corded. Each measure of this kind furnished a determination of 
the distance between the centres of the planet and satellite, and a 
large number of measures could be obtained on each occasion 
instead of a single estimate of contact. The result showed that 
the time of an occultation or transit could thus be determined 
with a probable error of about nine seconds, which is less than 
the probable error in observing an eclipse by the old method. 

Revision of Zone Observations. — The stars between 50' and 
60' north of the equator for the epoch 1860, and occurring either 
in the zones published in Volume VI. of the annals of this Obser- 
vatory or in the Durchmusterung, have been twice observed by 
Professor Searle with the modified wedge photometer described 
in the last Report. The transit of each star over a bar, and its 
subsequent disappearance in the wedge were recorded by the 
chronograph, while its approximate declination was estimated 
with the aid of three transverse bars 5' apart. The reduction of 



EAST EQUATORIAL. 125 

these observations is far advanced, and the examination of dis- 
crepancies between them and those made under Professor Bond's 
direction has been begun, for the purpose of detecting any cases 
of considerable proper motion or variability which may exist in 
this zone of 10' in width. Differences amounting in right ascen- 
sion to 0\5, and in declination to 0'.5, are investigated by more 
accurate observations when the discrepancy is not explained by 
an error in reduction. A difference of three quarters of a magni- 
tude in the two separate results obtained with the wedge photo- 
meter is also regarded as large enough for special examination. 
The number of stars which require re-observation does not thus 
far seem likely to be great. Even a merely negative result with 
respect to proper motion will have some interest, as it will tend to 
establish the comparative fixity of the fainter stars, which is at 
present assumed rather than known. As Professor Bond's zone 
observations were finished in 1860, the interval between them and 
the present revision is sufficient to bring into notice any case of 
annual proper motion much in excess of 1", either in right ascen- 
sion or in declination. In the provisional reduction of the photo- 
metric portion of the work, the scale of magnitude is made to 
depend upon the Durchmusterung, but it is expected that the 
meridian photometer will soon provide the means for a more 
complete reduction. 

Objects having singular Spectra. — The search for these ob- 
jects has been continued ; the regions selected for examination 
have been chiefly in the Milky Way, but little time has been 
devoted to this work on account of the use of the large telescope 
for more important purposes. 

Standards of Stellar Magnitude. — In accordance with a plan 
proposed in the Proceedings of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, xxx. 1, it is intended to form charts of 
the stars in small areas 4 m in extent in right ascension and 10' 
in declination. The centre of each area follows one of a selected 
series of twenty-four bright equatorial stars at an interval of 4 m , 
in the same declination. Besides making the charts, it is pro- 
posed to determine the magnitudes of a sufficient number of faint 
stars in each region to exhibit a scale of magnitude to which 
reference may readily be made by observers who desire their 
estimates to be directly comparable with those of others. 

In obtaining material for the proposed charts, various plans 



126 THE OBSERVATORY. 

have been tried, with the view of economizing time so far as 
practicable. Data have been collected for several stars, suffici- 
ently complete to enable the construction of the charts to be 
undertaken. 

Comets. — The present arrangements for the distribution of 
astronomical intelligence, to be further mentioned below, in- 
sure the early receipt at this Observatory of the news of comet- 
ary discoveries, so that the first accurate observations of a comet 
may often be made here. This was the fact with regard to each 
of the two comets found during the year. The observer was Mr. 
Wendell. The positions he obtained were extensively employed 
in the computation of orbits by various astronomers, and pre- 
ceded by twenty-four hours those obtained elsewhere. 

Variable Stars. — The large telescope has been frequently used 
in observing variable stars, too faint to be visible with the west 
equatorial, the work of which is mentioned below. The collec- 
tion of data for charts of the immediate neighborhood of many 
variable stars has also been undertaken with the large telescope. 

Spectra and Color of Stars. — This subject has long been un- 
der consideration, in the hope that good means may soon be found 
of determining the position of the lines and the distribution of 
the light in different types of stellar spectra. As yet, the obser- 
vations made have been experimental and preliminary. A large 
spectroscope was ordered from Hilger, of London, for the pur- 
pose of research in this direction, and was received early in 1882. 
Owing, however, to the difficulty which the maker of the instru- 
ment found in understanding, from mere correspondence, the es- 
sential objects to be aimed at in its construction, this spectroscope 
has not proved satisfactory for the proposed work. A more 
promising form of apparatus is now under consideration. 

Meridian Circle. 

After an interruption of about a year, the fundamental obser- 
vations with the meridian circle were resumed on February 8 
1883. Before the commencement of the work the level and 
azimuth of the instrument were brought nearly to zero, by scrap- 
ing the segmental bearings of the pivots. Between February 8 
and November 1, 2383 observations were made of the fundamen- 
tal stars, 136 of Polaris, and 121 of the Sun, making in all 2640. 
As heretofore, all the instrumental constants are referred to 






MERIDIAN CIRCLE. 127 

Polaris alone. An average of 10.5 independent determinations 
of the declination of this star have been made at each transit. 
The actual number of declinations observed is 1420. 

The level of the instrument as determined with the Clark re- 
versible level has remained remarkably constant during the year, 
the entire range of variation having been only S .17. The indi- 
vidual measures differ on the average by about S .02 from the 
adopted mean values. 

As formerly, the reversible level has been used to determine 
the variation of the index error of the circle for the interval dur- 
ing successive transits of the Pole Star. The long collimator has 
been used for the same purpose during observations near the 
equinoxes and the solstitial points ; but on account of the varia- 
tion of the fixed point of the collimator during the daytime, and 
especially on account of the frequent unsteadiness of the image, 
the results obtained are far less satisfactory than those derived 
from the level. 

A series of observations undertaken for the determination of 
the longitude of McGill College Observatory, Montreal, extended 
from June 2 to June 23 inclusive. The plan of the campaign in- 
volved an exchange of observers in addition to the determination 
of personal equation by the usual methods. Accordingly, after 
three nights at Cambridge and Montreal, Professor Rogers ex- 
changed stations with Professor McLeod. The results for per- 
sonal equation at each station are as follows : — 

Montreal. Cambridge. 

Rogers, minus McLeod. Rogers, minus McLeod. 
June 13 + .096*. June 28 -f- .143 s . 

June 14 + -HI. June 30 + -144. 

The observations at Cambridge were made with the Russian 
Transit, but simultaneous observations were made with the meri- 
dian circle by Mr. Brown. The whole number of observations 
made during the series is about 400, and their reduction is nearly 
completed. 

After the completion of the reduction to 1875.0 of the zone ob- 
servations made between 1870 and 1879, it was found by direct 
comparison with the Durchmusterung positions brought forward 
to the same epoch, that observations were wanting for 306 stars. 
It was also found that in many cases, especially between 19 hours 
and 1 hour of right ascension, the wrong star was observed when 



128 



THE OBSERVATORY. 



there were two or more stars in the same field. During the obser- 
vations no less than 528 stars were for various causes marked in 
the observing records as not seen. Since, in a large number of 
cases, the failure to observe was due to the faintness of the stars 
under a bright field illumination, it was thought desirable to im- 
prove the character of the illumination before commencing the 
work of re-observation. Accordingly, Mr. George B. Clark, after 
a series of experiments with a dark field illumination for lines 
ruled upon glass, arranged a set of mirrors in the tail-piece of the 
telescope, by which the light, passing from a lamp swinging upon 
gimbals, through an opening in the tube, is thrown down upon 
the glass plate in two planes at an angle of about 45°. 

When a red-shade glass is interposed, an even illumination is 
obtained, under which stars of the tenth or eleventh magnitude 
can be easily seen. 

The re-observation of the scattering zone stars was begun Oc- 
tober 9, and between this date and November 1, 512 observations 
were made. The gap which has been filled extends from 19 h 
40 m , to l h . 

The reduction to 1875.0 of the zone observations made between 
1870 and 1879 has been completed. The reduction of the obser- 
vations of fundamental stars for the same interval is also com- 
pleted. The entire computing force assigned to the Meridian 
Circle is now engaged in the preparation of copy for publication. 
This work will be completed in about five weeks. 

It will be seen therefore that practically two volumes are ready 
for publication. The third volume, containing the observations 
of secondary stars brighter than the magnitude 6.5 and the final 
catalogues, is in a forward state of preparation. 

The final catalogues will depend upon about 46,600 observa- 
tions, distributed as follows : observations of zone stars, 24,300 ; 
of primary stars, 15,200 ; of secondary stars brighter than the 
magnitude 6.5, 7,100. 



Meridian Photometer. 

The position of this instrument, as a permanent portion of the 
Observatory work, may now be regarded as fairly established. 
After a thorough trial it has shown itself capable of determining 
absolute stellar magnitudes more satisfactorily than any other 
photometer that we have tried. It bears the same relation to 



MERIDIAN PHOTOMETER. 129 

photometry that a transit circle does to measurements of position, 
and will be regarded as the standard to which all our other 
measures will be reduced. As it is capable of measuring any 
s star of the ninth magnitude or brighter, its field of work is, for 
the present, indefinitely great. We are now able to determine 
satisfactorily the brightness of any such stars when they are de- 
sired for any special purpose by other astronomers. 

One hundred and thirty-three series, including about twenty 
thousand sittings, have been made since November 1, 1882, by Mr. 
!; Wendell and myself. The most important investigation in prog- 
11 ress has been the revision of the Durchmusterung magnitudes. 
The results of the estimates of brightness made at thirteen obser- 
:s vatories, and extending over a period of ten or fifteen years, will 
e thus be brought together and reduced to a single system. 

The stars adopted as standards in the Uranometria Argentina, 
: have been observed with this instrument on at least three nights 
s each. The scale has thus been determined in terms of the photo- 
a metric scale. A comparison has also been made with the meas- 
ures of the brighter of these stars, obtained with the small 
eridian photometer. The results with the new instrument are 
n the average 0.04 magnitudes fainter. This difference is so 
mall that its existence may be regarded as doubtful. No system- 
atic difference depending upon the right ascension is perceptible. 
3n the other hand, a comparison with the Durchmusterung, Urano- 
metria Argentina, and a series of eye estimates, indicate well- 
narked systematic errors in these catalogues, due to the presence 
}f the Milky Way. In seven and eighteen hours of right as- 
cension the stars are estimated two or three tenths of a magnitude 
oo faint in each of these catalogues. The proximity of bright 
>tars, especially those in Orion, appears a reasonable explanation 
)f this source of error. 

Some miscellaneous observations have also been taken, of 
vhich the most interesting are those of Neptune, of the com- 
parison stars of S Cancri, and of other variables. Observations 
)f Neptune on eleven nights give its light as 7.71 ± .02. 



Miscellaneous. 
Variable Stars. — The study of the variable stars by Mr. 
Chandler has been an important part of the Observatory work, 
he bibliography is nearly completed so far as the first extraction 

9 



130 THE OBSERVATORY. 

of references is concerned. Notes have been prepared to exhibi 
the evidence of variability which has been published with regarc 
to about twelve hundred stars. This list excludes many case; 
in which the evidence is entirely inadequate. A table, giving al 
the published maxima and minima of each of the variables of Ion 
period, is now in process of construction. The preparation o 
this table has led to the important result that an interval c 
several years occurs in which no observations appear to hav 
been made of about thirty of these objects. About one hundre 
and forty stars belong to this class, and since last April all 
them have been observed by Mr. Chandler, with the six-inch Clace 
Equatorial mounted in the west dome. According to the preser 
plan of work, he observes each of these stars at least twice 
month, and more frequently during its brightest phases. Charts 
the vicinity of these variables have been prepared, and some proj 
ress made towards their completion. Similar charts have bee 
made for about seventy telescopic stars suspected of variabilis 
and nearly two hundred observations of these stars have bee 
obtained. The color of the variable stars is also estimated, aboiB 
three hundred observations of this class having already been madiH 

A circular was distributed asking the aid of amateurs aril 
others in the observation of stars known or suspected to be vaiH 
able. It is believed that by co-operation much valuable materiB 
may be collected and much time saved. Numerous replies hatH 
been received and important results have been obtained, especialB 
by Mr. H. M. Parkhursf , of New York, and by the Rev. J. Hag J 
S. J., of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. The great difficulty ejl 
countered by most of the observers was that of identifying wiH 
certainty the fainter stars, although this is one of the first thinjB 
that should be learned by any person desiring to do useful astifl 
nomical work. 

Astronomical Photography. — With the assistance of Mr. W. .1 
Pickering, Instructor in Physics at the Massachusetts Institute I 
Technology, an investigation was undertaken in astronomi(« 
photography. Two objects were kept in view: first, the deterrfll 1 u 
nation of the light and color of the brighter stars, and, secondly, tM^i 
construction of a photographic map of the whole heavens. AffH 
numerous preliminary observations, a method was employed I 
which a photograph of the brighter stars included in about 01- I 
twelfth of the entire heavens could be obtained on a single pla. I 



ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 131 

Maps were also obtained containing a region of about 15° square, 
containing stars as faint as the eighth magnitude. The color exer- 
cised a marked influence on the intensity of the photographic 
images, in some cases producing a difference equivalent to four 
magnitudes. It is thought that photography may offer the most 
delicate test we yet have of the color of a star, — differences too 
small to be perceptible by the eye becoming distinctly visible in 

, the photographic images. 
! A circular has been issued to request the donation of specimens 
of astronomical photography, to be added to those already be- 
longing to this Observatory. Many of the early efforts to render 

( this mode of research available were made by Professors W. C. 
and G. P. Bond, and the numerous results of their work now 

I preserved here have great historical interest. The photographs 
of the solar eclipses of 1869 and 1870, taken under the direction 
of Professor Winlock, form another important portion of the col- 
lection. It is hoped that the additional specimens received in 
response to the circular will permit the formation here of a series 
fully illustrating the origin and progress of astronomical photo- 

i graphy. Many fine examples of the art have already been pre- 

i sented to the Observatory. It is intended hereafter to issue a 
catalogue of the collection, in which the proper acknowledgment 

i will be made of the liberality of each contributor to it. It will 
be desirable at the same time to indicate the existence of other 
important astronomical photographs, and the places where they 

, are preserved. Information of this description will accordingly 

( be gratefully received. Original negatives, or prints on glass from 

f such originals are especially welcome, since they are free from 
many of the defects of paper prints. Much inconvenience and 
Jelay in the reception of these specimens, and of any gifts in- 
:ended for the Observatory which cannot be sent by mail, may 
je avoided by forwarding them by a vessel bound for Boston, 
nstead of by one destined for New York. 
Time /Signals. — The attention of the public has been directed 

i o this department of our work by the introduction of the new 
system of standard time. The policy of this Observatory, with 

, egard to the change, has been to avoid taking any action tending 
o force it upon the public against their wishes, but to point out, 
md so far as possible to avert the difficulties that would arise 
mould two systems of public time remain in general use. An 



132 



THE OBSERVATORY. 



early decision was required, since the railroads centring in 
Boston made their assent to the change conditional on the 
adoption of the new time in dropping the Boston time-ball. 
Action was delayed, however, until the official assent of the city 
of Boston had been given to the adoption of the new time for strik- 
ing the hour-bells and for the public clocks. The unanimity and] 
ease with which the community adopted the new time was largely; 
due to the activity of Mr. Edmands, Assistant in Charge of the) 
Time Service. 

It is probable that the use of our signals will soon be extendec 
by the introduction of new devices. The Rhode Island Electric) 
Company and the New England Telephone and Telegraph Com 
pany are now receiving our signals without charge while they] 
conduct experiments with this view. 

The Boston time-ball was dropped on 361 days, — at noon or] 
321 days by telegraph, and on 40 days by hand. On four days i 
failed to drop at noon, but was dropped five minutes later, — oi 
three days by telegraph and on one day by hand, — according t< 
the usual arrangement. On December 6, 1882, the ball wa 
dropped at 8 h. 30 m. a.m., and at 4h. m., p.m., as well as a| 
noon, for the benefit of those desirous of making exact observt 
tions of the transit of Venus. 

Telegraphic Announcements. — The system of announcin; 
astronomical discoveries employed here for some years past hi 
received an important extension during the last year. An ass( 
ciation of over fifty European observatories has been formed, wit)] 
its headquarters at Kiel, for the purpose of expediting the ar| 
nouncement of astronomical discoveries. The Smithsonian Inst 
tution, which had for many years rendered an important servic 
to astronomy by transmitting astronomical telegrams betwee 
Europe and America, courteously signified its readiness to trans 
fer this function to the Observatory of Harvard College, upo : 
learning that this Observatory was prepared to undertake i 
The change was announced by a circular issued by the Smitl 
sonian Institution on January 10, 1883, and since that time tl 
Observatory has distributed in this country the astronomic; 
intelligence received from the European association, and hi 
forwarded to Kiel information of American discoveries. 

The Observatory is fortunate in having secured the assistand 
of Mr. John Ritchie to take charge of this department of its worjl 



TELEGRAPHIC ANNOUNCEMENTS. 133 

>oth Messrs. Chandler and Ritchie-, by whom the present system 
l)f telegraphing astronomical announcements was devised and 
•arried into effect, are therefore now included in the corps of the 
Observatory. 

The early transmission by telegraph of observations and com- 
mted elements of comets between this observatory and that of 
[jord Crawford at Dun Echt is continued as in former years. The 
umilar interchange of information with Dr. Oppenheim of Berlin 
a likewise maintained. The intelligence thus transmitted is dis- 
xibuted in Europe and here by means of special circulars. 

Transit of Venus, 1882. — For reasons stated in the last Re- 
port, no elaborate preparations were made at this Observatory for 
observing the transit of Venus on the sixth of last December. 
But as the weather was favorable during most of the day, a con- 
siderable number of observations was obtained. Six telescopes 
were employed in observing the contacts. With the large equa- 
torial, photometric and spectroscopic observations were also un- 
dertaken. The photometric measures furnished the result that 
the relative light of the Sun and Venus was in the ratio of 100 to 
1.6, while the light of the sky surrounding the Sun would be ex- 
pressed on the same scale by 7.5. This comparative darkness of 
Venus with respect to the sky was confirmed by direct observa- 
tion. The spectroscope furnished no evidence of an atmosphere 
surrounding Venus ; but the dispersion employed was not large. 

The diameter of Venus was carefully determined by Professor 
Rogers and Mr. Chandler, with the results 16".09 and 16".85. 
The method employed was that of transits over inclined lines* 
An account of all these observations appears in the Proceedings 
^f the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, XVIII. 15. 

Almucantar. — An interesting series of observations has been 
made by Mr. Chandler to test the merits of an instrument de- 
mised by him some years ago. It consists essentially of a tele- 
scope floating upon mercury, and is designed for the observation 
of transits over given parallels of altitude. Its name has been de- 
rived from this circumstance. This instrument, although having 
in objective of only If inches aperture, has given results of a 
high degree of accuracy, the probable error of a single determina- 
tion of zenith distance being 0."5 to 0."6. Mr. Chandler is now 
directing the construction of a large instrument of the same kind 
with a telescope five inches in aperture, and intends to apply it 






134 THE OBSERVATORY. 

to certain important problems in practical astronomy, for the 
solution of which it possesses advantages over other astronomical 
instruments. 

While passing last summer in Europe, I visited the observatories 
at Greenwich, Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, Brussels, Bonn, Stras- 
burg, Berne, Geneva, Milan, Vienna, Berlin, and Potsdam, and 
the private observatories of Dr. Huggins, of Mr. Common, and oi 
Mr. Ranyard. I was also enabled to present some of the results 
of work in progress here at meetings of the Royal Astronomica: 
Society at London, the Astronomische Gesellschaft at Vienna, and 
the Liverpool Astronomical Society. The most important result 
of my journey was the acquisition of copies of some valuable un- 
published manuscripts. By the courtesy of Lady Herschel and oi 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Herschel, I was permitted to examine 
the original manuscripts of Sir William Herschel's observations ol 
the light of the stars. This led to the discovery of two unpublished 
catalogues, of which I was allowed to make a copy. The reduc- 
tion of the four published catalogues by means of our photometric 
measures has already been mentioned in my last Report. The twe 
additional catalogues furnish means for completing this work, sc 
that we have now a most valuable determination of the light ol 
all the stars in Flamsteed's Catalogue at a time when no othei 
estimates of their light are known to exist. By the kindness ol 
Professor Schonfeld, Director of the Bonn Observatory, I was 
permitted to make a copy of the unpublished observations of vari 
able stars made by the late Professor Argelander after the publi 
cation of Volume VII. of the Bonn Annals. These manuscripts 
will be very valuable in connection with the bibliography to whicl 
reference has already been made. 

Publications. 

The printing of Volume XIV. of the Observatory Annals ha: 
gone on steadily during the year, the printers having constantly 
been supplied with copy. 

The publications named below have appeared since the simila; 
list in the last Report was drawn up, either as official communica 
tions from the Observatory, or as papers prepared by its officer! 
individually. 

Thirty-seventh Annual Report. 

Statement of work done at the Harvard College Observator; 



PUBLICATIONS. 135 

luring the years 1877-82. By Edward C. Pickering. Cambridge, 
1882. 

First Circular of Instructions for Observers of Variable Stars, 
icting in co-operation with the Harvard College Observatory? 
dated January 27, 1883. 

Circulars relative to the Collection and Distribution of Astronom- 
ical Intelligence. Cambridge, 1883. 

On the Telegraphic Transmission of Astronomical Data. Part 
|ii. The Phrase Code. 

Circular on Astronomical Photography, dated February 21, 
1883. 

Address by Professor Pickering at the June Meeting of the 
(Royal Astronomical Society. The Observatory, vi. 199. As- 
tronomical Register, xxi. 150. 

Address by Professor Pickering at the Second Annual Gen- 
eral Meeting of the Liverpool Astronomical Society. Abstract of 
Proceedings, 2. Astronomical Register, xxi. 278. 

The Wedge Photometer. By Edward C. Pickering. Proc. Am. 
Acad, of Arts and Sciences, xvii. 231. 

Observations of the Transit of Venus, December 5 and 6, 1882, 
made at the Harvard College Observatory. Edward C. Picker- 
ing, Director. Id. xviii. 15. 

On a Method of determining the Index Error of a Meridian 
Circle at any Instant, depending upon the observed Polar Dis- 
tance of Polaris. By W. A. Rogers. Id. xviii. 284. 

Studies in Metrology. By W. A. Rogers. Id. xviii. 287. 

On the Reduction of Different Star Catalogues to a Common 
System. By W. A. Rogers. Id. xviii. 399 ; Astronomische 
Nachrichten, cvi. 257. 

A Study of the Centimeter marked " A," prepared by the U. S. 
Bureau of Weights and Measures for the Committee on Microme- 
try. By W. A. Rogers. Proc. Am. Soc. of Microscopists, 1883, 
p. 184. 

A Critical Study of the Action of a Diamond in ruling Lines 
upon Glass and Metals. By W. A. Rogers. Id. p. 149. 

Note on Probable Errors. By W. A. Rogers. Id. 

Vice-President's Address on the German Survey of the North- 
ern Heavens. By W. A. Rogers. Proc. Am. Assoc, for the 
Advancement of Science, 1883, p. 53. 

Results of Tests with the Almucantar in Time and Latitude. 
By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. (Also Sidereal Messenger, ii. 269.) 






136 THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 






Mountain Observatories. By Edward C. Pickering. Appa- 
lachia, iii. 99. The Observatory, vi. 287. 

On the Orbit of the Great Comet. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. 
Astronomische Nachrichten, ciii. 347. 

On the Orbit of the Great Comet. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. 
Id. ciii. 381. 

Elements of Comet 1882, I. By 0. C. Wendell. Id. civ. 287. 

Elements and Observations of the Comet 1883, Brooks-Swift. 
By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. cv. 127. 

Ephemeris of Comet 1883, Brooks-Swift. By John Ritchie, 
Jr. Id. cv. 143. 

On the Variability of 36 (Uran. Argentina) Ceti. By S. C. 
Chandler, Jr. Id. cv. 333. 

New Planetary Nebulae. By Edward C. Pickering. Id. cv. 
335. 

Erratum in the Position of a Variable Star. By Edward C. 
Pickering. Id. cv. 351. 

Observations of Comet 1883, I. (Brooks-Swift) at Harvard 
College Observatory. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. cvi. 9. 

A convenient Method of finding or identifying an Asteroid. By 
0. C. Wendell. Id. cvi. 205. 

Date of Discovery by Brooks of Pons' Comet. By John 
Ritchie, Jr. Id. cvii. 43. 

On the Outburst in the Light of the Comet Pons-Brooks, Sep- 
tember 21-23. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. cvii. 131. 

It is evident that the present rapid accumulation of results will 
soon involve an important question regarding their publication. 
The funds especially provided for this purpose will prove entirely 
inadequate, and the application to this purpose of the unrestricted 
funds of the Observatory must be considered. This subject will 
probably be more fully treated in my next Annual Report. 

EDWARD C. PICKERING, Director. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
condition and progress of the Arnold Arboretum during the year 
ending August 31, 1883 : — 



PROVISIONS OF AGREEMENT. 137 

The negotiations between the College and the city of Boston 
for their joint occupancy of the Arboretum as a public park were 
concluded on the 80th day of December. On that day an Inden- 
ture (see Appendix), signed by the President of the University, 
and the Park Commissioners of Boston, was executed. Under 
this indenture the city agreed to lease to the College for 999 
years, with the right of renewal, at a nominal rent, the portion 
of the original Arboretum grounds not needed for parkways and 
roads, the Park Commissioners having previously laid out the 
Arboretum as a public park. Nearly twenty acres of ground 
adjoining the College property and purchased by the city of 
Boston for the purpose were included in the lease, which is made 
contingent upon the fulfilment of various conditions by the two 
parties. 

It is believed that this arrangement will be of great mutual 
benefit to the Arboretum and the city of Boston. Under its pro- 
visions the property of the College in the Arboretum is freed from 
all danger of taxation, and is relieved of the possibility of en- 
croachment by any railroad, tramway, or public street. 

The city binds itself to expend within a reasonable time the 
sum of $75,000 in building roadways through the Arboretum 
upon a plan previously agreed upon. It agrees, further, to main- 
tain these roadways in a proper manner during the term of the 
lease, and to protect them and the Arboretum itself from injury 
by a suitable police. 

The College agrees that the Arboretum shall be open for the 
instruction and use of the public at all reasonable hours. The 
control and arrangement of the Arboretum, with the exception of 
the roadways, rests in the hands of the President and Fellows. 
The scientific development of the Arboretum, therefore, will not 
be affected by this arrangement, while its usefulness as a means 
for popular instruction must be greatly increased. 

Under this agreement, the construction of the roads was begun 
by the city early in July, and has been steadily continued. 

The great accumulation of plants in the nurseries has neces- 
sitated their further enlargement, and nearly two acres have been 
added to the nursery grounds. Such plants as required moving 
have been transplanted, and the large collections of plants are in 
a satisfactory and flourishing condition. 

In my last Report I called attention to the new system intro- 



138 THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 






duced into the Arboretum for preserving by means of a card 
catalogue a record of the collection of living plants. The plan 
has been found to work satisfactorily, and the whole nursery 
collection has been renumbered and relabelled during the year, 
to conform to it. The collection is now represented by 2,542 
cards. 

The interchange of plants and seeds with other botanical and 
horticultural establishments has been continued during the year. 
There have been 7,841 plants (including cuttings and grafts) and 
21 packets of seeds distributed as follows : to all parts of the 
United States, 6,431 plants and 1 packet of seeds ; to Great 
Britain, 24 plants and 5 packets of seeds ; to the Continent of 
Europe, 262 plants and 15 packets of seeds ; to Algeria, 100 
plants. 

There have been received during the year, 7,821 plants (in- 
cluding cuttings and grafts) and 98 packets of seeds, from 22 
donors. 

HERBARIUM AND MUSEUM. 

The ordinary work of the Herbarium and Museum has been 
continued during the year. There have been added to the Her- 
barium, 3.827 sheets of dried plants ; of these, 927 sheets contain 
North American species, and 2,900 sheets a collection of the lig- 
neous plants cultivated in Europe and prepared at the Royal 
Garden, Kew, for the Arboretum. 

During the year, the Report upon the Forests of the United 
States, prepared by the Director, in connection with the 10th 
Census, has been completed. The botanical drawings of the 
trees of North America for the Government of the United States, 
have been continued by Mr. Faxon, who has also been engaged in 
the arrangement of a special herbarium, illustrating North Amer- 
ican trees, to accompany the exhibit of forest products which Mr. 
Morris K. Jesup is now forming in New York, under my general 
direction, in connection with the American Museum of Natural 
History. 

As a member of the Northern Transcontinental Survey, the 
Director devoted the months of July and August to an examina- 
tion of the composition and distribution of the forests of the 
Rocky Mountains in Northern Montana. 

C. S. SARGENT, Director. 






THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 139 



To the President and Fellows of Harvard College: 

I have the pleasure of reporting that during the past year the 
latest addition to the Museum building has been completed. The 
transfer of the students to their new quarters has been effected, 
and the whole building is now occupied as originally planned. 
The rooms in this addition are devoted mainly to Laboratories, to 
the Library, Lecture Room, and Curator's Room, only such space 
being reserved for exhibition as was necessary to connect the 
general exhibition rooms with those of the main body of the 
building, hereafter to be erected. 

Ten years wanting only a few weeks have passed since the 
care of the Museum devolved upon me. Some account is due 
here of the work done during that decade, and of the present 
state of the Museum as compared with its condition at the close 
of 1873. At that time, and indeed far earlier, from the very 
beginning of the institution, the general plan was sketched out in 
the mind of its founder. But the difficulties involved in the 
initiation of so large an undertaking prevented Professor Agassiz 
from developing his schemes. From want of rooms and of means 
for proper distribution, the immense accessions constantly accu- 
mulating upon his hands invaded, little by little, the space devoted 
to special objects. It became evident, at the time of his death, 
that nothing short of a radical rearrangement of the collections 
could bring out his plans and give them distinct expression. This 
rearrangement has been completed only within the past year, and 
no sign of the former confusion, due to a too rapid accumulation 
of material, is left. 

At the close of 1873 the Museum building covered about 9,400 
square feet of ground, and was filled to overflowing, from a^tic 
to basement, with the collections brought together by its first 
Director. The buildings and collections then represented an 
expenditure of about $200,000. From that time to the past 
Academic year the new buildings and collections represent an 
additional expenditure of more than $500,000, in addition to the 
current expenditure. The ground covered by the additional 
building measures about 9,500 square feet. The resources at 
the disposal of the Director in 1873 came from the income of 
invested funds amounting to about $185,000. At the present 
moment, these amount to over $580,000. Ten years ago our 



140 THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

departmental Library numbered some 5,000 volumes. Since that 
time it has increased to 16,000 volumes. 

The temporary quarters provided for the instruction then given 
at the Museum afforded no facilities for the more accurate work 
now required in many branches of the Biological and Geological 
Departments. Although our present laboratories, still in their 
first year of service, are not equipped as I hope to see them, they 
afford even now ample facilities for instruction and investigation, 
as compared with those heretofore available at Cambridge. 

The publications of the Museum, giving the results of investiga- 
tions by specialists or by Assistants of the Museum, the materials 
for which have been drawn from our collections, have been 
rapidly issued. Volumes IV. to X. of the Bulletins, and Volumes 
IV. to IX. of the Memoirs, have been published during the last 
ten years. 

Already, in 1853, the late Edward Forbes saw the importance 
of geographical displays as applied to the geological structure 
and products of the colonies of Great Britain, in connection with 
the Jermyn Street Museum of Practical Geology. He protested 
against the simple and single systematic arrangement, as not 
covering the ground necessary to make the Museum practically 
useful. He further dwelt on the fact, that a museum as such, not 
connected with an educational institution, was of very little use to 
the public beyond its value as a cyclopaedia of reference. 

We have attempted to build up an institution of that kind, and 
under our present conditions it is now possible to form some idea 
of the success of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, based as 
it is upon a plan essentially different from that of other like insti- 
tutions. Our Exhibition Rooms, for instance, are comparatively 
small, each one devoted to a special subject, but so combined that, 
when taken together, they illustrate the animal kingdom as a 
whole in its general relations, and in its geographical and palaeon- 
tological range and distribution. They are intended not only to 
meet the wants of the public at large, and of beginners as well 
as of more advanced university students, but also to promote 
research by giving assistance to specialists and original investiga- 
tors. Meanwhile, the work of the Museum proper should be in 
charge of Assistants whose duties are so arranged as to leave a 
good part of their time free for original research ; the Museum 
as a whole forming an important branch of the Natural His- 






EXHIBITION ROOMS. 141 

fcory Department of the University, with which its Assistants 
and Professors are intimately connected. 

An enumeration of the contents and uses to which our space is 
devoted will give a better idea of our aims than a lengthy 
description. 

EXHIBITION ROOMS. 

Synoptic Room: — 

Synopsis of the Animal Kingdom, living and fossil. 
Five Systematic Rooms : — 

Mammalia. 

Birds. 

Fishes. 

Mollusca. 

Radiates and Protozoa. 
And their Galleries for the Systematic Collections of Reptiles, Insects, 
and Crustacea. 

Seven Faunal Rooms and Galleries : — 

North American. 

South American. 

African, including Madagascar. 

Indian. 

Australian. 

* Europeo-Siberiau. 

* Atlantic. 

* Pacific. 

Four Rooms for the Palaeontological Collections. 

Two Rooms for the Palaeozoic, one for the Mesozoic, and one for the 
Tertiary : — 

* The Silurian and Devonian. 

* The Carboniferous and Jura. 

* The Cretaceous. 

* The Tertiary. 

The Work Rooms for the Assistants of the Museum, and the Storage 
Rooms, which are also intended as work rooms of their special subjects, 
are distributed as follows, in addition to a large Receiving Room and a 
general workshop. 

The Alcoholic Collections stored in thebasement occupy : — 
Four Rooms devoted to Fishes. 
Two Rooms for Fishes and Reptiles. 

* Not yet opened to the public. 



142 THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

One Room for Birds and Mammals. 
One Room for Mollusca. 
One Room for Crustacea. 
One Room for the other Invertebrates. 
The Entomological Department is to occupy eventually four gallery 
rooms of the first story. 

The Work Rooms and Storage Rooms of the fifth story are filled by 
collections occupying : — 

Five Rooms devoted to Birds and Mammals ; three for skins and 

eggs, and two for skeletons. 
One Room for Crustacea. 
One Room for Mollusca. 
One Room for Fish and Reptile Skeletons. 
One Room for the Collection of dry Invertebrates (Corals, Echi- 

noderms, Sponges, etc.). 
Two Rooms for Fossil Vertebrates exclusive of Fishes. 
The remaining Palaeontological Collections are crowded into four Work 
and Storage Rooms. 

Two Work Rooms for the Geological and Lithological Department. 
Four Rooms are devoted to the Library of the Museum, and one Room 
for the office of the Curator. 
There are also : — 

A large general Lecture Room. 
Three Laboratories for Students in Biology. 

Three Laboratories for Students in Geology and Palseontology, with 

two smaller private rooms for the Instructors. 

With the Biological Laboratories will be connected also a large 

Room for au Aquarium for both fresh-water and marine animals, and 

another room for a Vivarium, both of which are in the basement of the 

building. 

This will give us, in all, seventeen rooms devoted to the ex- 
hibition of collections for the public ; ten work and storage rooms 
in the basement, for the Alcoholic Collections ; thirteen work and 
storage rooms for the dry Zoological Collections ; eight similar 
rooms for the Palaeontological and Geological Collections ; and 
thirteen rooms devoted to the Laboratories, Lecture Rooms, and 
Library connected with the instruction given at the Museum. 
The arrangement being such that whenever any Departments, 
as, for instance, the Geological and Geographical, or the Ana- 
tomical, or any other, outgrow their present quarters, room can 
be made for them, by extensions of the building, for a long time 



ATTENDANCE — COURSES. 143 

to come, without interfering with the plans which have been 
carried out thus far. 

In adopting a small unit for the size of our rooms (30 X 40 ft.), 
we deliberately abandoned all attempts at Exhibition Rooms 
imposing from their size. We have aimed only to place before 
the public such portions of our collections as shall become in- 
structive ; and in our storage and work rooms the appliances for 
storage aim at economy of space, and are intended, while they 
do not neglect the careful preservation of the Collections, to give 
to the Assistants and students the freest and quickest possible 
access to them. 

During the past summer the following persons pursued their 
studies at my Newport laboratory : — Mr. Fewkes, one of the 
Museum Assistants, who devoted his time principally to embryo- 
logical studies of Annelids, Messrs. Barnes and Tuttle of the 
Scientific School, and Miss E. A. Nunn, who devoted her time 
to the study of the earlier stages in the development of Brachy- 
ura. Prof. C. 0. Whitman took up the study of the early stages 
of some of the many species of pelagic fish-eggs, so common at 
Newport ; and he is preparing in connection with me a prelimi- 
nary report on his work, some of which is in continuation of 
investigations on the early stages of the bony fishes, begun nearly 
twenty years ago. 

The course in Biology, given by Professors Farlow and Faxon, 
was attended by two Seniors, seventeen Juniors, four Sopho- 
mores, and one special student. Mr. G. W. Perkins assisted 
Professors Farlow and Faxon in the laboratory work of the 
course. 

In Advanced Zoology, the course of Professor Faxon was 
followed throughout the year by thirteen Seniors, four Juniors, 
and one student from the Scientific School. 

During the past Academic year lectures in General Zoology 
were given by Dr. Mark to 104 students, of whom 39 were 
Seniors, 34 Juniors, 25 Sophomores, 2 Freshmen, 2 Unmatricu- 
lated, and 2 Scientific Students. 

In Dr. Mark's course on Embryology, the lectures were at- 
tended by three fourth-year students of the Lawrence Scientific 
School. The laboratory work was pursued by the three students 
attending the lectures, and by another who had previously at- 
tended the same course. The work consisted largely in the 



144 THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

investigation of special topics proposed by the instructor at the 
beginning of the year. 

These studies have resulted in the production of the following 
papers : — 

1. On the Development of (Ecanthus niveus, and its Para- 
site, Teleas. By Howard Ayers. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. III. No. 8. 

2. On the Development of the Posterior Fissure of the Spinal 
Cord, and the Reduction of the Central Canal, in the Pig. By 
William Barnes. 

3. Notes on the Development of Phryganidse. By William 
Patten. 

4. The Relation of the External Meatus, Tympanum, and 
Eustachian Tube to the First Visceral Cleft. By Albert H. 
Tuttle, of Boston. 

The papers of Messrs. Barnes and Tuttle are in press in the 
Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Professor Shaler and Mr. W. M. Davis gave the usual courses, 
as follows : — 

In Physical Geography, attended by sixty students. (Mr. 
Davis.) 

In Elementary Geology, with field-work, attended by one 
hundred and eighty-five students. (Prof. Shaler and Mr. 
Davis.) 

A course in Advanced Geology, with field work, attended by 
twenty -five students. (Prof. Shaler and Mr. Davis.) 

A course in Palaeontology, attended by seven persons. (Prof. 
Shaler.) 

Professor Whitney lectured twice a week on Applied Geology, 
throughout the year, tie was assisted in this course by Dr. 
Wads worth, who also gave a course of lectures on Advanced 
Lithology, and took charge of the instruction of a small class of 
special students in Microscopic Lithology. 

About five hundred^ volumes have been added to the Library 
of the Museum during the past year. 

A special list of the Museum publications during the last 
Academic year is given in Appendix A of this Report. They 
consist of four numbers of the Memoirs, and of fifteen num- 
bers of the Bulletin. The publications issued elsewhere by 
several specialists, based mainly upon Museum materials, are 






PUBLICATIONS. 145 

mentioned in the special Reports of the Assistants of the Mu- 
seum. The other publications of the Professors and Assistants 
of the Museum are noted in the Reports of the different De- 
partments. 

The larger number of the publications of the Museum are 
devoted to Reports on the collections made by the "Blake." 
These consist of: — 

A Report on the Stalked Crinoids collected by the " Blake " 
in the Caribbean, by Mr. P. H. Carpenter. Bull. M. C. Z., X., 
No. 4. 16 pp. December, 1882. 

A Preliminary Report on the Fishes of the " Blake," collected 
during the Summer of 1880, along the Atlantic Coast of the 
United States, by Prof. B. G. Goode and Dr. Tarlton H. Bean. 
Bull. M. C. Z., X., No. 5. 37 pp. April, 1883. 

A Report on the Ophiuridse of the " Blake," by Theodore 
Lyman. Bull. M. C. Z., X., No. 6. 50 pp. 8 plates. May, 
1883. 

A Preliminary Report on the Anthozoa, by Prof. A. E. VerrilL 
Bull. M. C. Z., XL, No. 1. 72 pp. 8 plates. July, 1883. 

A Report on the Isopods, by Oscar Harger. Bull. M. C. Z., 
XL, No. 4. 14 pp. 4 plates. September, 1883. 

In connection with the explorations of the Gulf Stream by 
the Coast Survey, a Report on the Medusas of the Bermudas, by 
J. Walter Fewkes. 10 pp. 1 plate. 

Vol. X. No. 3 of the Bulletin contains a paper by Dr. Harrison 
Allen on the Ethmoid Bone in the Mammalia. 27 pp. 7 plates. 
November, 1882. 

Of the seventh volume, the first of the Geological Series, three 
numbers have been published : — 

No. 8, a short paper by Prof. Lesquereux, On some Permian 
Fossil Plants from Colorado. 4 pp. October, 1882. 

Nos. 9 and 10, by Mr. W. M. Davis : On the Triassic Traps 
and Sandstones of the Eastern United States. 59 pp. 3 plates. 
On the Lower Helderberg Limestones east of the Catskills. 20 pp. 
2 plates. January, 1883. 

Professor Whitney has published the third and concluding 
part of the Climatic Changes, Vol. VII. No. 2, Part III. Mem. 
M. C. Z., pp. 265-394. October, 1882. 

I have myself published the following : — 

10 



146 THE MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 






- 



A short paper entitled, A Chapter in the History of the Gulf 
Stream. Bull. M. C. Z., XL, No. 2. 5 pp. 

The First Part of a Memoir on the Porpitidae and Velellidae 
of the Gulf Stream. Mem. M. C. Z., Vol. VIII. No. 2. 16 pp. 
12 plates. 

Selections from Embryological Monographs, containing the 
Echinodermata. Vol. IX. No. 2, Mem. M. C. Z. 45 pp. 10 
plates. . July, 1882. 

The First Part of the Report on the Echini of the " Blake." 
Vol. X. No. 1, Mem. M. C. Z. 126 pp. 32 plates. September, 
1883. 

I have in addition published in the Memoirs of the American 
Academy, June, 1883, Vol. X., a paper on the Tortugas and the 
Florida Reefs, 27 pp., 8 maps, 4 plates, from observations made 
while on the " Blake," and while engaged in studying the surface 
fauna of the Gulf Stream under the auspices of the Coast Survey. 

The last volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London, contains a memoir by the late Prof. F. M. Balfour and 
Mr. W. N. Parker, on the structure and development of Lepidos- 
teus, based upon material sent them from the Museum. 

Some progress has been made in the arrangement of the Exhi- 
bition Rooms. The Indian, the African, and the Australian faunal 
collections are now accessible to the public, although they yet are 
far from complete. The Systematic Collection of Birds has under- 
gone a final arrangement, and the storage rooms devoted to the 
Radiates, the collections of fish and reptile skeletons, and the 
Crustacea, are now filled with their respective collections. 

Mr. Garman has continued the explorations made by him in pre- 
vious years in the West, and he and his assistants have sent us 
valuable additions to our collections of Mammalian and Reptilian 
fossil remains. We have specially to thank the Secretary of War, 
the Hon. R. T. Lincoln, and the Secretary of the Interior, the 
Hon. H. M. Teller, for the letters of introduction they kindly sent 
for the use of Mr. Garman while in the Territories. 

The principal collections purchased were received from Prof. H. 
A. Ward of Rochester, and Mr. E. Haberlein, who sent us a sec- 
ond collection of Solenhofen fossils. An extensive collection of 
fossil fishes for the Lower Carboniferous, brought together by 
Mr. Thomas Stock of Edinburgh, has also been purchased for the 
Museum. 



EXPLORATIONS — PURCHASES. 147 

T hope during the coming winter to be able to move the collec- 
tions of fossils now stored in the attic to their final storage rooms, 
and to make a beginning in the arrangement of the Palseontologi- 
cal Collections intended for exhibition. 

ALEXANDER AGASSIZ, Curator. 
Cambridge, October 1, 1883. 



APPENDIX. 



I. 

Indenture between Harvard College and the City of Boston concerning the use of 
the Arnold Arboretum as a Public Park. 

This Indenture made the thirtieth day of December, in the year eighteen 
hundred and eighty-two, between the City of Boston, a Municipal Corpora- 
tion in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (hereinafter called the City), of 
the one part and the President and Fellows of Harvard College, a corpora- 
tion established by the laws of Massachusetts (hereinafter called the College), 
of the other part. 

Whereas, the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of Boston, by 
virtue of the authority conferred upon said Board by Chapter one hundred 
and eighty-five of the Acts of the Legislature of- Massachusetts of the year 
1875, and by the City Council of said City of Boston, by a certain written 
instrument of even date herewith to be recorded with the Suffolk Registry 
of Deeds, have taken and located as and for a public park that tract of land 
in that part of said city known as West Roxbury held by the College and by 
it dedicated to the use of the Arnold Arboretum, so called, together with 
certain adjoining tracts the property of other persons deemed by said Com- 
missioners convenient and necessary for use in connection therewith, for the 
purposes and under the powers and limitations set forth in said- Act and 
Acts in addition thereto and amendment thereof. 

And whereas, by an act of the General Court of Massachusetts passed on 
the twenty-ninth day of March, in the year 1880, it was enacted that in case 
the said Board of Park Commissioners deemed it desirable so to take the 
said lands for the said purposes, the City was thereby authorized to lease 
such portions of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts so taken, as the 
said Board of Commissioners might deem not necessary for use as park ways 
and grounds to the College, to be held to the same uses and purposes as the 
said Arboretum was then held under the trusts created by the wills of 
Benjamin Bussey and of James Arnold, and for such a term and upon such 
mutual restrictions, reservations, covenants, and conditions as to the use 
thereof by the public in connection with the uses of the same under the said 
trusts, and as to the rights, duties and obligations of the contracting parties 
as might be agreed upon between the said Commissioners and the College. 
And the Board of Park Commissioners on the part of the City and the presi- 



150 INDENTURE BETWEEN HARVARD COLLEGE 

dent on behalf of the College were respectively authorized to execute and 
deliver the said lease. 

And whereas, the said Board of Park Commissioners deems such portion 
of the said Arboretum and adjoining tracts as is hereinafter described and 
leased to be not necessary for use as park ways and grounds and considers 
that the same will be better and more advantageously enjoyed and used by 
the public as a part of the said park if the same be leased to the College for 
the purposes of the said trusts and upon such terms and subject to such 
provisions with regard to the use thereof by the public as are hereinafter 
contained. And it has been agreed between the said Commissioners and the 
College that the same be leased to the College for the term and upon the 
mutual restrictions, reservations, covenants, and conditions hereinafter 
expressed. 

Now this Indenture witnesseth that the City by virtue and in exercise of 
the power and authority given to it by the said act and of every other power 
and authority it hereto enabling doth demise and lease unto the College all 
that parcel of land delineated on a plan entitled " The Arnold Arboretum," 
and to be recorded herewith in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds situate in that 
part of Boston known as West lioxbury and bounded and described as fol- 
lows : — Beginning at a point on the northerly line of South Street at land 
of the President and Fellows of Harvard College, and running thence north- 
westerly on said land by two lines 259 feet and 282 j 9 ^ feet ; thence turning 
and running in a general westerly direction on said land of said President 
and Fellows by several lines 457 j^o feet, 343^ feet, 60 ^ feet, Uofifo feet, 
140 ^g- feet, 202 t 1q- feet, and 464-^ feet, thence turning and running on 
said last mentioned land in a general southeasterly direction by- several lines 
83^ feet, H6 T y 5 feet, 107^ feet, and 254^ feet to South Street, thence 
turning and running southwesterly by a curved and broken line on said 
South Street 1408^- feet to Bussey Street, thence turning and running 
northwesterly on said Bussey Street 1981 T % 7 ¥ feet to Walter Street, thence 
turning and running northerly on said Walter Street 240 ^-g- feet, thence 
turning and running northeasterly by three lines on land of Caroline E. 
Skinner and Freelove S. Kent, 272ffoleet, 357^ feet, and 242 ^ f eefr j 
thence turning and running northwesterly on said land of Kent 350 ^q feet 
to Centre Street, thence turning and running northeasterly on said Centre 
Street 1409 ^ feet, thence turning and running southeasterly 200 feet, 
thence northeasterly 100 feet, thence easterly 369 t 5 q 6 5 feet, thence north- 
easterly 200 i 8 g- feet, thence northwesterly 493 ^ feet, thence northeasterly 
755JL5_ f ee t 5 thence northwesterly 130 feet, the last seven boundaries being 
on land of The Adams Nervine Asylum, thence turning and running north- 
easterly on land of said Asylum, and on lands now or formerly of Edward 
K. Butler, William H. Goodwin, George W. Richards, and William Miuot, 
Jr., Trustee, 1020^ feet to Centre Street, thence turning and running 
southeasterly on said Centre Street 126 j 5 ^ feet, thence turning and running 
southwesterly by a curved line of 28 T 5 5 8 o feet radius 45 feet, thence south- 
erly by another curved line of 157 ^ feet radius 68^ feet, thence by 
another curved line 322 I 6 9 g - feet radius 97^ feet, thence southeasterly by a 
straight line 94^- feet, thence southerly by a curved line of 1011^ feet 



AND THE CITY OF BOSTON. 151 



89 

TO 



radius 490 ^V feet, thence southwesterly by another curved line of 747^ 
feet radius 307^ feet, the last six boundaries being on land of George W. 
Goldsmith and his heirs ; thence southwesterly by a straight line on land now 
or formerly of Robert and Fred Seaver 217 i 8 o° g - feet, thence southwesterly by a 
straight line 1 t 8 q feet, thence southerly by a curved line of 354 3 6 o°q- feet radius 
4"_ ) 7 1 4 / feet, thence southeasterly by a straight line 218^ feet, the last three 
boundaries being on land of Sophia A. Smith and her heirs, thence continuing 
on the same line southeasterly 524 t 2 q 7 q feet, thence by a' curved line of 387 1 3 q 4 7 
feet radius 172 1 3 o 5 g - feet, thence southeasterly by a straight line 50 feet, thence 
by a curved line of 859^- feet radius 435 T 2 5 5 ¥ feet, thence southeasterly by a 
straight line G0^\ feet, thence by a curved line of 529 t 6 q 9 o feet radius 41 i 5 q 9 u - 
feet, thence by another curved line of 175 feet radius 45 t 8 q°q feet, thence 
easterly by another curved line of 17 t 7 q 3 q- feet radius 35^ feet, to South 
Street; the last eight boundaries being on land of Arthur W. Austin, thence 
turning and running southerly and southwesterly on South Street 422 I 8 g° g - 
feet, to the point of beginning containing 167 ^ acres more or less; 

Excepting and always reserving out of these presents all those parts of 
said lands delineated and marked on said plan as driveways and parkways, 
and those parts of the same lands delineated and marked A. and B. respec- 
tively on the said plan. 

And granting with the premises hereby leased a free and unobstructed 
right of way upon and over all the said excepted parts of the said lands and 
upon and over the driveways and parkways delineated on the said plan, and 
so marked thereon. 

To have and to hold the premises hereby leased (hereinafter called the 
Arnold Arboretum) unto the College and its successors and assigns for 
the term of One Thousand Years from the date hereof without impeachment 
of waste upon and for the same trusts, uses and purposes as those upon and 
for which the said land held by the College for the purposes of the said 
Arboretum at the said time of the passing of the said act of the year 1880, 
was then held under the will of Benjamin Bussey and the will of James 
Arnold and a certain indenture dated the 29th day of March in the year 
1872. and made between George B. Emerson, John J. Dixwell and Francis 
E. Parker, as trustees of the will of the said James Arnold of the one part, 
and the College of the other part, in which indenture the trusts provided for 
in the said will of James Arnold are declared in pursuance of the directions 
in the said will contained, yielding and paying therefor during the said 
term the yearly rent of one dollar. 

And the City covenants with the College, its successors and assigns that 
the College and its successors and assigns shall peaceably hold and enjoy the 
premises hereby leased during the said term without any interference or 
control of the City or any person claiming through or under it. That the 
City will at all times save and keep harmless and indemnified the College 
and its successors and assigns, and keep the premises hereby leased free and 
discharged of and from all taxes and assessments of every description which 
during the said term may be assessed or payable in respect of or charged 
upon the premises hereby leased or any part thereof. 

That the City will within a reasonable time make and finish fit for use of 



152 INDENTURE BETWEEN HARVARD COLLEGE 






good sound materials and in a proper and workmanlike manner the drive- 
ways of which the sites and dimensions are delineated on the said plan and 
so marked thereon; but at a cost not exceeding seventy-five thousand 
dollars, and that the said driveways during the said term shall be repaired 
and maintained in a proper and substantial manner free of all charge and 
expense to the College and its successors and assigns. That the City will 
during the said term provide and maintain a proper and sufficient police in 
and about the Arboretum and the said parts excepted from these presents 
and the said roads, avenues, and parkway for the preservation of order and 
good conduct and the observance of the rules hereinafter mentioned or 
provided for. That no public street or highway and no steam or horse 
railway, or construction for like purposes shall be laid out through or over 
any part of the Arnold Arboretum except in such places if any and in such 
manner as the Park Commissioners and the College shall approve. That if 
the water supply from the sources within the Arnold Arboretum which the 
College has heretofore enjoyed for use in the said Arboretum shall at any 
time be cut off, interrupted, or impaired by the City or its assigns the City 
will immediately provide at its own charge and expense an equal or superior 
supply of water for the like uses. And that if the College, its successors or 
assigns shall be desirous of taking a renewed lease of the said premises for 
the further term of one thousand years from the expiration of the term 
hereby granted, the City or its assigns will upon the request and at the 
expense of the College, its successors or assigns and upon its or their exe- 
cuting and delivering to the City or its assigns a counterpart thereof, forth- 
with execute and deliver to the College its successors, or assigns a renewed 
lease of the said premises for the further term of one thousand years at the 
same yearly rent and upon and subject to the same restrictions, reservations, 
covenants, and conditions as are herein contained including the present 
covenant and so on from time to time forever. And the College for itself 
and its successors and assigns covenants with the City that the College 
will not commence or prosecute any action, suit or other proceeding against 
the City for the enforcement or recovery of any damages or claim which the 
College may have or be entitled to against the City by reason of the said 
taking of the said Arboretum land by the City. And that the Arnold 
Arboretum shall at all reasonable times be open to the inspection of the 
public as a part of the said Park subject to the rules hereinafter mentioned 
or provided for. Provided always and it is hereby declared that the City 
shall be at liberty to erect and maintain suitable gateways for entrance 
thereto upon any of the said excepted parts and to maintain gates there. 
And that no pavilion, kiosk, urinal, museum, greenhouse, stable, shed or 
other building (except as above provided) shall be erected or maintained 
within the Arnold Arboretum, or in any of the said excepted parts or in 
any of the said driveways or parkways without the prior consent of the 
Park Commissioners and the College. Provided also and it is hereby de- 
clared and agreed that the use of the Arnold Arboretum and of the said 
excepted parts and of the said roads, avenues, and parkways by the City and 
its assigns and the College its successors and assigns and the public, shall 
be subject to the rules contained in the schedule hereto annexed and to 



AND THE CITY OF BOSTON. 153 

'such additional rules as have been or may from time to time be agreed 
iupon between the Park Commissioners and the College. But any of the 
said rules may be altered or annulled by agreement between the Park 
Commissioners and the College. 

In witness whereof the City by its Board of Park Commissioners and the 
College by its President have hereto set their respective corporate seals, 
and caused these presents to be signed acknowledged and delivered in their 
name and behalf by the said Commissioners and the said President the day 
and year first above written. 



Seal 
of the City 
of Boston. 



The City of Boston by ^ The Board 

Chas. H. Dalton, [ of Park 

Wm. Gray, Jr. 



a 



ommissi07iers 



Seal of 
Harvard 
College. 



Henry Lee, j °f the Cit !J °f Boston - 

President and Fellows of Harvard College, by 

Charles W. Eliot, 

President. 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Suffolk, S.S., December 30, 1882. Then personally appeared Charles H. 
Dalton, William Gray, Jr., and Henry Lee, Board of Park Commissioners 
of the City of Boston, and acknowledged the foregoing instrument to be the 
free act and deed of the said City, and personally appeared Charles W. Eliot, 
President, and acknowledged the foregoing instrument to be the free act and 
deed of the President and Fellows of Harvard College before me 

* Edward P. Nettleton, 

Justice of the Peace 

The Schedule referred to in the above written Indenture. 
Rules. 

1. The Arnold Arboretum shall be open to visitors daily from 7 o'clock 
a.m. until sunset. 

2. No hawker, peddler, or huckster or other person offering or exposing 
for sale any goods or wares shall be allowed in the Arboretum or in any of 
the roads, avenues, or parkways within its limits. 

3. No military or civil encampment, parade, drill, review, procession, or 
other military or civil evolution, assemblage, entertainment, exercise or 
athletic game, or sport shall be had or performed within the Arboretum 
or in any of the said roads, avenues, or parkways except with the prior 
consent of the Park Commissioners and the Corporation of Harvard College. 
And no military body shall, except with such prior consent, enter or move 
in military order within the Arboretum, or in any of the said roads, avenues 
or parkways, except in case of riot, insurrection, rebellion, or war. 

Duplicate has been recorded, with plan, in Suffolk Deeds, Lib. 158i, 
folio 502. 



154 SUMMARY OF STUDENTS. 



II. 

SUMMARY OF STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY AT THE 
BEGINNING OF THE ACADEMIC YEAR, 1882-1883. 

College, 

Seniors 203 

Juniors 209 

Sophomores 207 

Freshmen 263 

88: 

Unmatriculated Students 4» 

Lawrence Scientific School 21 

Bussey Institution V] 

Dental School # 2! 

Medical School * 22!; 

Law School 13" 

Divinity School 2\ 

Candidates for the degrees of A.M., Ph.D., and S.D. ... 4£ 

Holders of Fellowships I 

Resident Graduates not Candidates for a Degree l .\ 

1431 
Persons rvho attended the Summer Courses in Science in 1883. 

Chemistry 35 

Botany 5 

40 

Number of Certificates issued to Women in 1883. 

Advanced Examination (Old Method) 1 

Final Examination (New Method) 8 

9 



III. 

ACADEMIC HONORS FOR THE YEAR 1882-1883. 

Commencement, June 27, 1883. 

Orations. 
John Hubbard Wilkins Edgerly, Arthur Richmond Marsh, 

Everett Wyman Sawyer, Edwin Guthrie Mclnnes, 

Herbert Marshall Lloyd, Archibald Livingstone Hodges, 

Robert Emmet O'Callaghan, Charles Hall Grandgent. 

Charles Joseph Hubbard, 



COMMENCEMENT PARTS. 



155 



Dissertations. 



Walter Elijah Damon, 
Walter Lincoln Burrage, 
Patrick Michael Keating, 
George Henry Heilbron, 
Franklin Henry Hooper, 
Luther Atwood, 
Chokichi Kikkawa, 
Arthur Lyman, 
Samuel Norris, 
George Ross Hewitt, 
Benjamin Blake Holmes, 
Arthur Henry Woodbury, 
Henry Barton Jacobs, 
Thomas Washington Cowgill, 
James Merrill Burch, 
Stephen Herrick Knight, 
George Emerson Lowell, 
Charles Pomeroy Worcester, 
Henry Lloyd Smyth, 
John Henry Wigmore, 
Louis Arthur Coolidge, 
William Hussey Page, 
James Newton Garratt, 



Edward Knowles Butler, 
James Hamlet Bolt Easton, 
Charles Enoch Robinson, 
Robert Berry Ennis, 
Alouzo Wilder Pollard, 
Percival James Eaton, 
John Downer Pennock, 
Richard Pearce Francis, 
James Milton Hall, 
George Henry Nichols, 
Archibald Lowery Sessions, 
Walter Edward Clifton Smith, 
William Alvah Rublee, 
William Lawrence Dana, 
William Hall Williams, 
Henry Francis Sears, 
Henry Ransom Edwards, 
Walter Everard Paul, 
Frederic Gray Reed, 
William Dunning Sullivan, 
Ernest Sanford Jack, 



Herbert Putnam, 
Frank Warton Kaan, 
Sumner Bass Pearmain, 
Horace Binney, 
Alfred Church Lane, 
Joseph Randolph Coolidge, 
Arthur Clark Denniston, 
William Faxon, 
George William Evans, 
Albert Cameron Burrage, 
Morris Loeb, 
Francis Britain Fay, 
Alphonso Adelbert Wyman, 
Joseph Henry Sheffield, 
Thomas Cogswell Bachelder, 
Fletcher Ranney, 
Mellen Woodman Haskell, 
Frederick Nichols, 
Angell Boss Babbitt, 
Edward Cummings, 
Edwin Cull Howell, 
Frank Elwood Jennison. 



Disquisitions. 

Henry Bromfield Cabot, 

George Scott Winslow, 

James Atkins Noyes, 

Paul Jones, 

Charles Dexter Canterbury, 

William Wendell Bryant, 

Lucas Lee Baker, 

Francis Lewis Clark, 

Oscar Edward Perry, 

Charles Francis Morse, 

Sollace Mitchell, 

Edward Everett Hale, 

Howard Lilienthal, 

John William Fox, 

Richard Baker Wilcox, 

William Edgar Nies, 

Charles Sumner Hamlin, 

William Tyler Lord, 

William Wadsworth Wentworth, 

Joseph Edwin Davis, 

Charles Witherle Hooke, 



156 



HONORS AT GRADUATION. 



Arthur Kingsbury Stone, 
Henry Howland Crapo, 
Walter Curtis, 
Henry Martyn Hall, 
Robert Gordon Butler, 
Edward Perry Warren, 
George Patrick Morris, 
Ormond Gerald Smith, 
Edmund Swett Rousmaniere, 
Horace Elmer Sprague, 
Louis Osborne Johnson, 
Daniel Appleton White, 
Augustus Mendon Lord, 
John Farwell Moors, 



Edward Twisleton Cabot, 
Walter Reeves Dame, 
Sabin Pond Sanger, 
William Halsey Garrison, 
Jeffrey Richardson Brackett, 
Reuben Burnham Moffat, 
Charles Ranlet, 
George Dixwell Burrage, 
Charles Edgar Lewis Wingate, 
Joseph Lee, 

George Ebenezer Howe, 
Osgood Putnam, 
Clarence Getchell. 



Honors at Graduation. 

In Ancient Languages. 
Herbert Marshall Lloyd, Highest Honors. 

In Classics. 
Archibald Livingstone Hodges, Highest Honors. 

Angell Boss Babbitt, Honors. 

Walter Alias Damon, Do. 

Frank Elwood Jennison, Do. 

Edwin Guthrie Mclnnes, Do. 

Joseph Henry Sheffield, Do. 

John Henry Wigmore, Do. 

In Modern Languages. 
Charles Hall Grandgent, Highest Honors. 



Edward Cummings, 



In Philosophy . 



Honors. 



In Political Science. 
Robert Emmet O'Callaghan, Highest Honors. 

George Henry Heilbron, Honors. 



In History. 




John Hubbard Wilkins Edgerly, 


Highest Honors. 


Everett Wyman Sawyer, 


Do. 


Charles Joseph Hubbard, 


Honors. 


Patrick Michael Keating, 


Do. 


Samuel Norris, 


Do. 


In Mathematics. 




Mellen Woodman Haskell, 


Honors. 


Edwin Cull Howell, 


Do. 


Alfred Church Lane, 


Do. 



HONORABLE MENTION. 157 



In Natural History. 

Walter Lincoln Burrage, Honors. 

Henry Barton Jacobs, Do. 

Honorable Mention at Graduation. 

Gwynn Murdoch Andrews. History. 

Luther Atwood. Natural History ; Greek. 

Angell Boss Babbitt. Greek ; Latin ; English Composition. 

Thomas Cogswell Bachelder. German ; Mathematics. 

Lucas Lee Baker. Natural History. 

David Nevins Baxter. German. 

Horace Binney. History ; English Composition. 

Jeffrey Richardson Brackett. History ; English Composition. 

William Wendell Bryant. History ; English Composition. 

James Merrill Burch. History. 

Albert Cameron Burrage. German; English Composition. 

George Dixwell Burrage. History ; Philosophy ; English Composition. 

Walter Lincoln Burrage. Natural History. 

Edward Knowles Butler. History. . 

Robert Gordon Butler. History; English Composition. 

Edward Twisleton Cabot. History ; Greek ; Latin. 

Henry Bromfield Cabot. Political Economy. 

Charles Dexter Canterbury. History. 

Francis Lewis Clark. Natural History. 

Russell Sturgis Codman. History. 

Joseph Randolph Coolidge. German; Greek. 

Louis Arthur Coolidge. History. 

Thomas Washington Cowgill. English; Greek; English Composition. 

Henry Howland Crapo. Philosophy. 

Edward Cummings. History; Philosophy; English Composition. 

Walter Curtis. Natural History. 

Walter Reeves Dame. History. 

Walter Elijah Damon. Greek; Latin. 

William Lawrence Dana. Natural History. 

Arthur Clark Denniston. History ; Political Economy. 

George Garrett Dunn. History. 

Morris Earle. Natural History. 

James Hamlet Bolt Easton. History. 

Percival James Eaton. Chemistry ; Natural History. 

John Hubbard Wilkins Edgerly. History. 

Henry Ransom Edwards. History. 

Robert Berry Ennis. Natural History. 

George William Evans. Physics; Mathematics. 

William Faxon. Philosophy; History; English Composition. 

Francis Britain Fay. Natural History ; English Composition. 

John William Fox. English Composition. 






158 HONORABLE MENTION AT GRADUATION. 

Richard Pearce Francis. Natural History. 

James Newton Garratt. Chemistry ; Natural History ; Mathematics. 

Clarence Getchell. Chemistry ; Natural History. 

Charles Hall Grandgent. French; German; English Composition. 

Edward Everett Hale. History ; Political Economy. 

Henry Marty n Hall. Natural History. 

James Milton Hall. History. 

Charles Sumner Hamlin. English Composition ; Political Economy. 

Mellen Woodman Haskell. German ; Mathematics ; English Composition. 

George Henry Heilbron. History; English Composition; Political Economy. 

George Ross Hewitt. Philosophy ; English Composition. 

Archibald Livingstone Hodges. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 

Benjamin Blake Holmes. German. 

Charles Witherle Hooke. Chemistry. 

Franklin Henry Hooper. History. 

George Ebenezer How T e. History ; English Composition. 

Edwin Cull Howell. Latin; Mathematics; English Composition. 

Charles Joseph Hubbard. History ; English Composition. 

Ernest Sanford Jack. Natural History. 

Henry Barton Jacobs. Natural History. 

Frank Elwood Jennison. Greek; Latin. 

Louis Osborne Johnson. Natural History. 

Paul Jones. History. 

Frank Warton Kaan. Political Economy. 

Patrick Michael Keating. History ; Greek. 

Chokichi Kikkawa. English Composition. 

Stephen Herrick Knight. Chemistry ; Natural History, 

Alfred Church Lane. Mathematics. 

Howard Lilienthal. Natural History. 

Herbert Marshall Lloyd. Greek ; English Composition. 

Morris Loeb. Chemistry ; English Composition. 

Augustus Mendon Lord. English; English Composition. 

William Tyler Lord. Natural History. 

George Emerson Lowell. German; Greek ; Latin. 

Arthur Lyman. Philosophy ; History. 

Edwin Guthrie Mclnnes. Greek ; History ; Mathematics. 

Arthur Richmond Marsh. Greek ; English Composition. 

Sollace Mitchell. Natural History. 

Reuben Burnham Moffat. History. 

John Farwell Moors. Philosophy. 

George Patrick Morris. Greek. 

Charles Francis Morse. German. 

Frederick Nichols. History ; English Composition. 

George Henry Nichols. German ; English. 

William Edgar Nies. Philosophy ; English Composition. 

Samuel Norris. History ; Political Economy. 

James Atkins Noyes. Chemistry ; Natural History. 

Robert Emmet O'Callaghan. Philosophy ; Political Economy. 



SECOND-YEAR HONORS. 159 

Walter Everard Paul. Natural History. 
Sumner Bass Pearmain. German ; Natural History. 
John Downer Pennock. Chemistry. 
Oscar Edward Perry. Greek. 
[ Alonzo Wilder Pollard. History. 

i Herbert Putnam. Latin ; English Composition ; Political Economy. 
\ Osgood Putnam. Philosophy , English Composition. 
Charles Ranlet. Philosophy. 

Fletcher Ranney. History ; English ; English Composition. 
Frederic Gray Reed. Chemistry ; Greek. 
Daniel Merchant Richardson. Italian ; Spanish. 
Charles Enoch Robinson. Fine Arts. 

Edmund Swett Rousmaniere. Philosophy ; English Composition. 
William Alvah Rublee. French. 
Sabin Pond Sanger. German. 

Everett Wyman Sawyer. History ; Political Economy ; English Composition. 
Henry Francis Sears. German. 
Archibald Lowery Sessions. History. 
Joseph Henry Sheffield. Greek ; Latin. 
Ormond Gerald Smith. French ; English Composition. 
Walter Edward Clifton Smith. Philosophy. 
Henry Lloyd Smyth. Mathematics. 
Horace Elmer Sprague. Greek ; Latin. 
Arthur Kingsbury Stone. History. 
William Dunning Sullivan. Natural History. 
Alfred Tonks. Chinese. 

William Wadsworth Wentworth. Natural History. 
Daniel Appleton White. Philosophy. 
John Henry Wigmore. Greek ; Latin ; English Composition ; Political 

Economy. 
Richard Baker Wilcox. History ; Political Economy ; English Composition. 
William Hall Williams. Philosophy. 

Charles Edgar Lewis Wingate. English Composition ; Political Economy. 
George Scott Winslow. History. 

Arthur Henry Woodbury. Greek; English Composition. 
Charles Pomeroy Worcester. Chemistry ; Natural History. 
Alphonso Adelbert Wyman. Political Economy. 

Second-Year Honors. 

In Classics. 
Juniors : 

Charles Francis Aiken, Honors. 

James Richard Jewett, Do. 

Francis James Riley, Do. 

Thomas Stanley Simonds, Do. 

Sophomores : 

Arthur Deloraine Corey, Highest Honors. 

Theodore Dunham, Do. 



160 



DETURS. 



Henry Theodore Hildreth, 


Highest Honors. 


Rollin North Larrabee, 


Do. 


Daniel William Lothman, 


Do. 


Thomas Aloysius Mullen, 


Do. 


Abner Ernest Strong, 


Do. 


Richard Aldrich, 


Honors. 


Clarence Walter Ayer, 


Do. 


Paul Shipman Drane, 


Do. 


John Hays Gardiner, 


Do. 


Charles Bertie Gleason, 


Do. 


William Leverett, 


Do. 


Edward Dudley Marsh, 


Do. 


George Read Nutter, 


Do. 


Frederic Eugene Puffer, 


Do. 


William Christopher Smith, 


Do. 


Andrew Henshaw Ward, 


Do. 


Edward Franklin Weld, 


Do. 


Edward Blake Young, 


Do. 


In Mathematics. 




Juniors : 




George Andrew Stewart, 


Highest Honors 


Sophomores : 




Hugh Henry Brogan, 


Highest Honors 


George Fauntleroy Davidson, 


Do. 


William Morrow Mclnnes, 


Do. 


Arthur Gordon Webster, 


Do. 


Daniel Lyman Hazard, 


Honors. 


James Lee Mitchell, 


Do. 


Abner Ernest Strong, 


Do. 



IV. 



PRIZES. 

DETURS. 

The following students received books, called " Deturs," from the founda- 
tion of Edward Hopkins, for excellence in scholarship: — 

Freshmen of 1881-82. 
Charles Bertie Gleason, Richard Aldrich. 

Thomas Aloysius Mullen, 

Freshmen of 1882-83. 
John Henry Huddleston, Charles Sumner Balcombe, 

Edmund Nathaniel Snyder, Walter Bowen Waterman, 

Joseph Newell Palmer, Edward Everett Rankin, 



BOWDOIN AND BOYLSTON PRIZES. 161 

George Rice Carpenter, Percy Gardner Bolster, 

Hammond La Monte, Thomas Hovey Gage, 

Eben Richards, Henry Edward Eraser, 

George Edwin Howes, Selwyn Lewis Harding, 

Nehemiah Samuel Kenison, Boylston Adams Beal, 

William Eogg Osgood, John McKinstry Merriam, 

Charles Thornton Libby, Walter Thomas Clark, 

Alfred Henry Lloyd, Albert Augustus Gleason, 

Herbtrt Bacon Hutchins, Frank Burr Mallory, 

Myron AYallace Richardson, Fred Theodore Lincoln, 

Clarence Wright Smith, Binney Gunnison. 



Bowdoin Prizes. 

I. 

George Pellew, of the Class of 1880, of the Law School. 
George Lyman Kittredge, of the Class of 1882. 

Charles Bingham Penrose, of the Class of 1881, Graduate Student in 
Physics. 

II. 
Heinrich Conrad Bierwirth, of the Class of 1884. 
Edward Wheeler Frost, of the Class of 1884. 
Lewis Edward Gates, of the Class of 18S4. 

III. a. 
Arthur Richmond Marsh, of the Class of 1883. 

III. b. 
Philip Henry Goepp, of the Class of 1884. 

IV. 

Francis Britain Fay, of the Class of 1883. 

Charles Alexander Whittemore, of the Class of 1885. 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution. 
First Prizes. 
George Burnap Morison, of the Class of 1883. 
Fred Leland Sawyer, of the Class of 1883. 

Second Prizes. 
George Russell Agassiz, of the Class of 1884. 
Edwin Everett Jack, of the Class of 1884. 
William Hussey Page, of the Class of 1883. 
11 



162 



LEE PRIZES — DEGREES. 



Lee Phizes for Reading. 

Sophomores. 
Howard Augustus Taylor, 
James Henry Payne, 
Herbert Bacon Hutchins, 
Odin Barnes Roberts, 
Henry Edward Fraser. 



Fresh?nen. 



Winthrop Tisdale Talbot, from Boston Latin School. 
Franklin Elmer Ellsworth Hamilton, from Boston Latin School. 
Livingston Boyd Stedman, from Roxbury Latin School. 
Archibald Gary Coolidge, from Adams Academy. 



DEGREES. 

Bachelors of Arts of the Class of 1883 

Bachelors of Arts of former Classes 

Bachelors of Divinity 

Bachelors of Laws li 

Doctors of Medicine 71 

Doctors of Dental Medicine 

Bachelors of Science 

Bachelor of Agriculture 

Doctors of Philosophy 

Masters of Arts 31 



Honorary Degrees. 

Doctors of Laws. 



George Edward Ellis, 
Francis Amasa Walker. 



Doctor' of Divinity. 
Charles Babbidge. 



COMMITTEES OF OVERSEERS. 



VI. 



COMMITTEES OF THE OVERSEERS FOR 1883. 



163 



To visit the University. 



President of the Board of Overseers. 
His Excellency the Governor. 
His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor. 
The President of the Senate. 
The Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 



The Secretary of the Board of Edu- 
cation. 

The Secretary of the Board of Over- 
seers. 

The Chairman of each of the Visiting 
Committees. 



Charles R. Codman. 

Edwin P. Seaver. 

Edward E. Hale. 

Theodore Lyman. 

Henry Lee. 

John Noble. 

J. T. G. Nichols. 



To visit the College. — On Government. 
Le Baron Russell. 
Moorfield Storey. 
John Fiske. 
James E. Cabot. 
Richard M. Hodges. 
Solomon Lincoln. 
John T. Morse, Jr. 



Le Baron Russell. 
Robert D. Smith. 
Thomas W. Higginson 
John Noble. 
Arthur Dexter, 
W. B. Swett. 
William J. Rolfe. 
Charles P. Curtis. 
Robert E. Babson. 
Edward Edes. 



To visit the College. — On Languages. 
Carl Wolff. 

Lucius H. Buckingham. 
Octavius B. Frothingham. 
Thomas J. Cushing. 
Francis A. Waterhouse. 
Horatio G. Curtis. 
Francis H. Peabody. 
Henry W. Haynes. 
Robert Hale Bancroft. 
Francis Peabody, Jr. 



To visit the College. — On Rhetoric and English Literature. 
Moorfield Storey. Henry W. Foote. 

Charles R. Codman. 
George B. Chase. 
Roger W r olcott. 



Charles P. Curtis. 
Josiah Quincy, Jr. 



To visit the College. — On Histonj and Political Science. 



John Fiske. 
John T. Morse, Jr. 
Alexander McKenzie. 
Thomas W. Higginson. 
Henry C. Lodge. 
Edward G. Porter. 



John O. Means. 
James H. Means. 
Russell Gray. 
Abbott Lawrence. 
Brooks Adams. 



161 



COMMITTEES OF OVERSEERS. 



James E. Cabot. 
Alexander McKenzie. 
Charles F. Adams, Jr. 



To visit the College. — On Philosophy. 
Joseph B. Warner. 
John O. Means. 
John Fiske. 



To visit the College. — On Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry. 



Edwin P. Seaver. 
Daniel B. Hagar. 
William Watson. 
George V. Leverett. 
J. D. Runkle. 
Percival Lowell. 



E. D. Leavitt, Jr. 
Channing Whitaker. 
Oliver Wadsworth. 
Francis Blake, Jr. 
Robert Amory. 
Walter C. Cabot. 



To visit tin 
Richard M. Hodges. 
Theodore Lyman. 
William H. Niles. 



College. — On Natural History. 
Francis Skinner. 
Edward T. Bouve. 
AVilliam Brewster. 



To visit the College. — On Fine Arts and Music. 



Henry Lee. 
Charles C. Perkins. 
S. L. Thorndike. 
John S. Dwight. 
William F. Apthorp. 



Charles G. Loring. 
Charles A. Cummings. 
J. Francis Tnckerman. 
W. P. P. Longfellow. 
Robert Boyd. 



Edward E. Hale. 
James F. Clarke. 
Phillips Brooks. 
Alexander McKenzie. 
Edward H. Hall. 
Artemas B. Muzzey. 
Franklin Johnson. 



To visit the Divinity School. 

Waldo Higginson. 
Henry W. Foote. 
Charles F. Dole. 
Thomas Hill. 
Arthur Brooks. 
F. W. Holland. 



William G. Russell. 
John Lowell. 
Leverett Salton stall. 
George O. Shattuck. 
Darwin E. Ware. 
William C. Endicott. 
Robert D. Smith. 



To visit the Law School. 

Francis E. Parker. 
Solomon Lincoln. 
Robert M. Morse, Jr. 
Francis C. Barlow. 
Peter B. Olney. 
Charles C. Beaman, Jr. 
Edmund Wetmore. 



COMMITTEES OF OVERSEERS. 



165 



To visit the Scientific School, 
American Archaeology and 
Zoology. 

Morrill Wymaii. 
Theodore Lyman. 
11 M. Hodges. 
Stephen Salisbury. 
John 0. Sargent. 
Henry P. Kidder. 
Robert W. Hooper. 
Abbott Lawrence. 
Francis M. AVeld. 



the Bussey Institution, the Peabody Museum of 
Ethnology, and the Museum of Comparative 

Channing Whitaker. 
Charles O. Thompson. 
T. Jefferson Coolidge. 
Alphonse Fteley. 
Clemens Herschel. 
Ernest W. Bowditch. 
S. M. Felton. 
Thomas C. Clarke. 



To visit the Medical and Dental Schools. 

Le Baron Russell. Hall Curtis. 

Morrill Wyman. Samuel L. Abbott. 

Richard M. Hodges. Francis M. Weld. 

Samuel A. Green. Algernon Coolidge. 

Joseph Sargent. John C. Dalton. 

Frederic Winsor. Austin Flint. 
George C. Shattuck. 



James F. Clarke. 
Charles R. Codman. 
William Amory. 
Amos A. Lawrence. 
J. Iugersoll Bowditch. 
John C. Palfrey. 
George I. Alden. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Robert C. Winihrop. 



To visit the Observatory. 

Charles F. Choate. 
A Ivan Clark. 
Frederic O. Prince. 
Augustus Lowell. 
J. Montgomery Sears. 
Simon Newcomb. 
T. Jefferson Coolidge. 
Francis H. Peabody. 



Samuel A. Green, 
Phillips Brooks. 
John Fiske. 
John T. Morse, Jr. 
John 0. Sargent. 
William W. Greenough. 
Charles A. Cutter. 
George W. Wales. 
Charles C. Smith. 
Samuel S. Green. 
Stephen Salisbury, Jr. 



To visit the Library. 

Samuel Eliot. 
Francis V. Balch. 
Henry G. Denny. 
Charles Deane. 
Henry F. Jenks. 
Mellen Chamberlain. 
George Dexter, 
John M. Brown. 
Charles F. Adams, Jr. 
Robert Grant. 



166 



COMMITTEES OF OVERSEERS. 



To visit the Botanic Garden and Herbarium. 



Leverett Saltonstall. 
Fred. L. Ames. 
William Boott. 
John Cummings. 
William Gray, Jr. 
Augustus Lowell. 
H. H. Hunnewell. 
J. Warren Merrill. 



Francis A. Osborn. 
John C. Phillips. 
Henry P. Walcott. 
Henry W. Sargent. 
Henry C. Lodge. 
J. Pierpont Morgan. 
Thomas Meehan. 



Henry P. Kidder. 
Amos A. Lawrence. 
Charles H. Parker. 



On Treasurer's Accounts. 

Israel M. Spelman. 
George B. Chase. 
Solomon Lincoln. 



Charles R. Codman. 
Moorfield Storey. 
John Lowell. 



Robert D. Smith. 
Robert M. Morse, Jr. 
Solomon Lincoln. 
William Amory. 



On Elections. 

William G. Russell. 
Leverett Saltonstall. 

On Reports and Resolutions. 

Francis E. Parker. 

Henry Lee. 

Charles F. Adams, Jr. 



INDEX. 



Admission examinations at other places than Cambridge 20 

Admission to College, statistics of 50-56 

Appointments 6-10 

Arnold Arboretum, report on 136-138 

,, ,, Herbarium and Museum 138 

,, ,, to be used as a park 37,137,149 

Athletic contests, intercollegiate 22 

Austin Hall 27, 94 

Botanic Garden, report on 37, 116-119 

,, ,, apparatus for research 117 

,, ,, better provision of water 116 

,, ,, changes in 118 

,, ,, relabelling 117 

Bussey Farm, new treatment of 33, 104 

Bussey Institution, report on . 104, 105 

Chemical Laboratory, report on 38, 119-122 

,, ,, instruction in 120 

,, ,, publications from 121 

,, ,, summer course in 121 

College Faculty, constitution of 16-20 

College, report on 45-78 

,, instruction in 57-77 

,, number of weekly exercises by departments 76 

Committees of the overseers 163-166 

Deaths 3 

Degrees conferred 162 

Dental School, report on 101-103 

,, ,, growth of 31 

,, ,, needs of . . . 103 

,, new appointments in 32 

Dining Hall Association 41 

Dining Hall, prices of board at 40 

Divinity Hall, improved 26, 89 

Divinity School, report on 82-90 

,, ,, elective studies in 26, 86-90 

,, ,, instruction in 82-85 

,, ,, variety of theological teaching in 25 

Financial policy of the Corporation 42 

Graduate Department, report on 78-82 

Graduate scholarships needed , . 15, 77 

Graduates of other colleges at Harvard 14 

Herbarium, report on 36, 114-116 

,, additions to 114 

Honorable mention at graduation 157-159 

Honors at graduation 154-156 

,, second-year 159 



168 INDEX. 



Increase in numbers of students 10 

Law School, report on 90-95 

,, ,, attendance at 1870-83 90 

,, ,, instruction in 92, 93 

,, ,, new appointment in 27 

,, ,, new building of 27 

,, ,, new endowment needed 28 

,, ,, results of examinations . . 91, 94 

Lawrence Scientific School, report on 103 

Library, report on 108-114 

,, accessions to Ill 

,, bibliographical contributions 108 

,, classification of Greek and Latin classics 109 

,, catalogue in arrears 34 

,, cataloguing staff should be permanent 35 

,, work done on the catalogue 112 

use of 112 

Master's degree 15, 78 

Medical School, report on 95-100 

,, ,, instruction in 90-98 

,, ,, new appointments in 31 

,, ,, new building of . 28 

,, ,, results of examinations 99 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, report on 139-147 

,, ,, ,, instruction given at 143, 144 

,, ,, ,, publications ...... 144-146 

,, ,, ,, ten years progress of . 39, 139-143 

Natural history instruction, development of 39 

Observatory, report on 38, 122-136 

,, additional endowment of 128 

,, astronomical photography 130 

,, employment of instruments 123-129 

,, publications 134 

,, telegraphic announcements 132 

,, time signals 131 

,, variable stars 129 

Overseers, age of 23 

Physical training 24 

Political science, increase of instruction in ... 24, 72 

Preparatory Schools, six compared 21 

Prizes 160-162 

Public health, professorship of needed 30 

Public lectures and readings 25 

Resignations 4-6 

Restrictions on gifts and bequests 41 

Special students 11-13, 48-50 

Summary of students in the University 154 

Unrestricted gifts and bequests 41 

Veterinary Hospital 32, 106 

Veterinary School, report on 100-108 

" ,, first class in 106 

Veterinary science, importance of 33 



TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 




1883. 



TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 



To the Board of Overseers of Harvard College: — 

The Treasurer of the College submits the Annual State- 
ment of the financial affairs of the University, for the year 
ending August 31, 1883, in the usual form. 

The Funds separately invested, with the income thereof, 
are as follows : — 

Principal. Income. 

UNIVERSITY. 
George B. Dorr Fund (part of) , 

$2,000 Union Pacific R. R. Bonds, ^ . $50.50 

$4,000 Chic, Burl. &Qu." " Isold during the year, . 117.56 

150 shares Morris & Essex R.R.Co., J . 525.00 

50 " Pittsb'g.,Ft. Wayne & Chic. R. R. Co., $6,025.00 262.50 

100 " New York & Harlem R. R. Co., . . 10,250.00 500.00 

187 " Pennsylvania Coal Co., 25,525.50 1,496.00 

Income received from Mr. Dorr's executor, 2,673.74 

COLLEGE. 
Stoughton Scholarship (part of), 

Real Estate in Dorchester, 1,294.30 none 

Pennoyer Scholarships (part of), 

Pennoyer Annuity in England, 4,444.44 277.50 

Rumford Professorship (part of), 

French Rentes, 10,000.00 580.80 

Jonathan Phillips Fund, 

Mortgage, 10,000.00 500.00 

Daniel H. Peirce Fund (part of), 

Mortgage, 12,830.74 638.35 

Samuel Ward's Gift, 

Ward's (Bumkin) Island, Boston Harbor, . . . 1,200.00 50.00 

Botanic Garden Fund (part of), 

$17,000 N. Y. Central R. R. Bonds, paid off during the year, 1,012.95 

Amounts carried forward, . . .$82,169.98 $8,684.90 



Amounts brought forward, $82,169.98 $8,684.90 

LIBRARY. 
Charles Minot Fund (part of), 

$60,000, Buffalo, Bradford, & Pittsb. R. R. Bonds, 60,000.00 4,200.00 
Ichabod Tucker Fund (part of), 

Policy of Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., . . 5,000.00 200.00 



SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

John B. Barringer Fund (part of), 

40 shares Schenectady Bank Stock, .... 2,200.00 200.00 



MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

Edward M. Barringer Fund (part of) , 

10 shares Schenectady Bank Stock, 600.00 25.00 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

Agassiz Memorial Fund (part of) , 

Personal notes (endorsed), 20,780.46 1,496.73 



OBSERVATORY. 

Anonymous gift (now used to pay annuity), 

$1,000, Michigan South'n & No. Indiana R.R. Bond, 1,000.00 70.00 

$2,000, Cincinnati Municipal Bonds, 2,000.00 140.00 

$2,000 Minneapolis Municipal Bonds, . .... 2,000.00 160.00 
50 shares Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, & Chicago, R. R. 

Stock, 5,000.00 350.00 



SPECIAL FUNDS. 
Bussey Trust, 

Real Estate, .413,092.80 17,109.30 

Robert Troup Paine Fund (accumulating), 

$23,500 Mass. 5% Bonds, 26,957.50 1,149.72 

New Law School Professorship (part of), 

Personal note, 90,000.00 4,500.00 

$710,800.74 $38,285.65 



The other Funds of the College are invested as a whole. 
The general investments, with the ineome thereof, are as 
follows : — 



Principal, 




August 31, 1SS3. 


Income. 


$902,294.26 


$42,208.03 


1,068,636.42 


00,383.01 


100,811.93 


8,274.00 


9,000.00 


700.00 


G3,9G4.00 


4,021.95 


103,658.29 


0,425.00 


1,408,192.42 


81,099.40 


74,487.79 




1,000.00 




4,055.30 


282.44 


13,059.36 


809.30 


40,260.13 


2,020.07 


34,732.10 


2,173.93 


190.58 




75,397.30 




2,097.77 




7,195.40 




1,855.00 




3,913,094.83 


209,057.73 


710,800.74 


38,285.05 



3 

Principal, 
Investments. September 1, 1SS2. 

Notes, Mortgages, &c, .$843,830.83 

Railroad Bonds and Premiums, . . 1,010,885.85 

Railroad Stock, . . 100,811.93 

New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bonds, 9,000.00 

Bank Stock, 03,904.00 

Manufacturing Stock, 102,058.29 

Real Estate, . 1,390,523.30 

Unoccupied Lands, 75,487.79 

Brattle Street Reversion, 1,000.00 

Advances to Scientific School, . . . 4,707.27 
" " Dental School, .... 14,488.37 

" Bussey Trust, 40,500.13 

11 " Dining Hall Association, 30,232.10 
11 " Scudder's Catalogue, . 208.80 

" " Books, 29.36 

" for altering Appleton Chapel, 2,859.62 
Term Bills due Oct., 1883, .... 70,016.74 

Term Bills overdue, 2,367.01 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, . 9,211.25 
Cash in hands of Bursar, . . . . 5,090.99 
Totals of general investments, 3,825,345.75 
Totals of special investments, 686,515.84 

Amounts, . . . $4,511,861.59 $4,623,895.57 $247,943.38 

During the year there have been no important changes in 
the investments. The sum of $17,000, received in payment 
for $17,000 of New York Central R. R. bonds, which were 
held as a special investment for the Botanic Garden Fund, 
has been credited to the Lowell Fund for a Botanic Garden, 
in accordance with the provision made by those who gave the 
bonds in 1867. The sum of $1000 being the gain of capital 
from the payment at par of New York Central R. E. bonds 
held for the " general investments," has been credited to the 
account of "Unoccupied Lands," to reduce the book valuation 
of that investment. The account of " railroad bond premi- 
ums" has been charged with $4600 for the premium paid 
upon $25,000 of seven per cent bonds purchased, and it has 
been credited with $742.50 as the gain upon $27,000 of Chic, 
Burl. & Quincy R. R. bonds bought and sold during the year, 
and with $5460 which was taken from the interest received 
on $546,000 of seven per cent bonds held during the whole 
year. This account is also charged temporarily with $104.32 
for the difference between accrued interest advanced and that 



repaid during the year. An additional story has been built 
upon the Gray Estate in Washington Street, at a cost of 
$12,119.12, of which $450 was paid in the previous year, 
and the valuation of the estate has been increased therefor 
during the year by the amount of $11,669.12. Such of the 
securities received for the George B. Dorr Fund and the 
E. M. Barringer Fund as could be advantageously sold have, 
in accordance with the settled policy of the University, been 
turned into cash and the amount thereof credited to those 
Funds against the "general investments." These securities 
were first entered at the executors' valuations, which in some 
cases differed considerably from the market value at the time 
they were transferred to the College, but as the College re- 
ceived the property as residuary legatee, the valuations were 
not important. The purchase of land in Dorchester was made 
in order to obtain suitable access to the " Stoughton Pasture," 
which is held for the Stoughton scholarship, subject to a 
lease for one hundred years, which will expire in 1896. The 
Stoughton Pasture is a part of the old real estate of the Col- 
lege which is exempted from taxation by the. Constitution of 
Massachusetts. All other changes in the investments of the 
University are sufficiently accounted for by the receipts and 
payments hereinafter stated in detail. 

The net income of the general investments ($209,657.73) 
has been divided at the rate of 5 57 per cent among the 
Funds to which they belong, after allowing to the Medical 
School, Law School, and Physical Laboratory Building 
Funds a special rate of four per cent on their balances dur- 
ing the period of construction. The balance of $40.78 has 
been placed to the credit of the University account. 

The rate of income this year as compared with that for 
1881-82 shows a falling off of T ffo of one per cent, but as 
the rate is still above that which can now be got from new 
investments with sufficient security it is to be expected that 
there will be a further falling off from time to time. Large 
outlays during a single year for repairs, improvements, and 
insurance upon productive real estate often cause fluctuations 
in the rate of income which have no special significance. The 
cost of all improvements upon real estate, other than addi- 



tions yielding increased income, is taken from the rent of the 
year in which the improvements are made. No other pro- 
vision is made to offset the impairment of capital which is 
constantly going on, owing to the competition of newer 
buildings rather than the actual wearing out of the older 
ones. 

The following table shows the income available for the 
departments dependent upon the College proper, and the 
expenditures in those departments : — 

Interest on funds for 

University Salaries and Expenses, $24,555.62 

College Expenses, . .' 3,148.16 

Library, 1,331.62 

College Salaries, 29,583.85 

Gymnasium, and repairs on College buildings, . . 'none. 

College Term bills, 173,002.27 

Sundry cash receipts, 8,742.46 

240,363.98 

Expended for 

University Salaries and Expenses, $28,081.49 

College Expenses, 36,511.11 

Library Salaries and Expenses (not books), 20,011.93 

College Salaries, 137,624.19 

Gymnasium Expenses, 8,956.08 

Repairs and insurance on College Buildings not valued 

on Treasurer's books, • . 6,465.91 

237,650.71 

Balance, which has been carried to Stock Account, to 

repay in part the deficit of last year, $2,713.27 

A large increase in the number of undergraduates and the 
the receipt during the year of more than a year's income from 
the new George B. Dorr Fund have allowed a current ex- 
penditure for the University, College, and Library about 
equal to that of the previous year, increased expenses for 
some purposes being offset by reductions elsewhere. They 
have also provided the sums required for the taking of the 
old Gymnasium, and for the return to the " Stock Account" 
of $2713.27, as a partial repayment of last year's deficit. 
For 1881-82 the deficit for the University, College, and Li- 
brary was $14,738.64. 

For the Divinity School the income has been sufficient to 
meet increased outlay for improvements, and to give a 
surplus of $1322.59. For 1881-82 there was a surplus of 
$2819.41. 



G 

The decrease in the number of Law students has caused a 
deficit of $1674.46 for the Law School, notwithstanding gains 
in the income from the new Book Fund and from the Bussey 
Trust. For 1881-82 there was a surplus of $364.26. The 
terms of gift of the New Professorship Fund required its 
income to be added to the principal during the vacancy in 
the professorship. 

The Medical School has made a surplus of $3562.20, not- 
withstanding increased expenses and a loss in fees from stu- 
dents. For 1881-82 the surplus was $7843.92. A serious 
fire occurred on May 11, 1883, in the new building for the 
Medical School, but the sum of $18,569.76 which was re- 
ceived therefor from the insurance companies fully covered 
the cost of repairs. 

The Dental School has been able to largely increase its out- 
lay for instruction and make a surplus of $829.01, which has 
been used to reduce the debt of the School. For 1881-82 the 
surplus was $1339.37. 

For the Lawrence Scientific School there is a surplus of 
$651.97, which has been used to reduce the debt of the School. 
For 1881-82 the surplus was $197.87. The sum of $4226.23 
from the income of the Agassiz Memorial Fund has been used 
to repay in part the notes given by Mr. Agassiz to the 
Memorial Fund for advances on account of the extension of 
the Museum building. Mr. Agassiz has continued to make 
very large private outlays for the benefit of the Museum. 

The expenses of the Observatory have consumed all the 
subscriptions for current use received within the year and 
left a deficit of $2409.46, which has been provided for out of 
the annual subscriptions paid in advance during the year 
1878-79. For 1881-82 there was a deficit of $1172.67/ 

The Bussey Institution has had gains in fees from students 
and in income from the Bussey Trust, which have allowed a 
considerable increase of expenditure. The deficit for the 
year is $755.05, but this has been provided for out of the 
surplus of the previous year which was $805.55. 

The gross income from the Bussey stores slightly exceeded 
that of last year, but heavy expenditure for repairs and im- 
provements, especially in the heating and hoisting depart- 



ment, has been necessary in continuation of the like expendi- 
ture of last year. There has, however, been a moderate gain 
in net income. 

During the year the Mary Osgood Annuity Fund has be- 
come the Mary Osgood Book Fund, owing to the death of the 
annuitant, and a part of the Lucy Osgood Annuity Fund has 
for the like reason become the Lucy Osgood Book Fund. 
The name of the Botanic Garden Fund has been changed to 
that of the Botanic Department Fund, and the Stoughton 
Scholarship Fund has been separated from the « « Exhibitions " 
account, which included it. 

Gifts have been received during the year as follows: — 

TO FORM NEW FUNDS OR INCREASE OLD ONES. 

From Edward Russell, $125, to increase the scholarship 
founded by him. 

From the Class of 1828, $1294, being the amount of the 
Class Fund, for the establishment of a scholarship to be called 
the " Scholarship of the Class of 1828." 

From Rev. James Gr. Rodger, $600, to found a scholarship 
in Harvard College, and for the benefit of the Divinity School. 

From the executor of George B. Dorr, property at valua- 
tions amounting to $1 11,150, on account of a residuary bequest 
' ' for the benefit of the general funds " of Harvard College 
without any restriction whatever. The sum of $2673.74 was 
also received from Mr. Dorr's executor as income from said 
property. 

From the executor of Edward M. Barriuger, property at 
valuations amounting to $27,159.53, on account of a residuary 
bequest for the benefit of the Medical School. This valuation 
considerably exceeded the market value of the property at the 
time it was received. 

Subscriptions for the increase of the Botanic Department 
Fund, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Alexander Agassiz . . . $1000 William Perkins .... $100 

George Higginson . . . 1000 Jacob C. Rogers .... 100 

Mrs. Frances A. Minns . . 250 Samuel D. Warren . . . 1000 

$3450 



8 



Subscriptions for the endowment of a Physical Labora- 
tory, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Frederick L. Ames . .* $10,000 Charles F. Choate . . . $500 

Arthur W. Blake .... 500 William Endicott, Jr. . . 2000 

$13,000 

Subscriptions to establish a fund of which the income shall 
be used for the purchase of books for the Law School, paid 
to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Francis Bartlett . . . $100. Henry P Kidder, $2000 of 

A friend, through Prof. bonds sold for . . . $1641.25 

Thayer 50. Henry Villard (2d instalm't) 5000. 

$6791.25 

Subscriptions for the further endowment of the Divinity 

School, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Everett, Prof. C. C. . 
Fish, Rev. William H. 



Abbot, Prof. Ezra . 
Allen, Rev. Joseph H. 
Bixby, Rev. James T. 
Bond, Rev. H. F. . 
Bowditch, J. Ingersoll 
Collyer, Rev. Robert 
Eliot, Charles W. . 



$100. Everett, Prof. C. C. . . . $100. 

40. Fish, Rev. William H. . . 10. 

33.33 Hall, Rev. E. H 30. 

10. Hale, Rev. E. E 33.33 

200. Lee, Henry 300. 

25. Lippitt, Henry .... 100. 

100. Wendte, Rev. Charles W. 50. 

$1131.66 

Subscriptions to be applied towards a fund for the endow- 
ment of the Dental School, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Jewell . 

Loveland 

Meriam 



Dr. George H. Ames 
Dr. F. E. Banfield 
Dr. A. G. Bouve . 
Dr. E. P. Bradbury 
Dr. E. C. Briggs . 
Dr. D. M. Clapp . 
Dr. T. H. Chandler 
Dr. E. E. Frost . 
Dr. Thomas Fillebrown 



$20 
50 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 



Dr. A. B. 

Dr. T. O. 
Dr. H. C. 
Dr. F. A. Merrill 
Dr. W. E. Page . 
Dr. L. D. Shepard 
Dr. S. S. Silva . 
Dr. E. H. Smith . 
Dr. J. G. W. Werner 



Subscriptions to be applied 
ment of the Observatory, paid 



Amory, William . . 


. $2000 


A friend, through Rev. J, 


imes 


Freeman Clarke 


. . 10,000 


Claflin, William . . 


. . 100 


Delano, Joseph C. 


. . 250 


Gardner, George . . 


. . 200 


Gardner, John L. . . 


. . 500 


Johnson, Samuel, Jr. 


. . 250 



$20 
50 
20 
20 
40 
20 
20 
20 
20 
$440 

towards a fund for the endow- 
to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Kidder, Henry P., $3000 

of bonds sold for. 
Lyman, Arthur T. . 
Lyman, Theodore . 
Sears, Mrs. David . 
Ware, Dr. Charles E 
Wolcott, Mr. and Mrs. J. 

Huntington .... 



$2484.38 
500. 
200. 
200. 
500. 

. 200. 
$17,384.38 






9 



In order to increase the salary of the President of Harvard 
College subscriptions towards a fund have been paid to 
Sept. 1, 1883, from 



Mr. and Mrs. Henry Adams 


$1000 


Mrs. John E. Lodge 






$500 


Frederick L. Ames .... 5000 


Miss Anna C. Lowell 






1000 


Seorge Baty Blake 






500 


Augustus Lowell 






1000 


Stanton Blake . 






500 


Arthur T. Lyman . 






10UU 


Martin Brimmer 






2000 


Theodore Lyman . 






1000 


Walter C. Cabot 






500 


George A. Nickerson 






1000 


F. Gordon Dexter 






1000 


Charles J. Paine 






2000 


W. E. C. Eustis 






500 


Francis E. Parker . 






250 


William H. Forbes 






250 


George Putnam . . 






250 


John L. Gardner 






2500 


Henry B. Rogers 






1000 


Mrs. John L. Gardner 




2500 


W. G. Russell . . 






250 


George Higginson . . 




5000 


Stephen Salisbury . 






2000 


James J. Higginson . . 




1000 


Philip H. Sears . . 






1000 


Edward W. Hooper 




2000 


George O. Shattuck 






250 


Henry P. Kidder . . 




2000 


Quincy A. Shaw 






7000 


Henry Lee .... 




5000 


Nathaniel Thayer . 






5000 


Abbott Lawrence 






500 


J. Huntington Wolcott 






100 



$56,350 

Subscriptions towards a fund for retiring allowances to 
officers of the University, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 



William Amory . 
Arthur T. Lyman 



$1032.22 
500. 

$1532.22 



The Henry Bromneld Kogers Scholarship Fund has been 
established during the year. The President and Fellows have 
taken for University purposes the old Gymnasium building, 
and in accordance with the agreement made in 1859 with Mr. 
Eogers, who in that year anonymously gave the Gymnasium 
to the College, have appropriated a sum equal to its ap- 
praised value to a scholarship for undergraduates, amounting 
to $3180.50. 



GIFTS FOR IMMEDIATE USE. 



From George W. Wales, $200, for books for the Library, 
in continuance of former gifts for the same purpose. 

Subscriptions for the current expenses of the Observatory, 
paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 



10 






Adams, Charles Francis . . $100 

Ames, Fred. L 100 

Beal, James H 50 

Bremer, John L. . . . '. . 100 

Brimmer, Martin .... 100 

Cabot, Walter C 50 

Choate, Charles F 100 

Coolidge, T. Jefferson ... 100 

Curtis, Charles P 100 

Dalton, Charles H 50 

Fay, R. S 50 

Forbes, J. M 100 

Gardner, JohnL 100 

Grew, Henry S 50 

Hemenway, Mrs. A. . . . 100 

Higginson, George .... 100 

Hooper, Mrs. S 100 

Hunnewell, H. H 100 

Lodge, Mrs. Anna C. . . . 50 



Lowell, Augustus 
Norcross, Otis 
Paine, Charles J. 
Payson, Samuel R. 
Pickering, E. C. . 
Pickman, W. D. . 
Phillips, John C. . 
Robbins, R. E. . 
Sears, Mrs. David 
Sears, F. R. . . 
Shattuck, G. O. . 
Shaw, Mrs. Cora L. 
Thayer, Nathaniel 
Upham, George P. 
Weld, W. G. . . 
Wheelwright, A. C. 
Wigglesworth, Misses 
Winthrop, Robert C. 



$50 

100 

50 

50 

200 

200 

100 

50 

100 

50 

50 

30 

100 

50 

50 

50 

100 

50 



$3030 



A. Agassiz . . . 
Charles P. Curtis 
Henry Lee . . . 



$50 

200 

50 



Subscriptions to aid in publishing the University Bulletin, 
paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

C. S. Sargent $50 

W. B. Weeden 100 

$450 

From an anonymous friend, $500, to increase the salary of 
the Professor of Entomology. 

From Professor Josiah P. Cooke. $300, for the compensa- 
tion of an assistant in Chemistry. 

From the Dante Society, $100, for the purchase of books 
on Dante. 

For lectures on Political Economy, through William Gray, 
Treasurer, $300. 

Subscriptions towards the fund for the new building for 
the Medical School, paid to Sept. 1, 1883, from 

Arthur Blake $100 T. O. H. P. Burnham . . $1000 

J. A. Burnham 1000 Henry Woods 1000 

$3100 

From Quincy A. Shaw, $500, and Mrs. Emily W. Apple- 
ton, $500, to be spent for the Museum of the Medical School. 

From Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, the sum of $50,000, on 
account of his gift for the construction of the Jefferson Physi- 
cal Laboratory. 



11 

From the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, 
$1000, "as the salary during the current academic year of 
Mr. Sereno Watson, Curator of the Herbarium." 

From Thomas G. Appleton, acting on behalf of his brother 
Nathan Appleton, $2500, to be applied towards the expenses 
incurred in the improvements of Appleton Chapel. 

From Henry L. Higginson, $500, for the School of Veteri- 
nary Medicine. 

From Louis A. Shaw, $109.61, for the purchase of books 
for the French Department. 

The total amount of these gifts for immediate use is 
$63,089.61, as is also stated on page 14 of this report. 

OTHER GIFTS. 

From Edward John Ensor, a chronological chart. 

From William E. Darwin, an etching showing the study 
of the late Charles Darwin as it appeared on the day of his 
death. 

From Dr. R. M. Hodges and others, a bust of Professor 
Henry J. Bigelow, on condition that it shall be permanently 
placed in the surgical lecture room of the new Medical School 
building on Boylston St. 

From Dr. George H. Tilden and Dr. Francis H. Williams 
and others, a portrait of Professor Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
for the Harvard Medical School. 

From William Amory and others, acting as a committee 
of many graduates, a full-length portrait of President Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, painted by William M. Chase. 

From Henry Lee and Henry L. Higginson, a bust of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, by Daniel C. French. 

From Samuel J. Bridge, the offer of a bronze statue of 
John Harvard, to be made by Daniel C. French. 

From Henry Lee, the offer to provide the sum of $1500 a 
year for five years, for additional instruction in the depart- 
ment of Political Economy. 

EDWARD W. HOOPER, 

Treasurer. 
Boston, Dec. 20, 1883. 






12 



General Statement of Receipts and Disbursetnents 

for the year ending 
INCOME. 

Interest on notes, mortgages, and advances, $54,689.45 

" " Massachusetts 5% Bonds, 1,149.72 

" " Policy Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., 200.00 

" " New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bond, 700.00 

" " Bailroad Bonds (after deductions for sinking premiums). 
Atchison, Topeka, & St. Fe, 7%, .... $11,100.00 

Buffalo, Bradford & Pittsburg, 4,200.00 

Burlington & Mo. River in Nebraska, 6%, 15,450.00 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 7%, . . . 155.56 

Marion & McPherson. 1st Mortg., 7%, . 8,863.90 
Ionia & Lansing, 1st Mortg., 8%, .... 10,131.11 

Marq., Hough. & Onton., 6%, 1,267.60 

Kan. City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs, 7%, 3,000.00 
Kansas City, Topeka, & Western, 7%, . 6,452.78 
Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana, 70.00 

Union Pacific, 6%, 50.50 

New York Central, 6%, 1,668.40 

Lincoln & No. Western, 7%, 3,424.17 

65,834.02 

" " Municipal Bonds. 

Cincinnati, 140.00 

Minneapolis, 160.00 

300.00 

Dividends on Stocks. 

Charles River National Bank, 480.00 

First (Cambridge) " " 400.00 

Fitchburg " " 168.00 

Massachusetts " " 132.00 

Merchants " " 1,584.00 

New England " " 222.00 

Old Boston » " .... 550.00 

Schenectady " " (N. Y.), 225.00 

Bank taxes refunded, 1,085.95 

4,846.95 

Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., .... 1,440.00 
Amory " " .... 216.00 

Massachusetts " " .... 560.00 

Merrimack " " .... 850.00 

Nashua " " .... 1,440.00 

Stark Mills " " .... 1,200.00 

Wamsutta " " .... 704.00 

New Bedford Copper " .... 15.00 

6,425.00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., . . 7,826.00 
Pittsfield & North Adams Railroad, . . 315.00 

Quincy Railroad Bridge Company, . . . 133.00 

Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne, & Chicago R. R., 612.50 

Morris & Essex R. R., 525.00 

New York & Harlem R. R., 500.00 

9,911.50 

Pennsylvania Coal Co., 1,496.00 

Amount carried forward, $145,552.64 



13 

by the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
August 31, 1S83. 

EXPENSES. 
t*aid to account of Expenses in the 

University, as per Table I. (page 34), $34,151.81 

College, " "II. (page 36). 

Salaries for instruction, $137,624.19 

Repairs, 6,452.57 

Insurance on College Edifices, not valued on 

Treasurer's books, 13.34 

General Expenses, 36,511.11 

Scholarships, 25,256.66 

Beneficiaries, 2,618.61 

Prizes for Reading, &c, 1,512.10 

Botanic Garden, 5,778.81 

Herbarium, 1,884.00 

Gymnasium, 8,956.08 

226,607.47 

Library, as per Table III. (page 40). 

Books, 17,412.66 

Salaries and other expenses, 20,011.93 

37,424.59 

Divinity School, as per Table IV. (page 42). 

Salaries and other expenses, 21,535.55 

Scholarships and Beneficiaries, 1,489.01 



23,024.56 



Law School, as per Table V. (page 44), 132,378.46 

Medical School, as per Table VI. (page 45), 161,491.72 

Dental School, as per Table VII. (page 46), 4,945.77 

Lawrence Scientific School, as per Table VIII. (page 47). 

Salaries and other expenses, 19,339.12 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, .... 22,654.66 

42,043.78 

Observatory, as per Table IX. (page 48), 19,146.99 

Bussey Institution, f ~| 7,580.53 

School of Veterin'y Medicine, j as ( pe a r ™£® X * [ 609.22 
Arnold Arboretum, * ^ pagG •> 6,592.33 

14,782.08 



Amount carried forward $695,997.23 



ding 

KO CA 



M 

General /Statement of Iteceipts and Disbursements 

for the year en 
INCOME. 

Amount brought forward, . . $145,552.64 
Real Estate, from rents, &c. (gross receipts). 

Cambridge (Houses and Lands), 35,719.30 

Boston (general investments), 76,730.39 

Bussey stores, 33,595.98 

Sundry estates, 7,039.26 

153,084.93 

Term Bills. 

College, as per Table II., 173,002.27 

Divinity School, as per Table IV., 2,922.73 

Law School, as per Table V., 19,375.00 

Medical School, as per Table VI., 48,983.09 

Dental School, as per Table VII., 4,150.00 

Lawrence Scientific School, as per Table VIII., . 4,080.00 

Observatory, as per Table IX., 37.50 

Bussey Institution, as per Table X., 870.00 

253,420.59 

Sundries. 

From Wm. Pennoyer Annuity, 277.50 

Trustees of Thayer Scholarships, 3,600.00 

" Count Rumford's Legacy, . . . 580.80 

11 Edward Hopkins, 233.88 

For use of Library by resident graduates and others, 165.00 

Degrees of A.M., and Ph.D., 390.00 

Degree of Bachelor of Arts out of course, and Ex- 
amination fees, 744.00 

Fees in Infirmary and Laboratory, Dental School, . 1,295.90 
Printing by College Press for other Departments, . 997.50 

Sales of grass, wood, and old material, 1,399.26 

Sales of old examination papers, 65.36 

Sale of time signals from Observatory, 2,862.50 

Sale of tickets to Commencement Dinner of 1883, . 996.00 
Sale of books, pamphlets, catalogues, &c, .... 642.96 

Subscriptions to Veterinary Hospital, 450.00 

Use of lockers at Gymnasium, 1,753.00 

Returned by Beneficiaries, 85.00 

Fees for use of Gymnasium, 40.00 

Repayment of sundry advances, 29.36 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office repaid by 

other Departments, 356.14 

Proportion of expenses of Gymnasium repaid by other 

Departments, 858.66 

17,822.82 

Income received with George B. Dorr Fund, 2,673.74 

Sundry gifts for immediate use, see page 11, . . • . . 63,089.61 

65,763.35 

Total amount of income, carried forward, . . . $635,644.33 



15 

by the Treasure!' of Harvard College, 
August 31, 1883. 

EXPENSES. 

Amount brought forward, $695,997.23 

Real Estate, expenses. 
Insurance. 

Cambridge, $ 15.00 . 

Boston, 128.94 

Bussey stores, 66.75 

210.69 

Taxes. 

Cambridge, 2,058.93 

Boston, 12,688.53 

Bussey stores, &c., 7,826.28 

22,573.74 

Interest. 

Bussey stores (on advances), 2,020.07 

Repairs, improvements, care, cleaning and sundries. 

Cambridge, 8,458.39 

Boston, 7,400.50 

Bussey stores, 3,197.74 

19,056.63 

Heating and hoisting for Bussey stores, 
including repairs and renewal of ap- 
paratus, 5,988.29 

Less for sales of heat and power, . 2,612.45 

3,375.84 

47,236.97 

Annuities. 

Bussey, 6,662.34 

Gore, 900.00 

Mary Osgood, 789.91 

Lucy Osgood, 534.00 

Class of 1802, 120.00 

Anonymous, 720.00 

Bemis, 2,745.00 

12,471.25 

Sundry payments from income. 

To the Treasurer of the Museum of Eine Arts, 

from Gray Fund for Engravings, 822.28 

The income of the Daniel Williams Eund for the 

benefit of the Herring Pond and Mashpee Indians, 893.72 
The income of the Sarah Winslow Fund, to the 

Minister and Teacher at Tyngsboro', Mass., . . 264.34 

For lectures on Political Economy, 300.00 

Jefferson Physical Laboratory, spent on building, . . . 21,720.00 

24,000.34 

Amount carried forward, ... . $779,705.79 



16 



General Statement of Receipts and Disbursements 

for the year ending 

Total amount of income, brought forward, . . $635,644.33 

RECEIPTS EXCLUSIVE OF INCOME. 



GIFTS. 

Edward Russell Scholarship (additional), 

Class of 1828 " 

Rodger " 

Henry B. Rogers " 

George B. Dorr Fund, 

Edward M. Barringer Fund (additional), 

Subscriptions to Law School Book Fund, 

" " Retiring Allowance " 

" " President's " 

" for endowment of Botanic Garden, . . . 

" " " " Physical Laboratory, . 

" " " " Divinity School, . . . 

" " " Dental School, . . . 

" " " " Observatory, . . . . 



$125.00 

1,294.00 

600.00 

3,180.50 

111,150.00 

27,159.53 

6,791.25 

1,532.22 

56,350.00 

3,450.00 

13,000.00 

1,131.66 

440.00 

17,384. 



243,588.54 



$28,000 New York Central R. R. 6% bonds, paid off, 

4,000 Marq., Hough. &Ont. " 6% called" " " 

9,000 Burl. & Mo. R. (Neb.) "6% " " " " 

27,000 Chicago, Burl. & Quincy R. R. 7% bonds, . 

3,000 Int.&Gt.North.R.R.lstmort.6%bds. (Dorr Fd.), 
3,000 " " " " " 2d " " " 



7,000 Milw.& St. Paul 



2d 



73 o/ < t 
1 to /o 



4,000 Chic, Burl. & Quincy R. R. 7% " 

5,000 Cincin. & Indiana " 7% " 

2,000 Union Pacific " 6% " 

33 shares Chic. , Burl. & Quincy R. R. Co. , 



10 

25 

150 



N. Y. Guaranty & Indemnity Co. , 
Manhattan Gas Light Co., 
Morris & Essex R. R. Co., 



110 " N.Y.C.&H.R.R.R.Co.(E.M.BarringerFd.), 

Lake Shore & Mich. So. " " " 

$1,000 N.Y.C.&H.R.R.R.6%bond" 
4,500 U. S. Registered 4% bonds " " " 

SUNDRIES. 

From Dining Hall Association, to reduce debt, . . . 
Insurance, fire of Nov., 1872, for the Bussey Trust, 
" for fire in new Medical School building, 



Drafts on Baring Brothers & Company, 

Less paid Baring Brothers & Company in account, 



28,000.00 
4,C00.00 
9,000.00 

33,952.50 

3,141.30 
2,518.80 
8,807.65 
5,025.00 
5,303.85 
2,272.50 
4,253.50 
1,417.50 
2,710.94 
9,290.62 

13,763.75 

888.00 

1,054.60 

5,388.75 



1,500.00 
300.00 

18,569.76 

15,665.21 
10,661.11 



74,952.50 



44,741.( 



21,095.10 



20,369.76 



5,004.10 



Amount carried forward, . . $1,045,395.99 



1/ 



hi/ the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
August 31, 1883. 

EXPENSES. 

Total of expenses brought forward, 



$779,705.79 



INVESTMENTS AND SUNDRY PAYMENTS. 
Chicago, Burl. & Quincy R. R. 7% bonds, $27,000 cost, $33,210.00 



Ionia & Lansing " 8% " 20,000 " 


22,248.75 




Eva. City, Top. & Western " 7% " 4,000 " 


4,700.00 




Lincoln & No. Western " 7% " 6,000 " 


7,200.00 




Atchison & Nebraska " 7% " 15,000 " 


17,700.00 




Mass. 5% bond, 1894 (Paine Fund), . 1,000 " 


1,152.50 




Land in Dorchester (Stoughton Scholarship), " 


1,294.30 




16 shares Wamsutta Mills, " 


1,600.00 


89,105.55 


Paid for accrued interest on above bonds, 




1,319.39 


Property received as a portion of the George B. Dorr 






Fund, at the executor's valuations : 






$3,000 Intern. & Great North. R. R. lstmort. 6% bonds, 


$3,105.00 




3,000 " " " " " 2d " 6% 


3,105.00 




7,000 Milwaukee & St. Paul " 2d " 7 1 3 % " 


8,750.00 




4,000 Chicago, Burl. & Quincy" 7% " 


5,070.00 




5,000 Cincinnati & Indiana " 7% " 


5,175.00 




2,000 Union Pacific " 6% 


2,277.50 




33 shares Chicago, Burl. & Quincy R. R. Co., .... 


4,153.87 




10 " New York Guaranty & Indemnity Co., . . . 


1,400.00 





25 " Manhattan Gas Light Co., 2,762.50 

150 " Morris & Essex R. R. Co., 9,300.00 

50 " Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago R. R. Co., 6,625.00 
100 " New York & Harlem River R. R. Co., . . . 10,250.00 

187 " Pennsylvania Coal Co., 25,525.50 

87,499.37 

Property received as a portion of the Edward M. Bar- 
ringer Fund, at the executor's valuations : 

110 shares New York Central & Hudson River R. R, Co., 16,390.00 

8 " Lake Shore & Michigan Southern R. R. Co., 1,080.00 

10 " Schenectady Bank Stock, 600.00 

SI. 000 New York Central & Hudson River R. R. 6% bond, 1,040.00 

4,500 United States Registered 4% bonds, 5,040.00 

24,150.00 

Invested in Notes and Mortgages, 1,205,000.00 

Less Notes and Mortgages paid off, 1,150,704.97 

54,295.03 

Paid on account of improvements to Gray Estate, . . 11,669.12 
" " " " Mr. Agassiz's note from income of 

Memorial Fund, 4,226.23 

15,895.35 

Amount carried forward, $1,051,970.48 



18 

General Statement of Receipts and Disbursements 

for the year ending 

INCOME. 

Amount brought forward, $1,045,395.99 
Advances to premiums, on $ 546, 000 7% R.R. bonds, repaid, 5,4G0.00 
" " accrued interest on bonds repaid, .... 1,215.07 
" " account for altering Appleton Chapel, repaid 

(balance), 359.62 

7,034.69 






Balance, September 1, 1882. 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, $9,211.25 

Cash in hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 5,090.99 

Term Bills due October, 1882, 70,016.74 

" " over due, 2,367.01 



86,685.99 



$1,139,116.67 



19 

>y the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
iugust SI, 1883. 

EXPENSES. 
Amount brought forward, $1,051,970.48 



balance, August 31, 1883. 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, $7,195.40 

Cash in hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 1,855.66 

Term Bills due October, 1883, 75,397.36 

" overdue, 2,697.77 

87,146.19 



$1,139,116.67 



20 






The following Account exhibits the State of the Property, as 
embraced in the Treasurer's Boohs, August 31, 1883. 

Notes and Mortgages. 

Mortgages $365,125.00 

Long Wharf Co. 's Notes 60,000.00 

Manufacturing Co.'s Notes 500,000.00 

Personal Notes for Agassiz Memorial Fund . 20,780.46 
Personal Note for new professorship in Law 

School 90,000.00 



$1 



Massachusetts 5% Bonds, .... $23,500 valued at 
New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bonds, 10,000 " " 
Municipal Bonds. 

Cincinnati, 2,000.00 valued at 2,000.00 

Minneapolis, 2,000.00 " " 2,000.00 

Railroad Bonds. 

Burl.&Mo.R.inNebr.nonex.6%, 250,000 val'd at 255, 173.50 

Kan.City, St. Jos.&C.B. 1st M., 7%, 50,000 " " 50,000.00 

Lincoln & No. West., 1st M., 7%, 63,000 " " 63,000.00 

Atch.,Top., & St. Fe, IstM., 7%, 185,000 " " 185,000.00 

Kan.City,Top.,&West.,lstM.7%, 108,000 " " 108,000.00 

Marion & McPherson, IstM., 7%, 150,000 " "150,000.00 

Ionia & Lansing, 1st Mortg., 8%, 141,000 " " 139,866.25 

Atchison and Nebraska, 7%, 15,000 " " 15,000.00 

Marqu., Hough. & Onton., 6%, 19,000 " " 19,942.50 

Buffalo, Bradford, and Pittsb., 7%, 60,000 " " 60,000.00 

Michigan So. and No. Indiana, 7%, 1,000 " " 1,000.00 

Railroad Bond Premiums, 77,654.17 



035,905.46 

26,957.50 

9,000.00 



4,000. 



00 



Railroad Stock. 

Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, 1,001 shares, 99,261.93 

Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago, 100 " 11,625.00 

Pittsfield and North Adams, ... 63 " 6,300.00 

Quincy R. R. Bridge Co., . ... 10 " 1,250.00 

New York and Harlem, .... 100 " 10,250.00 



1,124,636.42 



Manufacturing Stock. 

Amory, 36 shares, 

Amoskeag, 12 " 

Massachusetts Mills, 7 " 

Merrimack, 17 " 

Nashua, 36 " 

New Bedford Copper Co., .... 5 " 

Pacific Mills, 20 " 

Stark Mills, 12 " 

Wamsutta Mills, 96 " 

Amount carried forward, 



128,686.93 



3,600.00 
10,800.00 

6,600.00 
17,000.00 
25,560.00 
250.00 
17,468.29 
11,900.00 
10,480.00 



103,658.29 
$2,432,844.60 



21 






Amount brought forward, 
Bank Stock. 

Charles River, 60 shares, 

First Cambridge, 50 

Fitchburg, . . 24 

Massachusetts, 12 

Merchants, 264 

New England, 37 

Old Boston, . .200 

Schenectady (N.Y.), 50 

Real Estate. 

Houses and Lands in Cambridge yielding income 
Unimproved Lands in Cambridge, . . . 
Bussey Real Estate in Boston and Dedham, 
Amory Estate, Franklin Street, Boston, . 
Webb Estate, Washington Street, Boston, 
Andrews Estate, Washington Street, Boston, 
Gray Estate, Washington Street, Boston, . 
Estate on Hawley Street, Boston, . . , 
Estate on Hawkins Street, " . . , 
Ward's (Bumkin) Island, Boston Harbor, 
Reversion of Buildings on Brattle Street, Boston, 
Land in Dorchester, 



$2,432,844.60 



6,000.00 
5,000.00 
2,403.00 
3,000.00 
34,732.00 
3,896.00 
8,933.00 
2,800.00 



357,163.83 

74,487.79 

413,092.80 

165,615.81 

164,604.79 

165,562.00 

487,119.12 

38,650.78 

29,476.09 

1,200.00 

1,000.00 

1,294.30 



66,764.00 



Sundries. 

In hands of Count Rumford's Trustees in Paris, 10,000.00 

Annuity of William Pennoyer, valued at . . . 4,444.44 

Policy of the Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., 5,000.00 

Pennsylvania Coal Co., 187 shares, 25,525.50 

Due from Dining Hall Association, 34,732.16 

11 " Lawrence Scientific School, .... 4,055.30 

" " Bussey Trust, 40,266.13 

" " Dental School, . ' 13,659.36 

Advances to Scudder's Catalogue, 190.58 

Term bills due October, 1883, 75,397.36 

" " overdue, 2,697.77 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, 7,195.40 

" " hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 1,855.66 



1,899,267.31 



215,968.60 



9,051.06 



Total $4,623,895.57 



22 

T/ie foregoing Property represents the following Funds and 
jBalances, and is answerable for the same. 

UNIVERSITY FUNDS. 

Principal, 
Sept. I, 1882. Principal, Aug-. 31, iS 



$84,962.25 Stock Account (so called), .... $87,075.52 

141,638.74 Insurance and Guaranty Fund (so called), 141,638.74 

5,250.00 Samuel D. Bradford Fund, .... 5,250.00 

15,750.00 Israel Munson Fund, 15,750.00 

16,871.63 Leonard Jarvis Fund, 16,871.63 

1,242.38 Peter C. Brooks Fund for building a 

President's House, 1,283.64 

155.73 Thomas Cotton Fund, 155.66 

57,233.40 John Parker Fellowships, .... 57,221.28 

10,865.70 Harris Fellowships, 10,578.54 

12,244.36 John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, 12,176.35 
10,311.83 James Walker Fellowship, .... 10,036.21 

28,773.76 Rogers Scholarship, 29,576.47 

1,688.39 Sumner Prize Fund, 1,782.41 

300.00 Robert N. Toppan Prizes .... 150.00 

9,000.00 Sever Fund (unrestricted) 9,000.00 

23,010.13 Retiring Allowance Fund, 25,890.35 

25,000.00 John C. Gray Fund, 25,000.00 

President's Fund, 57,125.18 

George B. Dorr Fund, 110,792.79 

618,554.77 

COLLEGE FUNDS. 

27,748.64 Alford Professorship, 27,748.64 

28,337.40 Boylston " 28,337.40 

21,619.50 Eliot " 21,619.50 

10,000.00 " " (Jon. Phillips's gift), 10,000.00 

3,500.01 Erving " 3,500.01 

35,990.99 Fisher " 35,990.99 

20,217.08 Hersey " 20,217.08 

18,575.78 " " (Thomas Lee's gift), 19,610.46 

3,747.33 Hollis " (Mathematics), . . 3,747.33 

34,441.96 Hollis " (Divinity), . . . 34,560.38 

43,062.93 McLean " 43,062.93 

21,000.00 Perkins " 21,000.00 

25,020.19 Plummer " 25,020.19 

52,500.00 Pope " 52,500.00 

52.996.37 Rumford " 52,996.37 

23,139.83 Smith " 23,139.83 

16.240.38 Fund for Permanent Tutors, .... 16,240.38 
125,000.00 Class Subscription Fund, .... 125,000.00 

12,766.91 Daniel H. Peirce " .... 12,830.74 

2,031.76 Paul Dudley Fund for Lectures, . . 2,144.94 

31,500.00 Jonathan Phillips Fund (unrestricted) 31,500.00 

$1,053,735.36 Amounts carried forward, $610,767.17 618,554.77 



Principal, 
Sept. I, 1SS2. 

!$1,053,735.30 
1,050.00 
3,416.40 
5,600.00 

346.16 
2,550.05 

795.72 

5,137.18 

5,425.24 

11,756.10 

106,332.71 

570.17 
2,743.10 
7,146.39 
3,099.37 
5,010.06 
3,748.32 

2,634.12 
3,739.94 
2,997.83 
6,663.43 
5,199.06 
5,351.66 
5,985.86 
2,463.30 
6,394.37 
5,294.79 
4,862.67 
530.88 
7,684.27 
6,594.17 



673.90 
3,861.94 

637.92 
5,371.34 
3,175.99 
9,419.85 
43,721.48 
2,758.83 

4,147.20 

6,563.05 

25,045.52 

3,907.51 

8,652.28 

11,899.16 

1,773.54 

1,200.00 

1,062.80 

2,267.70 

11,420,998.69 



23 

Principal, Aug. 31, 1S83. 

. . . Amounts brought forward, .$610,767.17 618,554.77 
John A. Blanchard Fd. (unrestricted) 1,050.00 
John W. P. Abbot " " 3,606.67 

Daniel Austin " " 5,600.00 

Henry Flynt's Bequest, 345.99 

Abbot Scholarship, 2,542.09 

Alford " 800.06 

Bartlett " 5,173.31 

Bassett " 5,452.41 

Bigelow " 11,660.91 

Bowditch " 107,255.46 

Bright « (balance), . . . 587.67 

Browne " 2,745.89 

Class of 1802 Scholarship, . . . . 7,174.42 

" 1814 " .... 3,071.98 

1815 " (Kirkland), 5,039.12 

" 1817 " 3,757.08 

1828 " 1,351.04 

" 1835 " 2,630.83 

" 1841 " 3,773.26 

" 1852 " (Dana), . 3,164.82 

Crowninshield " 7,034.56 

Derby " (George & Martha), 5,238.64 

W. S. Eliot " 5,349.77 

Farrar " 5,969.28 

Greene « 2,480.49 

Hodges " 6,750.52 

LevinaHoar " 5,389.72 

Hollis » 4,883.54 

Matthews " (balance), . 735.14 

Morey " 7,612.27 

Pennoyer " 6,611.43 

Rodger " 609.75 

Henry B. Rogers 3,180.50 

Edward Russell " 843.40 

Saltonstall " (Mary & Leverett), 4,077.05 

11 " (Dorothy), . . 673.46 

Slade " 5,420.50 

Sever " 3,177.89 

Sewall " 9,444.54 

Shattuck " 44,356.74 

Story " 2,762.51 

Stoughton " 2,131.50 

Gorham Thomas " 4,128.19 

Toppan " 6,628.61 

Townsend " ...... 24,940.58 

Walcott « 3,958.53 

Whiting « 9,134.20 

Exhibitions, 9,569.98 

Palfrey Exhibition, 1,782.35 

Samuel Ward Fund, 1,200.00 

John Glover Fund, 1,122.01 

Rebecca A. Perkins Fund, . . . 2,394.03 

. . . Amounts carried forward, . . $987,141.86 618.554.77 



24 



Principal, 
Sept. i, 1SS2. 

$1,420,998.09 

10,961.35 

5,292.25 

10,216.31 

15,692.58 

4,337.94 

11,925.18 

994.23 

54,255.77 

35,882.31 

18,100.42 

125.00 

29,956.58 



11,287.47 
2,140.40 
2,620.11 
5,701.33 
5,303.00 
3,515.70 
5,755.36 
2,458.71 
2,079.52 
5,797.68 
20,469.98 
61,232.01 



Principal, Aug. 31, 1SS3. 



. . . Amounts brought forward, . $987,141.86 

Quincy Tufts Fund, 10,923.88 

Day " 5,252.01 

Munroe " 10,213.19 

Lee Fund for Reading, 15,676.68 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, . . 4,324.57 
Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, . 11,889.40 
Hopkins Gift for "Deturs,". . . 1,016.38 
Botanic Department Fund, .... 41,399.03 
Lowell Fund for a Botanic Garden, . 52,882.31 

Herbarium Fund, 18,258.59 

Salary account (unexpended balance), 125.00 
Physical Laboratory Endowment, , . 44,805.04 

LIBRARY FUNDS. 
Subscription for Library, .... 11,006.36 
Bowditch Fund, 2,089.48 



5,188.81 

20,538.32 

4,455.24 

38,310.43 

5,018.29 

6,014.71 

178.59 

16,489.87 

158.06 



8,426.35 
15,750,00 
23,979.82 

8,340.81 
90,000.00 
25,230.00 
125,139.80 



67,312.93 
19,192.65 
17,129.20 
12,031.53 

3,787.65 

2,280.42 



Bright 

Denny 

Farrar 

Haven 

Hayward 

Hollis 

Homer 

Lane 

Lowell 

Minot 

Osgood 

Osgood 

Salisbury 

Sever 

Shapleigh 

Sumner 

Tucker 

Ward 

Wales 

Walker 



(Mary), 
(Lucy), 



Sundry gifts, etc. (unexpended balances) 
FUNDS 



LAW SCHOOL 
Law School (balance), 
Dane Professorship, 
Bussey " 
Roy all " 

New " 

Law School Book Fund 

" Building Fund, 



6,751.89 
15,750.00 
23,979.82 

8,340.81 
92,962.50 
32,021.25 
25,653.33 



$618,554.77 



1,203,907.94 



2,494.20 
5,264.49 
5,298.62 
3,642.05 
5,712.17 
2,479.84 
2,072.02 
5,417.55 

20,897.96 

62,227.38 
6,902.64 
7,081.82 
5,075.97 

20,412.60 
4,315.60 

37,277.74 

5,014.07 

5,041.82 

130.80 

16,351.42 
59.03 



MEDICAL SCHOOL 
Medical School (balance), . 



FUNDS 

. . 70,875.13 

Jackson Medical Fund, 19,192.65 

Geo. C. Shattuck Fund, .... 17,129.20 

Warren Fund for Anatom'l Museum, 12,243.37 

Boylston Fund for Medical Prizes, 3,748.64 

" " " " Books, 2,407.42 



236,325.63 



— 205,459.60 



$2,262,053.36 Amounts carried forward, $125,596.41$2,264,247.S 



25 

Principal, 
Sept. i, 1SS3. Principal, Aug. 31, 1SS3. 



,262,053.36 Amounts brought forward, $125,596. 41$2,264,247.94 

2,624.85 Medical Library Fund, 2,767.06 

101,420.32 Medical School Building Fund, . . 17,671.59 

2,000.00 auincy Tufts Medical Fund, . . 2,000.00 

808.05 Edward M. Barringer Fund, . . 25,512.68 



173,547.74 



DIVINITY SCHOOL FUNDS. 

23.486.17 General Fund, 24,808.76 

37,583.74 Bussey Professorship, 37,583.74 

16,015.81 Parkman " 16,015.81 

6,00S.43 Hancock " 6,008.43 

44,345.73 Winn Prof, of Ecclesiastical History, 44,845.73 

20,280.38 Dexter Lectureship, ...... 20,280.38 

9,184.69 Henry Lienow Fund, 9,184.69 

5,250.00 Mary P. Townsend Fund, . . . 5,250.00 

2,100.00 Winthrop Ward Fund, .... 2,100.00 

1,050.00 Samuel Hoar " 1,050.00 

1,050.00 Abraham W. Fuller Fund, . . . 1,050.00 

1,050.00 Caroline Merriam " ... 1,050.00 

13.012.18 Jackson Foundation, 13,096.95 

2,177.95 Joshua Clapp Fund, 2,177.95 

1,050.00 William Pomeroy Fund, . . . 1,050.00 

525.00 Hannah C. Andrews Fund, . . 525.00 

3,326.65 J. Henry Kendall Scholarship, . . 3,511.96 

2,898.42 Nancy Kendall " ... 3,059.84 

911.34 Lewis Gould Fund 911.34 

789.54 Adams Ayer " 833.54 

7,875.00 Joseph Baker " 7,875.00 

5,252.15 Thomas Cary Scholarships, . . . 5,194.09 

2,319.97 George Chapman Scholarship, . 2,309.19 

3,161.30 Joshua Clapp » . . 3,337.37 

1,675.80 Beneficiary money returned . . . 1,769.15 

40,000.00 Th. Tileston of New York Endowm't 40,000.00 

10,000.00 Henry P. Kidder Fund, .... 10,000.00 

1,000.00 Abby Crocker Richmond Fund, . 1,000.00 

68,535.36 New Endowment, 69,667.02 

17,000.00 Oliver Ames Fund, 17,000.00 

800.00 Daniel Austin Fund, 800.00 

11,206.72 Abner W. Buttrick Fund, . . . 11,530.95 



304,877.49 



LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, AND MUSEUM 
OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY FUNDS. 



38,807.17 


Professorship of Engineering, . . 


38,807.17 


2,860.50 


Professorship of Chemistry, . . . 


2,860.50 


61,536,43 


Abbott Lawrence Fund, . . . . 


61,536.43 


50,375.00 


James Lawrence " . . . . 


50,375.00 


30,686.85 


John B. Barringer " . . . . 


'30,686.85 


100,620.00 


Sturgis Hooper " . . . . 


100,570.00 


50,000.00 


Gray Fund for Zoological Museum, 


50,000.00 


297,933.10 


Agassiz Memorial Fund, \ . . 
Teachers' and Pupils' Fund, / . . 


297,933.10 


7,594.01 


7,594.01 


117,469.34 


Permanent Fund, 


117,409.34 


7,740.66 


Humboldt Fund, 

Amounts carried forward, 


7,740.66 


$3,495,451.97 


i 



765,573.06 

#3,568,246.23 



26 



Principal, 
Sept. I, 18S2. 




Principal, 


Aug. 31, 18S3. 


$3,495,451.97 


Amounts brought forward, 


$3,568,246.23 




OBSEEVATOEY FUNDS. 






110,293.88 


Edward B. Phillips Fund, . . . 


110,293.88 




21,000.00 


James Hayward " . • . 


21,000.00 




22,440.22 


David Sears " . . . 


23,065.18 




12,845.46 


Josiali Q,uincy " ... 


12,411.37 




2,000.00 


Charlotte Harris " ... 


2,000.00 




10,000.00 










present charged with an Annuity), 


10,000.00 




5,481.98 


Observatory Subscriptions (balance), 


3,072.52 






Observatory Endowment, .... 


17,384.38 


199,227.33 



OTHEE FUNDS FOE SPECIAL PUEPOSES. 

413,092.80 Bussey Trust (income thereof, h to 
Bussey Institution, £ to Law School, 
and i to Divinity School), . . . 413,092.80 

50,000.00 Bright Legacy, 50,000.00 

25,930.13 Robert Troup Paine Fund, . . . 27,079.85 

805.55 Bussey Institution, 50.50 

515.00 Dental Subscription Fund, . . . 955.00 

2,882.43 Bussey Building Fund, .... 2,882.43 

151,673.32 James Arnold " 152,095.73 

9,949.91 Arnold Arboretum 12,596.18 

42,000.00 James Savage Fund, 42,000.00 

15,941.53 Gray Fund for Engravings, . . . 16,146.08 

20,560.63 Gore Annuity Fund, 20,805.88 

7,362.59 Mary Osgood Annuity Fund (trans- 
ferred to Library Funds). 
12,855.53 Lucy Osgood Annuity Fund, . . 5,955.79 

51,073.31 Bemis Annuity Fund, 51.113.31 

2,528.97 Gospel Church Fund, .... 2,669.84 
3,171.50 John Foster Fund (income to Di- 
vinity School, Law School, and Medi- 
cal School, in turn), 3,171.50 

1,117.76 BaringBros. & Co. (balance due them), 6,121.86 
School of Veterinary Medicine, . . 340.78 

Physical Laboratory Building Fund, 28,458.78 



FUNDS IN TEUST FOE PUEPOSES NOT 
CONNECTED WITH THE COLLEGE. 



16,050.99 



4,836.13 



Daniel Williams Fund for the con- 
version of the Indians, .... 16,051.31 
Sarah Winslow Fund, for the Minister 
and Teacher at Tyngsborough, Mass., 4,834.39 









In 






835,536.31 






$4,511,861.59 



20,885.70 
$4,623,895.57 



27 



Changes in the Funds during the year ending August 31, 1888. 

Total amount of Funds, August 31, 1883, as before 

stated, $4,623,895.57 

Total amount of Funds, September 1, 1882, as before 

stated, 4,511,861.59 

Showing a total increase during the year of . . . $112,033.98 

Which is made up as follows : — 

Gifts forming new Funds or increasing old ones, ■. 243,588.54 

Transfers forming new Funds or increasing old ones, 26,121.69 
Balances created during the year, and increase of Funds 

established during the year, 29,733.16 

Increase of Stock Account, by excess of income over 

expenditure, in College, Library, and University 

accounts, 2,713.27 

58,568.12 

302,156.66 
Deduct from this amount for 

Decrease of Funds by amounts transferred to new ac- 
counts, 26,121.69 

Decrease of specially invested Funds by loss from change 

of investment, 2,812.11 

Other decrease more than increase of Funds and bal- 
ances, which appear both at the beginning and end 

of the year, 161,188.88 

190,122.68 

$112,033.98 



Net decrease of Funds and balances as above stated, 190,122.68 

Less increase, other than gifts for capital account, as above 

stated, 58,568.12 

Leaving amount of the net decrease of the Funds and bal- 
ances, excluding gifts for capital account, as is also 
shown in the following table, $131,554.56 



28 



Statement showing Changes in the Different 
• 
Increase of Funds which appear both at the beginning and the end of the 
year, being the excess of income (including gifts for immediate use) over 
payments towards the special objects of those Funds. 

Peter C. Brooks Fund, $41.26 

James Walker Fellowship, 324.38 

Rogers Scholarship, 802.71 

Sumner Prize Fund, 94.02 

Retiring Allowance Fund, 1,348.00 

Hersey Professorship (Thomas Lee's gift), 1,034.68 

Hollis " (Divinity), 118.42 

Daniel H. Peirce Fund, 63.83 

Paul Dudley Fund for Lectures, 113.18 

John W. P. Abbott Fund, 190.27 

Alford Scholarship, 4.34 

Bartlett " 36.13 

Bassett " 27.17 

Bowditch " 922.75 

Bright " (balance), . 17.50 

Browne " 2.79 

Class of 1802 Scholarship, , 28.03 

" 1815 " (Kirkland), 29.06 

" 1817 * 8.76 

" 1841 " 33.32 

" 1852 " (Dana), 166.99 

Crowninshield " 371.13 

Derby " (George & Martha) , . . . 39.58 

Greene " 17.19 

Hodges " 356.15 

LevinaHoar " 94.93 

Hollis " 20.87 

Matthews " (balance), 204.26 

Pennoyer " 17.26 

Edward Russell " 44.50 

Saltonstall " (Mary & Leverett) , . . . 215.11 

" " (Dorothy), 35.54 

Slade " 49.16 

Sever " 1.90 

Sewall " 24.69 

Shattuck " 635.26 

Story " 3.68 

Toppan " . . 65.56 

Walcott " 51.02 

Whiting " 481.92 

Palfrey Exhibition, 8.81 

John Glover Fund, 59.21 

Rebecca A. Perkins Fund, 126.33 

Amount carried forward, $8,331.65 



29 



Fluids during the year ending August 31, 1883. 

Decrease of Funds, which appear both at the beginning and the end of the 
year, being the excess of payments over income received (including gifts 
for immediate use) for the special objects of those Funds. 

Thomas Cotton Fund, $.07 

John Parker Fellowships, 12.12 

Harris Fellowship, 287.16 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, ... 68.01 

Robert N. Toppan Prizes, 150.00 

Henry Flynt's Bequest, .17 

Abbot Scholarship, 7.96 

Bigelow " 95.19 

Class of 1814 Scholarship, 27.39 

" 1835 



W. S. Eliot 

Farrar 

Morey 

Gorham Thomas 

Townsend 



3.29 

1.89 

16.58 

72.00 

19.01 

104.94 



Exhibitions, 289.31 

Cluincy Tufts Fund (College), 37.47 

Day Fund, 40.24 

Munroe Fund, 3.12 

Lee Fund for Reading, 15.90 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, 13.37 

Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, 35.78 

Subscription for Library, • . . . . 281.11 

Bowditch Book Fund, ..." 50.92 

Bright " " 125.91 

Denny " " 436.84 

Farrar " " 4.38 

Hayward " " 43.19 

Homer " " 7.50 

Lane " " 380.13 

Salisbury " " 112.84 

Sever " " . . . 125.72 

Shapleigh " " 139.64 

Sumner " " 1,032.69 

Tucker " " 4.22 

Ward " " 972.89 

Wales " " 47.79 

Walker " " 138.45 

Sundry gifts for Books (unexpended balances), 99.03 

Law School (balance), 1,674.46 

Law School Building Fund, 99,486.47 

Boylston Fund for Medical Prizes, 39.01 

Medical School Building Fund, 83,748.73 

Amount carried forward, $190,252.89 



30 



Statement showing Changes in the Different 



Amount brought forward, 

Hopkins Gift for "Deturs," 

Botanic Department Fund, , 

Physical Laboratory Fund, 

Herbarium Fund, 

Haven Book Fund, 

Hollis " " 

Lowell " " , 

Minot " " 

New Professorship of Law, 

Medical School (balance), 

Warren Fund for Anatomical Museum, . . . 
Boylston Fund for Medical Books, .... 

Medical Library Fund, 

Divinity School (general fund), ...... 

Winn Professorship of Ecclesiastical History, 

Jackson Foundation, 

J. H. Kendall Scholarship, 

Nancy " " 

Adams Ayer Fund, 

Joshua Clapp Scholarship, 

Divinity School Beneficiary money returned, 

Abner W. Buttrick Fund, 

David Sears " 

Robert Troup Paine " 

James Arnold " 

Arnold Arboretum " 

Gray Fund for Engravings, 

Gore Annuity Fund, 

Lucy Osgood " " 

Bemis " " 

Gospel Church. " 

aring Bros. & Co., 

Daniel Williams Fund, 



Credit balances created, 

Physical Laboratory Building Fund, 
School of Veterinary Medicine, . . 



$8,331.65 

22.15 

693.26 

1,848.46 

158.17 

126.35 

21.13 

427.98 

995.37 

2,962.50 

3,562.20 

211.84 

127.00 

142.21 

1,322.59 

500.00 

84.77 

185.31 

161.42 

44.00 

176.07 

93.35 

324.23 

624.96 

1,149.72 

422.41 

2,646.27 

204.55 

245.25 

182.08 

40.00 

140.87 

5,004.10 

.32 



28,458.78 
340.78 



Increase of Funds established during the year. 

President's Fund, 

Stoughton Scholarship, 

Class of 1828 " 

Rodger " *. 



Funds established by transfer of accounts, 
Lucy Osgood Book Fund, .... 
Stoughton Scholarship, 



775.18 

91.63 

57.04 

9.75 



7,081.82 
2,039.87 






33,182.54 



28,799.56 



933.60 



9,121.69 



Amount carried forward, $72,037.39 



■ Funds during the year ending August SI, 1883. [Continued.) 



31 



Amount brought forward, . 

Thomas Cary Scholarships, 

George Chapman " 

Sturgis Hooper Fund, 

Josiah duincy " 



$190,252.89 

57.46 

10.78 

50.00 

434.09 



Observatory Subscriptions (balance), , 2,409.46 

Bussey Institution, ... 755.05 

Mary Osgood Legacy, 399.95 

Sarah Winslow Fund, 1.74 

Decrease of Botanic Department Fund by amount transferred to 

Lowell Fund for a Botanic Garden, 

Decrease of Lucy Osgood Annuity Fund by amount transferred 

to Lucy Osgood Book Fund, 

Decrease of "Exhibitions " by amount transferred to Stoughton 

Scholarship, 

Decrease of E. M. Barringer Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 

Decrease of George B. Dorr Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 



194,371.42 

17,000.00 

7,081.82 

2,039.87 

2,454.90 

357.21 



Amount carried forward, $223,305.22 



32 



Statement showing Changes m the Different \ 

Amount brought forward, $72,037.39 
Increase of Lowell Fund for a Botanic Garden by transfer from 

Botanic Department Fund, 17,000.00 

Increase of Stock Account, by excess of income over expenditure, 

in College, Library, and University accounts, 2,713.27 



91,750.66 



Balance, which is the net decrease of the Funds for the year 
ending August 31, 1883, apart from gifts for capital account, 



131,554.56 



Total, $223,305.22 



33 



Funds daring the year ending August 31 y 1888. ( Continued.) 

Amount brought forward, $223,305.22 



Total, $223,305.22 



34 






The following tables are not found, in their present form, in the Treas 
urer's books. They are intended to exhibit with some detail the resources 
and the expenditures of each department of the University. The income 
of every fund held by the University is given in these tables, and also the sum 
paid out for the specific object of each and every fund, in case that sum be 
either less or more than the actual income of the fund. If the object to which 
the income of a fund is to be applied be a general one, — like salaries, for 
example, — no separate mention is made in these tables of that appropriation. 
That particular payment is merged with others of the same kind under the ' 
general heading. A balanced summary of these tables will be found on page 52. 

Table No. I. 
THE UNIVERSITY. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of the unappropriated fund heretofore called the 

Stock Account, $4,732.38 

Income of the following funds : — 

Insurance and -Guaranty, 7,889.29 

Israel Munson, 877.28 

Leonard Jarvis, 939.77 

Samuel D. Bradford, 292.43 

Sever, 501.30 

John C. Gray, 1,392.50 

George B. Dorr, 7,874.86 

Peter C. Brooks, 69.18 

Thomas Cotton, 8.19 

President's, 775.18 

Parker Fellowship, 3,187.88 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, . . . 681.99 

Harris Fellowship, 605.24 

James "Walker Fellowship, 574.38 

Rogers Scholarship, 1,602.71 

Sumner Prize, 94.02 

Retiring Allowance, 1,348.00 33,446.58 

For the degrees of A.M., and Ph.D., 390.00 

For care of the Sarah Winslow Fund, 6.77 

Sale of Quinquennial Catalogues, 37.00 

From other Departments for proportion of expenses 

of Bursar's office, 356.14 

Balance remaining after dividing the net income among 

the Funds, 40.78 

PAYMENTS. 

Overseers' Expenses. 

Advertising, $210.90 

Printing President's Annual Report, 457.04 

Printing Treasurer's " " ...... 119.96 

Printing other reports, a/uditing Treasurer's ac- 
counts, &c, 201.56 

Amount carried forward, $989.46 









$34,277.27 



35 

Table L, continued. 
PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, $989.46 

Office Expenses. 

President's $131.79 

Treasurer's 316.30 

Bursar's 524.27 

Supt. of Buildings, 63.24 

Corporation Rooms (fuel, rent, &c.), 1,695.13 

2,730.73 

Salaries. 

President, 5,008.26 

Treasurer, 4,000.00 

Secretary of the Board of Overseers, 100.00 

Bursar, 3,000.00 

Bursar's Assistant, 800.00 

Secretary at Cambridge, 400.00 

Tor keeping Treasurer's books and copying 

records and other papers, 2,800.00 

Superintendent of Buildings, 1,500.00 

17,608.26 

Fellowships. 

John Parker, 3,200.00 

Harris, 892.40 

John Thornton Kirkland, 750.00 

Rogers Scholarship, 800.00 

James Walker, 250.00 

5,892.40 

Prizes. 

Robert N. Toppan, in Political Science, . . 150.00 

Memorial Hall and Sanders Theatre. 

Repairs, fuel, gas, &c, 927.00 

Sundries. 

Advertising, 1,039.28 

Labor, &c. on grounds outside of College Yard, 358.30 

Repairs and improvements on the President's house, 27.92 

Subscription to Mercantile Agency, 125.00 

Watering streets, 205.00 

Watchmen, 436.46 

Rent of Hall in Boston for lectures on Pedagogy, 16.50 

Fire Apparatus, 27.77 

Freight, legal services, diplomas, &c, ..... 161.43 

Extra pages in Catalogue, 208.80 

Posting notices, &c. to prevent right of way, . . 67.00 
Estimated value of old Gymnasium, credited to 

the Henry B. Rogers Scholarship, . . . 3,180.50 

5,853.96 

$34,151.81 



36 



Table No. II. 
THE COLLEGE. 

RECEIPTS. 
From Term Bills. 

Instruction, $138,337, 

Rents available for general expenses, 34,152, 

, . . 512, 



Diplomas, . . . . • 
Income of Scholarship Funds. 

Abbot, 

Alford, 

Eartlett, 

Bassett, 

Bigelow, 



142. 

44 

286 

302 

654 

Bowditch, 5,922 



Bright, £ income of Bright Legacy, . , 

Browne, 

Class of 1802, 

11 1814, 

" 1815 (Kirkland), 

" 1817, 

" 1828, 

" 1835, 

1841, 

" 1852 (Dana) (accumulating), 
Crowninshield (accumulating), . . . , 

Derby, George and Martha, 

Win. Samuel Eliot, 

Farrar, 

Greene, 

Devina Hoar^(Town of Lincoln), . . 

Hodges (accumulating), , 

Hollis , 



. 1,392 
152 
398, 
172. 
279. 
208, 
57 
146 
208. 
1G6, 
371 
289. 
298. 
333 
137 
294 
356 
270 

Matthews (£ of net rents of Hall), 4,904 

Morey, 428 

Pennoyer. Interest, $119.76 

Annuity, 277.50 397 

Rodger, 9 

Edward Russell (accumulating) , 44 

Saltonstall, Mary and Leverett, 215 

Saltonstall, Dorothy (accumulating) , . ... 35 

Savage, • 300 

Sever, 176 

Sewall, 524 

Shattuck, 2,435 

299 
153 
91, 
230 
365 
. 1,395 
217 
481 



Slade, 

Story, 

Stoughton, 

Gorham Thomas, 

Toppan, 

Townsend, 

Walcott, 

Whiting (accumulating), 

Received from the Trustees of the Thayer Scholarships, 
Amount carried forward, 



.50 

,27 
,50 

04 
,34 

,13 
.17 
.81 
.75 
.50 
.79 
.03 
,61 
00 
,76 
.04 
,71 
32 
,99 
,13 
58 
11 
.42 
.19 
.93 
.15 
.87 
.26 
.00 

.26 
.75 
.50 
.11 
.54 
.00 
.90 
.69 
.26 
.16 
.08 
,03 
.99 
.50 
.06 
.08 
.92 



173,002. 



25,593. 
7 3,600. 
$202,195, 



37 

Table II., continued. 
RECEIPTS. 

Amount brought forward, $202,195.05 

Other Beneficiary Eunds, income of. 

" Exhibitions," Interest, $549.15 

Returned by beneficiaries, 85.00 $634.15 

Palfrey " Exhibition," 98.81 

Samuel Ward. Erom special investment, . . 50.00 

John Glover (accumulating), 59.21 

Rebecca A. Perkins " 126.33 

Quincy Tufts, 610.53 

Moses Day, 294.76 

Munroe, 569.03 

2,442.82 

Prize Funds, income of. 

Thomas Lee Prizes for Reading, 874.10 

Ward Nicholas Boylston Prizes for Elocution, 241.63 

James Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, . . . 664.22 

Edward Hopkins Gift for " Deturs," .... 289.25 

2,069.20 

Funds for Instruction. 

Income of the Alford Professorship, 1,545.62 

Boylston " 1,578.37 

Eliot " 1,204.23 

J. Phillips's addition to Eliot Prof., 500.00 

Erving Professorship, 194.95 

Fisher " 2,004.70 

Hersey " 671.61 

Hollis " (Mathematics), . . 208.71 

McLean " 2,398.61 

Perkins " 1,169.70 

Plummer " 1,393.61 

Pope " 2,924.25 

Rumford " 2,975.68 

Smith " 1,288.90 

Fund for Permanent Tutors, . . . 904.57 

Thos. Lee Fund for the Hersey Prof. 1,034.68 

Class Subscription, 6,962.50 

Henry Flynt, 18.27 

Hollis Professor of Divinity, . . . 1,918.42 

Paul Dudley Fund (accumulating), 113.18 

Gifts to increase salaries, 800.00 

31,810.56 

Botanic Garden. 

Income of Fund. Interest, $2,184.33 

From special investment, 1,012.95 3,197.28 

" « the Lowell Fund, . . 2,274.79 

Estimated value of use of house by Prof. Gray, 1,000-00 6,472.07 

Herbarium. Income of Fund, 1,008.17 

Sale of paper, &c, 34.00 

Gift for Curator's salary, 1,000.00 2,042.17 

Amount carried forward, $247,032.47 



38 



Table II., continued. 
KECEIPTS. 

Amount brought forward, $247,032. 47 

Income of Jonathan Phillips's unrestricted Fund, $1,754.55 

11 " John A. Blanchard's " " 58.49 

" " Daniel H. Pierce Fund, 638.35 

" " J. W. P. Abbot " (accumulating), 190.27 

" " Fund for Physical Laboratory, 1,848.46 

4,490.12 

Sundries. 

For the Degree of Bachelor of Arts out of course, 

and examination fees, 744.00 

Sales of grass and old material, 160.19 

Sale of old examination papers, 6.536 

For Printing by College Press for other departm'ts, 997.50 

For use of rooms by College officers, 745.00 

Sale of tickets to Commencement Dinner of 1883, 996.00 

For use of lockers at Gymnasium, 1,753.00 

Fees for use of Gymnasium, 40.00 

For use of Gymnasium by other Departments, . 858.66 

From Louis A. Shaw, for books for French Dpt. 109.61 

6,469.32 

Total receipts, $257,991.91 

PAYMENTS. 

Paid the incumbents of the following Scholarships. 

Abbot, $150.00 

Alford, 40.00 

Bartlett, 250.00 

Basset, 275.00 

Bigelow, 750.00 

Bowditch, 5,000.00 

Bright, . 1,375.00 

Browne, 150.00 

Class of 1802, 250.00 

1814, 200.00 

" 1815 (Kirkland), 250.00 

" 1817, 200.00 

" 1835, 150.00 

1841, 175.00 

Derby, George and Martha, . 250.00 

Wm. Samuel Eliot, 300.00 

Farrar, 350.00 

Greene, 120.00 

Levina Hoar, 200.00 

Hollis, 250.00 

Matthews, 4,700.00 

Morey, 500.00 

Amount carried forward, $15,885.00 



39 



Table II. , continued. 
PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, 



Pennoyer, . . . 
Savage, .... 

Sever, 

Sewall, .... 
Shattuck, . . . 

Slade, 

Story, 

Thayer, .... 
Gorham Thomas, 
Toppan, .... 
Townsend, . . . 
Walcott, .... 



Paid other Beneficiaries. 

Exhibitions, 

Palfrey Exhibition, . 
Samuel Ward Income, 
Quincy Tufts " 
Day Fund " 

Munroe Fund " 



(part of). 



Prizes. Lee Prizes for Reading, 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, . 
Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations 
" Deturs " from Hopkins Fund . 



15,885.00 
380.00 
300.00 
175.00 
500.00 

1,800.00 
250.00 
150.00 

3,600.00 
250.00 
300.00 

1,500.00 
166.66 

923.46 
90.00 
50.00 
648.00 
335.00 
572.15 

290.00 
255.00 
700.00 
267.10 



25,256.66 



2,618.61 



• Salaries for instruction, 

'Repairs and improvements on College Edifices not valued 

on Treasurer's books, 

Insurance on College Edifices, etc. not valued on Treas- 
urer's books, 

Botanic Garden, for labor, repairs, and materials, . . . 
Herbarium, " " " ... 
Gymnasium, Locker money, paid Director, 

Salaries and wages, 

Janitors and cleaning, 

Gas, water, and sundries, 

Fuel, 

Apparatus and fittings, 

General Expenses. 

Appropriations for collections and laboratories. 
Physical Apparatus (Prof. Lovering), . . . 
Mineral and Chemical (Prof. Cooke), . . . 

Rumford (Prof. Gibbs), 

Botanical (Prof. Farlow), 

Biological (Prof. Farlow), 

Geological (Prof. Shaler), 



1,512.10 
137,624.19 

6,452.57 

13.34 

5,778.81 
1,884.00 



1,081.00 

2,666.00 

943.79 

790.34 

626.13 

2,848.82 



$600.00 
800.00 
300.00 
350.00 
35.00 
100.00 



8,956.08 



Amounts carried forward, $V85.00$190,096.36 



40 

Table II., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Amounts brought forward, $2,185.00 $190,096.36 

Zoological (Asst. Profs. Faxon and Mark), 70.00 

Fine Arts (Prof. Norton), . 200.00 

Physical (Prof. Trowbridge), 300.00 

Drawing (Instructor Moore), ...... 100. 00 

$2,855.00 

Appleton Chapel. 

Preaching and morning services, . . . 1,835.00 
Organist and Choir-master, ...... 800.00 

Choir, 800.00 

Books, hymnals, and music, ...... 116.48 

Repairing organ, 603.28 

Blowing organ, 73.75 

4,228.51 

Admission examinations, 867.54 

Advertising, 22.38 

Books and binding, . 157.89 

Cleaning and care of College buildings not valued 

on Treasurer's books, 8,242.52 

College Yard expenses, labor and material, &c, . 2,040.85 

Commencement Dinner 1883, 998.34 

Dean's and Registrar's Office, clerk, stationery, 

postage, copying, &c, 1,790.11 

Fuel, 3,872.12 

Furniture, 159.72 

Freight, diplomas, and sundries, 267.39 

Gas, 1,375.71 

Music, Class-Day, 1883, 125.00 

" Commencement, 1883, 185.00 

Pews hired in Cambridge churches, 1,024.50 

Printing office, expenses, 3,322.55 

Printing, 4.50 

Services of examiners and proctors, 2,880.55 

" " undergraduates, 701.98 

Watchman, 1,048.50 

Water rates, 340.45 

36,511.11 

Total payments, $226,607.47 

Table No. III. 

THE LIBRARY. 
RECEIPTS. 

Income of the following Funds for the purchase of books. 

Subscription for Library, $628.69 

Nathaniel I. Bowditch, 119.20 

Bright, h income of the Bright Legacy, $1,392.50 

Interest on balance, 1 45.93 1,538.43 

Amount carried forward, $2,286.32 



41 

Amount brought forward, $2,286.32 

Denny, 317.55 

Eliza Farrar, • 295.38 

Horace A. Haven, 195.84 

George HayWard, 320.55 

Thomas Hollis, . . ....... \ . . . 136.97 

Sidney Homer, ........::;... 115.86 

Frederick A. Lane, ...... . . . . . . . 322.95 

Lowell, ........... .' . ...... 1,140.18 

Charles Minot. Interest, . \ ... ■ $68.62 

From special investment,-- . 4,200.00 4,268.62 

Stephen Salisbury, . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289.03 

Sever, 1,143.97 

Samuel Shapleigh, 248.14 

Charles Sumner,' 2,133.87 

Ichabod Tucker. From special investment, . . 200.00 

Thomas W. Ward, 335.04 

George W. Wales. Gift, $200.00 

Interest on unexpended balance, 9.97 209.97 

James Walker, . . . 918.49 

14,878.73 

Gift from Dante Society, 100.00 

James Savage Fund for general expenses (J of income), 1,019.70 

Daniel Austin " " " " . 311.92 

1,331.62 



William B. Weeden, gift to aid in publ. Lib'y Bulletins, 100.00 

Henry Lee, <' " " " " u " 50.00 

Alexander Agassiz, " " " u " " " 50.00 

Charles P. Curtis, " " " " " " " 200.00 

Charles S. Sargent, " " « " " " « 50.00 



Fees for use of Library, 165.00 

Sales of Bulletins and Calendars, 75.00 

Fines, 1.51 



450.00 



241.51 



$17,001. 



PAYMENTS. 
For Books from 

Subscription Fund, $909.80 



Bowditch 

Bright 

Denny 

Farrar 

Gray 

Haven 

Hayward 

Hollis 

Homer 

Lane 

Lowell 



170.12 

1,664.34 

754.39 

299.76 

37.47 

69.49 

363.74 

115.84 

123.36 

703.08 

712.20 



Amount carried forward, $5,923.59 



42 

Table III., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 
Amount brought forward, .... $5,923.59 
Minot Fund, 3,273.25 



Salisbury- 
Sever 
Shapleigh. 
Sumner 
Tucker 
Ward 
Wales 
Walker 



401.87 

1,269.69 

387.78 

. . . 3,166.56 

204.22 

1,307.93 

257.76 

1,056.94 

Dante Society money, 132.84 

Duplicate " 17.57 

Balance of old anonymous gift, 12.66 



Salaries and wages, 14,697.72 

Binding, 1,285.30 

Stationery and postage, 589.40 

Fuel, 892.29 

Repairs and improvements, 176.11 

Freight, water, and sundries, 216.38 

Janitors and cleaning, 479.77 

Furniture, 295.00 

Insurance on steam boiler, 15.00 

Bulletins, and other printing, 1,364.96 



17,412.( 



20,011.93 ta 



$37,424.59 



Table No. IV. 



DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 
Ihcome of the following Funds applicable to Salaries. 

General Fund, $1,308.17 

Benjamin Bussey Professorship, 2,093.43 

Parkman Professorship, 892.09 

John Hancock " 334.65 

Winn Professorship of Ecclesiastical History, . 2,470.07 

Samuel Dexter, 1,129.60 

Henry Lienow, •. 511.60 

Mary P. Townsend, 292.43 

Winthrop Ward, 116.97 

Samuel Hoar, 58.49 

Abraham W. Fuller, 58.49 

Caroline Merriam, 58.49 

Joseph. Baker, 438.64 

Thomas Tileston of New York Endowment, . 2,228.00 

Amount carried forward, .... $11,991.12 



43 

Table IV., continued. 

RECEIPTS. 
Amount brought forward, . . $11,991.12 

Oliver Ames, 946.90 

Henry P. Kidder, 557.00 

Abby Crocker Richmond, 55.70 

New Subscription, 3,832.44 

' 17,383.16 

Income of Scholarship Funds. 

Thomas Cary, 292.54 

George Chapman, 129.22 

Joshua Clapp, 176.07 

Jackson Foundation, 724.77 

J. Henry Kendall, 185.31 

Nancy Kendall, 161.42 1,669.33 

Income of other Funds. 

Joshua Clapp, 121.31 

William Pomeroy, 58.49 

Hannah C. Andrews, 29.24 

Lewis Gould, 50.74 

Daniel Austin, 44.56 

Abner W. Bufctrick, 624.23 

Adams Ayer, 44.00 

John Foster, income for Divinity students every 

third year, 176.68 

Interest on Beneficiary money returned, .... 93.35 1,242.60 

Term Bills. 

For Instruction, 1,350.01 

For Rents, 1,572.72 

2,922.73 

Sale of books, &c, 18.50 

Benjamin Bussey Trust. One-fourth of net income for use 
of this School, 2,611.74 

$25,848.06 
PAYMENTS. = 

For Salaries for Instruction, $18,411.68 

Services of students, 200.00 

Labor, repairs, and improvements, 1,117.37 

Cleaning and care of rooms, 578.50 

Books and binding, 117.00 

Printing, 48.25 

Fuel, ; 319.58 

Gas, j 119.68 

Water rates, 30.00 

Stationery, postage, diplomas, and sundries, . . . 17.95 

Collation, 70.00 

Furniture, 326.31 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, 52.54 

11 " " " Gymnasium, 126.69 

Amount carried forward, $21,535.55 



44 

Table IV., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, $21,535.55 

Paid the incumbents of the following Scholarships. 

Jaokson Foundation, $640.00 

Cary, 350.00 

Chapman, 140.00 1,130.00 

Paid beneficiaries from the following Funds. 

Buttrick, . 300.00 

Porneroy, 59.01 359.01 

$23,024.56 

Table No. V. 

LAW SCHOOL. 

EECEIPTS. 
Income of the following funds#' 

Law School Balance, $469.33 

Nathan Dane, 877.28 

Benjamin Bussey Professorship, 1,335.60 

Isaac Royall, 464.59 

New Professorship, 4,500.00 

Law School Book Fund, 1,534.20 

" " Building" 2,746.78 

Benjamin Bussey Trust (£ of net income for 

use of this School), 2,611.74 14,539.61 

Term Bills. 

For instruction, 19,375.00 

Sale of books, 265.42 

$34,180.03 

PAYMENTS. 

For Salaries for Instruction, $20,012.50 

Librarian and Assistants, 2,200.00 

Janitor and coat-room boy, 750.37 

Books and binding, 2,926.50 

Fuel, 510.59 

Gas, 295.42 

Printing 144.00 

Scholarships, 1,200.00 

Labor, repairs, and improvements, 190.25 

Stationery and postage, 114.23 

Freight, diplomas, and sundries, 64.68 

Water rates, 57.24 

Furniture, . . 8.06 

Account of new building, 102,233.25 

Services of examiners and proctors, 64.25 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, . . . . 254.95 

" " " " Gymnasium, 614.67 

Insurance, 737.50 $132,378.46 



45 

Table No. VI. 
MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Funds. 

Medical School, balance, $3,749.33 

Jackson Medical, 1,069.05 

Warren, for Anatomical Museum, . ...... 670.18 

Ward Nicholas Boylston, for Medical Prizes, . 210.99 

Ward Nicholas Boylston, for Medical Books, 127.00 

George C. Shattuck, 954.09 

Hersey Professorship, two-fifths income of the 

fund, 454.48 

Medical Library Fund, 146.21 

Medical School Building Fund, 2,084.09 

Quiney Tufts, 111.40 

Edward M. Barringer. Interest, $492.56 

From special investment, 25.00 517.56 

• _ 10,094.38 

From students for instruction, 44,997.57 

11 " for graduation fees, 2,190.00 

" in Chemical Laboratory, breakage and 

chemicals, 988.72 

" in Practical Anatomy, for material, . . . 806.80 

48,983.09 

Subscriptions to the Building Fund, 4,100.00 

Insurance for fire in new building, 18,569.76 

$81,747.23 
PAYMENTS. 

Boylston Medical Prizes. Prizes, $200.00 

Advertising, .... 50.00 250.00 
Warren Anatomical Museum. 

Expenses, and additions to collection, 458.34 

Chemical Laboratory, apparatus, chemicals, and wages, 1,705. 6*0 
Physiological Laboratory, expenses and wages, .... 1,050.00 

Practical Anatomy and Surgery Expenses, 3,905.15 

Obstetrics Expenses, 316.80 

Histology " 51.58 

Materia Medica " 113.42 

Salaries, for instruction, 36,554.48 

Repairs and improvements, 168.79 

Scholarships, 1,000.00 

For account of new building, 108,502.58 

154,076.74 

General Expenses. 

Advertising and catalogues, $1,962.19 

Alcohol, 39.39 

Books from Library Fund, 4.00 

Cleaning, 245.64 

Clerk, 700.00 

Diplomas, > 61.80 

-3r^ 

Amounts carried forward, $3,013.02 $154,076.74 



46 

Table VI., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 






Amounts brought forward, $3,013.02 $154,076.74 

Doorkeeper, GO. 00 

Faculty meetings, 32.48 

Fuel, 585.17 

Gas, 532.72 

Insurance, 900.00 

Janitor, 1,200.00 

Librarian, 20.00 

Moving furniture, &c, 44.00 

Printing, 95.45 

Pent of rooms (in part) for Pathological specimens, 200.00 

Rent and heating of rooms for Chemical Laboratory, 558.34 

Services of Examiners, 5.00 

Stationery, postage, and sundries, 77.38 

Water rates, • 91.42 7,414.98 



Iff 



$161,491.72 



5,774.78 



Table No. VII. 

DENTAL SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of Subscription Fund, $38.88 

From Students, 4,150.00 

Infirmary, 1,108.15 

Laboratory, 187.75 

Rent of a part of the School building, 290.00 

PAYMENTS. 

Advertising and catalogues, $155.97 

Care of operating room at hospital, and cleaning, . . . 81.00 

Drugs, chemicals, and sundries, . 65.13 

Diplomas, 13.70 

Fuel, 145.20 

Gas, 18.18 

Gold foil and metals, 522.40 

Instruments and apparatus, 297.31 

Interest on debt, 869.30 

Printing, 27.75 

Repairs to building, 130.59 

Repairing furniture, 58.79 

Salaries for instruction, 2,350.00 

Stationery and postage, 81.67 

Taxes, 117.78 

Water rates, 11.00 



$4,945.77 



47 

Table No. VIII. 

LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, AND MUSEUM OF 
COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

RECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Funds. 

Professorship of Engineering? $2,161.55 

Professorship of Chemistry, 159.36 

Abbott Lawrence, 3,427.56 

James Lawrence, 2,805.89 

John B. Barringer. Interest,. . . $1,586.73 

From special investment, 200.00 1,786.73 

Gray Fund for Zoological Museum, 2,785.00 

Sturgis Hooper, . . 5,570.00 

Agassiz Memorial. Interest, . . . $15,201.98 

From special investment, 1,496.73 16,698.71 

Teachers and Pupils, 422.99 

Humboldt, 431.17 

Permanent Fund for Museum of Zoologv, . . . 6,543.02 

42,791.98 

Term Bills, for Instruction, 4,080.00 

$46,871.98 
PAYMENTS. 

Paid on the order of the Faculty of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, from the following Funds. 

Gray, $2,785.00 

Agassiz Memorial, 12,472.48 

Teachers and Pupils, 422.99 

Humboldt, 431.17 

Permanent, 6,543.02 

22,654.66 

Salaries for instruction, 16,344.23 

Expenses in Geology, 620.00 

Stationery and postage, ' 11.10 

Proctorial services, 13.00 

Books, Engineering Department, 45.35 

Printing, 26.50 

Fuel, 365.31 

Gas, freight, and sundries, 25.17 

Janitor and cleaning, 537.70 

Labor and repairs, 183.99 

Expenses Chemical Laboratory (part of), 286.73 

Scholarships, 450.00 

Interest on advances, 282.44 

Water rates, 31.65 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, 48.65 

" " " " Gymnasium, 117.30 

19,389.12 

$42,043.78 



48 

Table No. IX. 
OBSERVATORY. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of the following Funds. 

Observatory, balance, $305.35 

Edward B. Phillips, 6,143.38 

James Hayward, - 1,1G9.70 

David Sears, . i 1,249.91 

Josiah Gtuincy, 715.47 

James Savage (£ of net income), 1,019.70 

Charlotte Harris, . . 111.40 

New Endowment, 179.74 10,894.65 

Eee for instruction, 37.50 

Subscriptions, for immediate use, 3,030.00 

From sale of time signals, 2,862.50 

" " " Observatory Annals, 78.75 

" " " grass, 25.00 2,966.25 

$16,928.40 

PAYMENTS. 

Salaries and wages, $13,756.16 

Cleaning and care of Observatory, 243.02 

Gas, 62.16 

Instruments and apparatus, including repairs on same, 1,757.41 

Repairs and improvements on buildings and grounds, . 784.92 

Stationery and postage, 389.23 

.Fuel, 92.32 

Books and binding, 250.54 

Water rates, 50.00 

Printing, 1,453.40 

Freight, chemicals, and sundries, 230.97 

Furniture, 76.86 $19,146.99 






Table No. X. 
BUSSEY INSTITUTION". 

RECEIPTS. 

From Bussey Trust (i net income), $5,223.48 

From Bussey Building Fund, 160.53 

Fees for Instruction, 870.00 

Sale of coal to Arboretum, 85.91 

Sale of grass, 435.56 

From Arnold Arboretum for rent of greenhouses, . . 50.00 $6,825.48 

PAYMENTS. 

For Salaries, $5,107.88 

Books, 25.24 

Stationery and postage, cleaning, gas, &c, 34.18 

Fuel for school building, 30.87 

Wages, . . • 708.45 

Horticultural Department, expenses, 728.07 

Repairs and improvements, 917.42 

Grain, 18.42 

Insurance, 10.00 $7,580J 



49 

Table X., continued. 

Bussey Building Fund. 

Receipts. 

Income of unexpended balance of Fund, $160.53 

Payments. 
Income carried to Bussey Institution, $160.53 



James Arnold Fund. 



Receipts. 
Income of Fund, $8,448.19 

Payments. 
19 20 of income carried to Arnold Arboretum, $8,025.78 



Arnold Arboretum. 
Receipts. 

Income of unexpended balance of Fund, $554.22 

From James Arnold Fund, 8,025.78 

Sale of wood, grass, &c, 658.60 

$9,238.60 

Payments . 

Salary of Director and Assistant, $3,005.00 

Expenses of Arboretum, 3,587.33 

$6,592.33 



School of Veterinary Medicine. 

Receipts. 

Gift of Henry L. Higginson, $500.00 

Subscriptions to Veterinary Hospital, 450.00 

$950.00 

Payments. 

Salaries for instruction, $208.33 

Advertising, 242.18 

Printing and other expenses, 158.71 

$609.22 



Table No XL 

MISCELLANEOUS FUNDS. 

Bussey Trust. 

Receipts. 
Net income from Real Estate, $17,109.30 

Payments. 

Annuities, . $6,662.34 

One-half of the remaining income to Bussey Institution, 5,223.48 

One-quarter " " " Divinity School, . 2,611.74 

" " " " " Law School, . . . 2,611.74 

$17,109.30 



50 

Table XL, continued. 

Gray Fund for Engravings. 

Receipts. 

Interest on Fund, $878.33 

From sale of catalogues, 148.50 

$1,026.83 

Payments. 

To the Treasurer of the Museum of Fine Arts, $822.28 



Annuity Funds. 

Receipts. 

Gore, income, $1,145.25 

Mary Osgood, income, 389.96 

Lucy Osgood, income, 716.08 

Anonymous Observatory, income, • 720.00 

Bemis, income, 2,785.00 

$5,756.29 

Payments. 

Gore, annuities, $900.00 

Mary Osgood, annuity, 789.91 

Lucy Osgood, annuities, 534.00 

Anonymous Observatory, annuity, 720.00 

Bemis, annuity, . . 2,745.00 

$5,688.91 

Daniel Williams Fund. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $894.04 

Payments. 

Treasurer of Herring Pond Indians, $297.90 

" " Mashpee Indians, 595.82 

$893.72 



Sarah. "Winslow Fund. 



Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $269.37 

Payments. 

Minister at Tyngsborough, Mass., $132.17 

Teacher at " " 132.17 

Commission on income credited to University, 6.77 

$271.11 

James Savage Fund. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $2,339.40 

Payments. 

Scholarship, $300.00 

One-half the remaining income to Library, 1,019.70 

" " " " Observatory, .... 1,019.70 

$2,339.40 



51 

Table XL, continued. 

Bright Legacy. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $2,785.00 

Payments. 
One-half income to Bright Book Fund, $1,392.50 

One-half income to Scholarship Fund, 1,392.50 

, $2,785.00 



Sundry Accounts. 
Receipts. 
From Thomas Jefferson Coolidge for the Jefferson 

Physical Laboratory, $50,000.00 

Interest on the same, . • 178.78 



50,178.78 
From Baring Bros. & Co., in account, 5,004.10 

$55,182.88 



Payments. 
j Jefferson Physical Laboratory, spent on building, . $21,720.00 

Annuity for Class of 1802, 120.00 

I E, M. Barringer Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 2,454.90 

George B. Dorr Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 357.21 

: Advances repaid, to 

Agassiz Memorial Fund, 4,226.23 

Dental School, 829.01 

Lawrence Scientific School, 651.97 



$30,359.32 



Gospel Church Fund (accumulating). Interest on Fund, , . . $140.87 
Robert Troup Paine Fund " From special investment, 1,149.72 



52 



GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE TABLES. 



Table 


I. 


Table 


II. 


Table 


III. 


Table 


IV 


Table 


V. 


Table 


VI 


Table 


VII. 


Table VIII. 


Table 


IX. 


Table 


X 



Table XI. 



Receipts. 

University, $34,277.27 

College, 257,991.91 

Library, 17,001.86 

Divinity School, 25,848.06 

Law School, 34,180.03 

Medical School, 81,747.23 

Dental School, 5,774.78 

Lawrence Scientific School, . . . 46,871.98 

Observatory, 16,928.40 

' Bussey Institution, 6,825.48 

Bussey Building Fund, 160.53 

James Arnold Fund, .' 8,448.19 

Arnold Arboretum, 9,238.60 

,. School of Veterinary Medicine, . . 950.00 

f Bussey Trust, 17,109.30 

Gray Fund for Engravings, . . . . 1,026.83 

Annuity Funds, 5,756.29 

Daniel Williams Fund, 894.04 

Sarah Winslow Fund, 269.37 

James Savage Fund, 2,339.40 

Bright Legacy, 2,785.00 

Sundry Accounts, 55,182.88 

Gospel Church Fund, 140.87 

iRobert Troup Paine Fund, . . . . 1,149.72 

$632,898.02 



Payments. 

$34,151.81 

226,607.47 

37,424.59 

23,024.56 

132,378.46 

161,491.72 

4,945.77 

42,043.78 

19,146.99 

7,580.53 

160.53 

8,025.78 

6,592.33 

609.22 

17,109.30 

822.28 

5,688.91 

893.72 

271.11 

2,339.40 

2,785.00 

30,359.32 



$764,452.58 

632,898.02 



Balance $131,554.56 



Which is the net decrease of the Funds and balances, excluding gifts for 
capital account, as also shown on page 27. 



53 



Certificate of the Joint Committee of the Corporation and Overseers of 
Harvard College, for examining the Books and Accounts of the Treasurer 
entered in the Journal kept by him. 

We, the undersigned, a joint committee of the Corporation and Overseers 
of Harvard College to examine the books and accounts of the Treasurer for the 
year ending August 31, 1883, have examined and audited the Cash book from 
pages 1G0 to 201, inclusive, and have seen that all the bonds, notes, mortgages, 
certificates of stock, and other evidences of property, which were received by 
him and on hand at the beginning of said year, are now in his possession, or 
are fully accounted for by entries made therein. We have also noticed all 
payments, both of principal and interest, indorsed on any of said bonds or 
notes, and have seen that the amounts so indorsed have been duly credited to 
the College. 

We have carefully examined all notes, bonds, mortgages, and other securi 
ties invested during the said year, and are of opinion that all such investments 
have been judiciously made and are amply secured. 

We have in like manner satisfied ourselves that all the entries for moneys 
expended by the Treasurer, or charged in his books to the College, are well 
vouched ; such of them as are not supported by counter entries being proved 
by regular vouchers and receipts. 

The Committee have also seen that all the entries for said year are duly 
transferred to the Ledger, and that the accounts there are rightly cast, and 
the balances carried forward correctly to new accounts. 



(Signed,) 



MARTIN BRIMMER, \ Committee on the part of 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, / ih e Corporation. 



HENRY P. KIDDER, I 

CHARLES HENRY PARKER, }• ^^^^^1^^' 

ISRAEL M. SPELMAN, 



Board of Overseers. 



Boston, Dec. 19, 1883. 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



OF THE 



PRESIDENT AND TREASURES 



OF 



HARVARD COLLEGE. 



1883-84. 




CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 

1885. 






PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1883-84. 



To the Board of Overseers : — 

The President of the University has the honor to submit the 
following Report for the academic year 1883-84 ; namely, from 
Sept. 27th, 1883, to Sept. 25th, 1884: — 

Three honored professors died during the year ; Calvin Ellis, 
Jackson Professor of Clinical Medicine, on Dec. 14th ; Evange- 
linus Apostolides Sophocles, University Professor of Ancient, 
Byzantine and Modern Greek, on Dec. 17th ; and Ezra Abbot, 
Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpreta- 
tion, on March 21st. 

Dr. Ellis was appointed Assistant Professor of the Theory 
and Practice of Physic in 1863 ; but for ten years before that 
date he had been actively engaged in medical research and 
teaching at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Medical 
School. In 1865 he was made Adjunct Professor of Clinical 
Medicine at the request of the Jackson Professor, and in 1867, 
upon the resignation of Dr. Bowditch, he succeeded to the 
Jackson Professorship. Cautious, exact, conscientious, earnest, 
and cheerful, he was one of the best teachers of medicine the 
University has ever had. His daily example, as a wise and 
high-minded practitioner and a kindly, honorable, and dis- 
interested man, was of great worth to the students ; for they 
saw that these qualities were the foundation of his success as a 
physician, and of his wholesome influence in the Hospital, the 
School, and the medical profession. He was Dean of the Medi- 
cal School from 1869 to 1883, and in this important office con- 
tributed with all his might to the reforms in medical education 
which the Faculty effected within that period. Of his strong 
faith in the beneficence of medical science he gave proof by 
leaving large bequests for the promotion of that science at the 
University. 



4 DEATHS. 

Professor Sophocles was first appointed Tutor in Greek in 
1842, and held the place for three years. In 1847 he was 
again appointed Tutor, and from that time until his death re- 
mained a member of the College Faculty, being made Assistant 
Professor of Greek in 1859, and Professor of Ancient, Byzan- 
tine and Modern Greek in 1860. His unique personality was 
an object of constant interest to the New England community 
in which his lot was cast, and especially to the shifting throng 
of young men in the midst of which he lived. He was pro- 
foundly learned in the Greek literature of all ages, and par- 
ticularly in the Greek of the Christian Fathers ; but was 
somewhat indifferent to the wealth of scholarship which West- 
ern Europe has lately brought to bear upon Greek art and let- 
ters. He was tender-hearted under a disguise of cynicism, and 
singularly generous under an aspect of parsimony ; in his way of 
living and his modes of thought he seemed a simple mediaeval 
monk ; yet he was shrewd enough in affairs to accumulate and 
keep safe a considerable property in modern stocks and bonds. 
In his last will Professor Sophocles gave enduring evidence of 
his fidelity in friendship, and of his love for the College which 
had been his home for forty years. 

Professor Abbot was in the service of the University twenty- 
eight years, — sixteen years as Assistant Librarian (1856-1872), 
and twelve years (1872-1884) as Bussey Professor of New 
Testament Criticism and Interpretation. As a bibliographer 
and a Biblical scholar, Dr. Abbot's characteristics were accu- 
racy, thoroughness, discrimination and candor. In the de- 
partment of New Testament criticism he had no superior ; a»d 
his name is inseparably associated with the development of 
Biblical science. He had the noblest qualities of the truth- 
loving and generous scholar — honesty, insight, humility and 
self-forgetfulness, and his indefatigable industry made these 
qualities fruitful. His character and life were simple, lofty, 
and serene. 

It is rare that two such scholars as Professor Sophocles and 
Professor Abbot die at the University within the same year. 
Their departments of study were closely related, yet their 
scholarship was of different types. The one was a scholar of 
the seventeenth century, the other of the nineteenth ; and each 



RESIGNATIONS. ANOINTMENTS. D 

was the peer of the best scholars of his type. The University 
did not educate either of these interesting and remarkable men ; 
but enjoyed the benefits of their presence and service during .all 
their maturer years. To produce their like must always be the 
highest ambition of an academic society. 

Tables of the resignations and appointments of the year will 
be found in the Appendix (I. and II.). 

Professor James B. Thayer resigned the Royall Professor- 
ship to accept the new endowed professorship of law ; and 
Professor Gray resigned the Story Professorship to accept 
the Roy all. These changes were made in order that the law 
professorship which the Corporation are forced to leave vacant 
at present might be the Story, which has no endowment what- 
ever. Professor J. Henry Thayer preferred to retire from the 
Corporation on his election to the Bussey Professorship of New 
Testament Criticism and Interpretation, that he might devote 
his whole time to the duties of the professorship and to kindred 
labors earlier undertaken. The University is indebted to Pro- 
fessor Thayer for seven years of faithful and valuable service as 
a Fellow. 

The most important change made in the College during 
1883-84 was the extension of the elective system to the 
Freshman y^ar (see the Dean's Report, p. 85). There are now 
no required studies in the College except rhetoric for one year, 
English composition (themes and forensics), German or French 
for one year (whichever language was not presented by the stu- 
|dent at the examination for admission), and a few lectures on 
chemistry and physics. The exercises in English composition 
which have long been called Forensics have been modified and 
brought into connection with the elective courses which the 
[student is pursuing ; so that, instead of being disputations upon 
)pics quite foreign to his main work, they tend to become 
>ays upon subjects to which he is devoting a great part of his 
time (see the Dean's Report, p. 84). Themes it is proposed 
carry back from the Junior and Sophomore years to the 
>ophomore. The rhetoric, French or German, and the ele- 
lentary scientific lectures are obviously matters which prop- 
erly belong to the secondary schools; so that these few, re- 



6 BEGINNING OF THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. 

maining requirements of the College course are of a temporary 
and provisional character, letained in College only until the 
secondary schools deal with them satisfactorily. The choice 
of studies opened to Freshmen is by no means an unlimited 
one. Only twenty-five full courses and six half-courses were 
offered them for the current year, — namely nine in Greek and 
Latin, four and two halves in French and German, one and a 
half in history, three and three halves in mathematics, and eight 
in science ; and no Freshman is allowed to take more than two 
courses in one department. Under these restrictions the first 
selection of studies made by a Freshman class (for 1884-85) 
was on the whole a conservative one. 

On the practical completion of a development which began 
sixty years ago, it is worth while to review the successive steps 
of the long progress from a uniform " curriculum" to a system 
which permits a free choice of studies, and which prescribes 
little else than the number of studies to be pursued from year to 
year by the regular candidate for the degree, and the order in 
which graded courses of instruction within the same department 
shall be pursued. 

During the years 1823 and 1824 a very thorough inquiry into 
the state of the University was made by two successive com- 
mittees of the Board of Overseers with the cooperation of a 
committee of the Corporation. The chairman of tne first com- 
mittee of the Overseers was Joseph Story, and of the second 
John Lowell. The report of the first committee was presented 
May 4th, 1824, and of the second Jan. 6th, 1825 ; Mr. Lowell's 
report being accompanied by documents which exhibited in the 
most complete manner the condition of the University in regard 
to its property, foundations, statutes, instruction and discipline. 
Judge Story's report recommended in outline several important 
changes, among which was the following — "that the College 
studies shall be divided into two classes ; the first embracing 
all such studies as shall be indispensable to obtain a degree ; 
the second, such in respect to which the students may, to a 
limited extent, exercise a choice which they will pursue." Mr. 
Lowell's report said nothing upon this subject ; but recom- 
mended that classes be divided, when division should be neces- 
sary, according to proficiency ; and laid before the Overseers a 



THE CODE OF 1825. * 

revised code of laws which had been prepared by the Faculty at 
the request of the Corporation, — a code which made no changes 
of importance. In January, 1825, Judge Story's report, which 
contemplated much greater changes than Mr. Lowell's, was 
adopted by the Overseers in preference to Mr. Lowell's, and 
sent by them to the Corporation ; and the outcome of the whole 
discussion was a new code of laws which was adopted by the 
Corporation and Overseers in June, 1825. These laws provide, 
among other new things, for the admission to the University of 
persons who are not candidates for a degree (Statutes and Laws 
of the University in Cambridge, 182.6, § 11) ; for the division of 
the instruction into departments with a professor at the head of 
each department responsible for its efficiency (§§58 and 60) ; 
for the division of classes according to proficiency (§ 61) ; and 
for the consideration, to a limited extent, of the desires of stu- 
dents in the arrangement of their studies (§ 63). These pro- 
visions, first suggested in an official form in Judge Story's 
report, contained the germs of the elective system. They 
originated in the Overseers and were adopted by the Cor- 
poration and Overseers against the judgment of the " Immed- 
iate Government," or Faculty, and obtained but very imperfect 
execution ; but they gave to George Ticknor, Smith Professor of 
the French and Spanish Languages and Literature, the means 
of demonstrating during the ensuing ten years, in the single 
department which he organized and controlled, the admirable 
working of a voluntary system. 

In 1824 all the studies of the College were required, except 
that Juniors could choose a substitute for thirty-eight lessons in 
Hebrew, and Seniors had a choice between chemistry and flux- 
ions. French and Spanish were taught as "extra" subjects, 
and attendance at the lessons was voluntary. In 1826, after the 
new Statutes had gone into effect, election of studies prevailed 
to the following extent : — a student could attend in modern 
languages after the first third of the Freshman year in place of 
(certain specified courses in Greek, Latin, topography, Hebrew, 
land natural science, and a Senior might also substitute natural 
iphilosophy for a part of intellectual philosophy. Election be- 
gan early, but the modern languages were almost the only ma- 
terials with which to effect substitutions. It was the lack of 



VOLUNTARY STUDY OF MODERN LANGUAGES. 

teaching force which imposed this narrow limit upon selection: 
The College could not provide any considerable quantity of 
instruction beyond that needed to fill out the regular four 
years' course, and the student's nominal privilege of choos- 
ing his studies could not avail much until there were more 
studies for him to choose from. This difficulty reappears to- 
day in the programme of many a small college which is am- 
bitious to maintain a so-called elective system ; the student 
seems to have liberty of choice, but finds only very few courses 
to choose from. In the department of modern languages how- 
ever there were five teachers, and a considerable range of choice 
really existed. For several years no student was compelled to 
study any modern language ; but the student who elected to \ 
study any language could not quit the study until he had passed I 
a satisfactory examination. The regular students of the depart- 
ment were those who chose a language as a substitute for some 
other study ; but there were also many volunteers who studied 
a modern language quite outside of the regular College course. 
By 1833 Professor Ticknor could say in his annual report:, 
" The system of volunteer study was begun in this department 
in 1826 with thirteen students. The number of students embrac- 
ing it has constantly increased every year ; and now exceeds 
the number of regular students. The teachers are particularly 
gratified with the proficiency of these volunteer students." In 
that year, on the average of the three terms, the classes in the 
modern languages numbered 210 students, of whom 103 were 
volunteer students. In this enumeration, however, a student 
who studied more than one language was counted for every 
language which he pursued. There were but 212 students in 
the College. 

In President Quincy's Report for 1830-31, written in Janu- 
ary, 1832, he. said : " In addition to a strict enforcement of the 
course of studies established in the University, an enlarged 
sphere of action has been opened for the encouragement of 
the spirit of voluntary study ; not only by the facilities and 
inducements held out for the pursuit of the modern languages, 
beyond what the general laws of the University require, but 
also, recently, by the establishment of a philological depart- 
ment, for teaching the theory and practice of instruction, 



EXPERIMENTS IN OTHER DEPARTMENTS. V 

under the superintendence of Dr. Beck in the Latin, and Mr. 
Felton in the Greek department. . . . The institution can be 
considered at present in the light only of an experiment. It 
has commenced, however, under very favorable auspices. . . . 
As soon as the general arrangements of the University permit, 
it is also contemplated to add the mathematics to the studies 
of this department." There is no allusion to this subject in any 
of President Quincy's later reports. 

In Professor Ticknor's report on his department in 1833-34 
it is stated that ' ' owing to the adoption and full application of 
this volunteer system, the amount of study and progress in 
each modern language have been greatly increased ; in some 
sections doubled within the last eight years." In the same 
year Professors Beck and Felton report that they divided the 
Freshman class in the second term according to proficiency 
instead of alphabetically, — a noteworthy report, because the 
Faculty had not given much effect to the statute concerning 
division according to proficiency, except in the department of 
modern languages. 

In 1834 the Faculty adopted, and the Corporation ap- 
proved, regulations for voluntary studies, which established 
a minimum in mathematics, Greek, Latin, modern languages, 
theology, moral and intellectual philosophy, logic, and rhet- 
oric, level to the capacity of faithful students in the lowest 
third of a class, and provided that students who had attained 
the minimum in any branch might elect the studies which 
they would pursue in place thereof, being formed into sec- 
tions of not less than six members, without regard to classes, 
and having additional instruction provided for them. The 
minima cover about all the instruction regularly provided by 
the College in the departments named. Had they not, the 
College would have been called upon, under this scheme, for 
much instruction which it was in no condition to provide. 

In spite of apparently progressive legislation, the College 

probably remained in 1835, except in the department of modern 

languages, very much what it was before the enactment of the 

/tutes of 1825. When in 1835 Professor Ticknor resigned, 

wrote thus to a personal friend, — "In my own department 

have succeeded entirely, but I can get these changes carried 



10 DEPARTMENTS MADE INDEPENDENT. 

no further. As long as I hoped to advance them, I continued 
attached to the College ; when I gave up all hope I determined 
to resign. ... If, therefore, the department of the modern lan- 
guages is right, the rest of the College is wrong." Professor 
Ticknor, who had actively and effectively promoted the legisla- 
tion of 1825, was a reformer fifty years in advance of his time. 
Professor Longfellow, succeeding Professor Ticknor, held in 
the main to his methods, and the reform gradually gained new 
ground. 

On the 26th of May, 1838, the following resolution was' 
adopted by the Corporation : ' ' Whereas certain changes are 
contemplated in the several departments of the College, — 
Resolved, that hereafter each department shall be separate and 
independent of every other, and the President shall be deemed 
the head of each department. And it shall be the duty of each 
department respectively for the time to come to recommend to 
the Corporation such measures, for the improvement of the stu- 
dies thereof, as it may deem advisable." At the same meeting, 
the Corporation adopted a plan proposed by Professor Peirce 
for the improvement of the mathematical department. Under 
this plan mathematics might be discontinued at the end of the 
Freshman year by any student who had then accomplished the 
Freshman mathematics, and any student who thus discontinued 
mathematics might choose as a substitute natural history, civil 
history, chemistry, a course in geography and the use of the 
globes, or studies in Greek or Latin additional to the prescribed 
course ; but in the announcement of this change a footnote warns 
the student that " in the early part of the coming academical 
year it may not be possible to provide instruction in natural 
history, civil history, and chemistry." 

At the Corporation meeting of June 2d, 1838, provision was 
made for some instruction in Greek and Latin, " additional to 
the prescribed course," and it was ordered that the professors 
of mathematics, Greek, and Latin be paid eight dollars a year 
for every individual who should elect and actually attend the 
instruction given in the subjects of election in those depart- 
ments respectively. These acts of the Corporation, extending 
the application of the principle of election, were concurred in 
by the Board of Overseers in the following July. The order 






THE ARGUMENTS OF 1841. 11 

about extra compensation was extended in October to the pro- 
fessor of modern languages. 

Acting under the vote of May 26th, which invited departments 
to propose measures to the Corporation, Professors Beck and 
Felton proposed to President Quincy in December, 1838, " to 
require of all only the classical studies of the Freshman year. 
... It is probable . . . that a liberty of choice will increase the 
zeal and application of students in the classical departments, 
and raise materially the standard of scholarship." 

This recommendation was adopted by the Corporation Aug. 
19th, 1839 (the resolutions of the Corporation were not con- 
curred in by the Overseers until the winter of 1841, the meet- 
ings of the Board being infrequent), and it was ordered "that 
those stu'dents who discontinue the study of Greek or Latin, shall 
choose as a substitute one or more of the following branches : - — 
natural history, civil history, chemistry, geology, geography 
and the use of the globes, popular astronomy, modern lan- 
guage, modern oriental literature, or studies in either Greek or 
Latin which may not have been discontinued in addition to the 
prescribed course in such branch. The times and orders of these 
studies will depend on the convenience of the instructors and 
the decision of the Faculty, and each student will be required 
to engage in such a number of studies as shall in the judgment 
of the Faculty be sufficient reasonably to occupy his whole 
time." In some remarks on these resolutions which President 
Quincy submitted in print to the Board of Overseers most of 
the arguments in favor of an elective system which have since 
become common are stated or alluded to ; but especial stress is 
laid upon the argument that no high standard of scholarship in 
any department, not even in Greek and Latin, can be attained 
under the system of uniform requirement. The Board of Over- 
seers having referred the resolutions of the Corporation to a 
committee, Theophilus Parsons presented by order of the com- 
mittee a report in which he anticipated, and stated with ad- 
jmirable clearness, principles which did not become indisputably 
the guiding principles of the Faculty and the governing boards 
[until thirty years later. The following sentences touch a point 
which has not yet lost its interest : — " We regard this ques- 
tion as precisely the question, whether Harvard College shall 



12 GREEK, LATIN, AND MATHEMATICS! ELECTIVE. 

or shall not become a University. In no institution intended 
to answer the purposes of a University, and to be called by 
that name, is it attempted to carry all the scholars to the same 
degree of advancement in all the departments of study. The 
reason of this is, obviously, that any such attempt must greatly 
retard the advancement of the whole. We hope, therefore, 
that our College may become, in feet, a University." 

From the beginning of the year 1838-39 the Corporation 
encountered serious embarrassments caused by the uncertain 
amount of the services which instructors in the elective de- 
partments were obliged to render in order to fulfil the prom- 
ises of the departments concerning choice of studies. Thus 
in 1839 two very pressing letters were addressed to the Cor- 
poration by Professors Beck and Felton on the subject of extra 
compensation promised for extra services. With obvious re- 
luctance the Corporation finally satisfied their claim ; but it 
must have been very trying to the Board, in those days of nar- 
row resources, to be subject to claims for services the extent 
of which could not be foretold. The method of payment which 
gave rise to these difficulties was abolished Feb. 26th, 1842. 

In August 1839 Professor Felton wrote to President Quincy, 
" I coincide fully* with the opinion that greater freedom ought 
to be introduced into the studies of the University, and that 
the age of scholastic conformity and uniformity has gone" 
(College Papers, IX. 288) ; and Professor Pierce wrote at the 
same time with regard to the new arrangements in math- 
ematics, •• With regard to the success of the experiment, 
I regard it as complete, and as proving most decidedly the 
superiority of the voluntary system, and the practicability of 
adapting different courses of instruction to different classes of 
students" (College Papers, IX. 291). 

In December 1839 a large committee of the Faculty (Pi 
fessor Beck, chairman) made an elaborate report upon the 
College studies. The most important propositions in this re- 
port are as follows : ' ' The committee give their unqualified 
support to the proposition of the Latin and Greek professors, 
viz. that those students who wish it, may, with the consent of 
their parents and the respective professors, discontinue the 
study of Latin and Greek, or of either, at the close of the 



t 

THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM OF 1841. 13 

Freshman year. . . . Physics and chemistry are among those 
branches a thorough study of which does not, in the opinion 
of the committee, belong to a well-proportioned system of 
general education. . . . That the study of one modern lan- 
guage only, during each of the first three years, shall be 
allowed, except, perhaps, in the case of substitutes for other 
studies. . . . That no voluntary exercise be marked upon the 
scale of merit." This report was adopted by the Faculty Feb. 
10th, 1840, but no evidence can be foimd in the College reports, 
catalogues or records that this plan had any immediate fruition. 

According to Professor Longfellow's annual reports (the best 
authority) French was a required study for three years, 1839-40 
to 1842-43: but the annual catalogues describe French as a 
required stud}^ only in 1840-41, and then place it in the Fresh- 
man year. This transitory appearance of a modern language 
as a required study at this early date is a noteworthy fact ; for 
changes in the selection of studies held to be essential, and 
therefore required of all, are quite as important as additions 
to the list of studies which it is agreed should be optional. 

On the 24th of May 1841, after the Overseers had approved 
the resolutions of the Corporation which provided that Greek, 
Latin, and mathematics should not be required beyond the 
Freshman year, the Faculty adopted and announced the fol- 
lowing scheme of College studies, — by far the broadest plan 
which had been enacted up to that time : — 

Freshman year. { Prescribed — mathematics, Greek, Latin, and history. 
I Elective — none. 

f Prescribed — English grammar and composition, rhetoric and 

declamation, one modern language, and history. 

Sophomore year.l Elective — mathematics, Greek, Latin, natural history, civil 

I history, chemistry, geology, geography, the use of the 

globes, and any modern language; so far as the means of 

I such instruction are within the resources of the University. 

f Prescribed — English composition, one modern language, 

logic, declamation, physics, psychology, ethics, forensics, 

Junior year. { and history. 

I Elective — the same as those of the Sophomore year, and a 
[ more extended course in psychology and ethics, 
f Prescribed — rhetoric, English composition, political econ- 
omy, constitutional law, forensics, theology, history, and 
Senior year.\ declamation. 

I Elective — political ethics, a more extended course in physics, 
[ and any of the elective studies above enumerated. 



14 PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE SYSTEM. 

There was appended to this scheme the following provision, 
which probably expressed the estimate put upon elected studies 
by the majority of the Faculty: "In forming the scale of 
rank at the end of a term, there shall be deducted from the 
aggregate marks given for an elected study one half of the 
maximum marks for each exercise in such elected study ; so 
that a student by only obtaining one half of the maximum 
marks adds nothing to his aggregate, and by obtaining less 
than half is subject to a proportionate reduction." 

In 1840-41 there had been a prescribed and an " extended " 
course in philosophy for Juniors and Seniors, of which Pro- 
fessor Walker spoke with approval in his annual report ; and 
this arrangement continued down to 1847, when Dr. Walker 
remarks in his annual report, "The elective system is now 
given up in this department." In 1844 he had suggested to 
the Corporation or Overseers * ' the expediency of introducing 
the elective principle into the studies of his department" (see 
a statement made by President Quincy to the Corporation, 
March 30, 1844, College Papers, Vol. XII. p. 77) ; so that the 
abandonment of so much election as existed in his department 
from 1840 to 1847 was the result of general action taken by the 
Faculty and shortly to be described. Dr. Beck remarks in his 
report for the year 1840-41 that "At the commencement of 
the Second Term, the new system relative to voluntary studies 
proposed by the Corporation and approved by the Overseers, 
was introduced so far as to divide the Sophomore and Junior 
classes into two parts each, of those who wished to relinquish 
the study of Latin at the end of the Junior year, and of those 
who wished to continue it through the College course." For 
several years after 1841 there is mention of the elective system 
in the annual reports of Professors Beck and Felton, and Pro- 
fessor Peirce repeats in four annual reports of the same period 
the remark : t « The standard of scholarship is believed to have 
been greatly elevated in this department, since the introduction 
of the new system of election." Except in the years 1839-40 
to 1842-43, Professor Longfellow regularly stated in his an- 
nual reports down to 1848 that " All the modern languages are 
elective." The elective principle, however, was by no means 
applied in all the departments of the College ; it had never ob- 



LIMITATIONS OF ELECTION, 15 

tained admission to the departments of physics, and rhetoric 
and oratory, and but temporary admission to the department 
of history. 

The Faculty having voted on April 21, 1845, that no student 
be allowed to study at one time more than one modern lan- 
guage, unless for special reasons shown to the Faculty and by 
an express vote of that body, Professor Longfellow desired to 
have his protest entered upon the record, and then appealed to 
the Corporation to set aside the vote of the Faculty; but the 
Corporation declined to interfere on the general grounds that 
the Faculty was the most competent body to order the times 
and the amount of study for the young men at Cambridge, and 
that the Corporation did not feel authorized to change one part 
of a complicated system, all the parts of which were intimately 
dependent upon each other (College Papers, Vol. XIII. p. 13). 
On the accession of President Everett in the spring of 1846 
the scheme of College studies adopted by the Faculty in 1841 
(see above) was still in force with the following modifications : 
Chemistry was a required study in the Freshman year instead 

I of an elective study from the beginning of the Sophomore year ; 
no modern language was required in either the Sophomore or 
the Junior year ; the elective course in geology was confined to 
the Senior year, instead of being accessible from the beginning 
of the Sophomore year ; no elective course in geography was 
provided ; Story's Constitution was a required study for Juniors 

| instead of Seniors ; psychology and ethics were elective instead 
of required for Juniors ; and political ethics were required in- 
stead of elective for Seniors. These modifications were some- 
what contradictory in character, so far as the application of 
the elective principle was concerned, and were probably made, 
not in execution of any settled policy, but on various grounds 
of convenience. If the number of elective studies had been 

I reasonably large, the scheme would have been a very liberal 
one, for election began early and the number of studies pre- 

: scribed in the last three years was not large. The number of 

! elective studies was, however, so small as practically to confine 
the choice of the students within narrow limits. In the twenty 

! years between 1825-26 and 1845-46 the number of students 

i had increased only from 234 to 279, and the number of teachers 



16 1846. THE FACULTY DIVIDED. 

employed in the instruction of undergraduates had increased 
proportionately from 14 to 17. The Faculty of 1845-46 num- 
bered but eleven persons including the President, and was of 
course unequal to the labor of carrying on a broad elective 
system. 

The members of this small Faculty (it had just been rein- 
forced by one tutor) were requested by President Everett in 
September 1846 to give him their opinion in writing upon the 
advantages and disadvantages of the system of elective studies. 
Several of the letters written in reply to this request (College 
Papers, Vol. XIV.) assume that the real subject under discus- 
sion is the abandonment of the elective system. Professors 
Beck, Peirce, Felton, and Longfellow are favorable to the 
system, Professors Beck and Felton with decision; Professor 
Lovering is opposed to it, Professor Channing professes com- 
plete ignorance of its working, and Dr. Walker states strongly 
its advantages, but finds the practical objections to it well nigh 
insuperable ; Tutors Torrey, Merrill, and Child are opposed to 
it, and Tutor Hartwell favors it, but thinks the beginning of the 
Junior year the best time to offer a choice of studies. It ap- 
peared that the Faculty was evenly divided upon the merits of 
the elective system, but that those teachers who had the largest 
experience of it in their own departments had the most favor- 
able opinion of it. The President threw his weight against the 
system. On the 19th of October two committees were ap- 
pointed to prepare tabular statements of studies for the College 
course, — one committee, consisting of the President and Pro- 
fessors Walker and Lovering, to prepare a plan in which all 
the studies should be required, — the other, consisting of Pro- 
fessors Beck, Pierce, and Longfellow, a plan in which the elective 
system should be preserved. Both committees prepared elabo- 
rate schemes, and both were influenced by illusive expectations, 
— the first committee by an illusion that a new ' ' School of Lit- 
erature and Science" was to be organized for advanced study 
in all branches, and the second by an assumption " that one 
year at least will be added to the College course." The scheme 
for requiring all the studies carried Greek and Latin through 
the whole course, and mathematics through the Junior year, 
and prescribed for all students French, German and Spanish; 



BEGINNING OF THE REACTION. 17 

each for one year. The scheme for preserving the elective 
system made the right of election to begin with the Junior 
year (instead of the Sophomore as heretofore) and to apply 
to the departments of Latin, Greek, mathematics, history, 
modern languages and botany ; it made provision for the study 
of only two modern languages by the great body of the stu- 
dents ; and it prohibited the student from taking more than 
three of the six elective studies in one year. The two plans 
having been discussed at several meetings of the Faculty were 
referred to a committee consisting of Professors Walker, Chan- 
ning, Peirce, Beck, and Lovering, to report a plan by way of 
compromise on the principle of admitting the elective principle 
in the Junior and Senior years. The scheme reported by this 
committee was adopted unanimously by the Faculty, Decem- 
ber 28, 1846, and although it underwent many modifications 
from year to year, its framework remained in use for more than 
twenty years. It allowed every Senior to select three from the 
following studies, namely, Greek, Latin, mathematics, Ger- 
man, Spanish, and Italian, and every Junior to select three from 
the same studies, Italian excepted. All other studies were 
prescribed ; but among the prescribed studies were natural his- 
tory for Freshmen and Sophomores, and French and psychology 
for Sophomores. The most obvious objection to the plan was 
that every Junior and Senior who did not pursue mathematics 
was obliged to study three languages during the last half of 
the College course, as well as during the Sophomore year. 
Another serious difficulty with the plan — an inevitable diffi- 
culty with all schemes of required studies for colleges — was 
the great number of exercises per week for each student. This 
number rose from sixteen in the Freshman year to twenty-three 
in the Senior year. In trying to include the elements of the 
|various new subjects which were pressing for admittance into 
|the old curriculum 6f classics, mathematics, and metaphysics, 
the Faculty had overloaded the student and restricted him to 
superficial attainments. In March 1848 Seniors were relieved 
of one elective study, and at the beginning of the year 1849 
Seniors and Juniors were required to elect only two studies 
instead of three. 
President Sparks was a decided opponent of the elective 



18 1850. LIBERTY OF ELECTION CURTAILED. 

system. He came into office in February 1849, and within a 
year attacked the system energetically through both the Corpo- 
ration and the Faculty. 

As the result of conferences between committees of the Corpo- 
ration and Faculty, and of discussions which took place in March 
and April 1850, the Faculty adopted by a vote of eight to three 
(Professors Beck, Longfellow, and Peirce) the following seri- 
ous contraction of the liberty of election : In the Junior year 
the elective studies were to be Greek, Latin, mathematics, Ger- 
man, Italian, and Spanish, and in the Senior year Greek, Latin, 
mathematics, German, Spanish, and Hebrew, and no student 
was to take more than one of these elective studies for the year. 
The time saved to Juniors and Seniors by this change was filled 
up with required exercises. Any student might take one 
extra study, but could have no credit for it on the rank-lists. 
The reasons which seem to have prevailed with the majority 
of the Faculty were in good part mechanical (see President's 
Report for 1849-50, and Records of the College Faculty, Vol. 
XIII. , April 8th, 1850). Under the new arrangement every 
student could have three exercises a day, one in the morning, 
one near noon, and one in the afternoon. He could also have 
a suitable time before each recitation to prepare for it. The 
earnest protest which Professor Peirce put on record against this 
backward step will be found in the Appendix (II.). Shortly 
afterwards, the practice of dividing certain classes according to 
proficiency was abolished, such advantages as the practice had 
being connected with the elective system. This close limitation 
of election did not last long; for in the year 1851-52 Juniors 
and Seniors were again permitted to select two elective studies. 
In his last annual report (for 1851-52) President Sparks re- 
marks : "The voluntary system, as it has been called, is still 
retained to a certain extent, rather from necessity than prefer- 
ence. The number and variety of the studies, for which the 
University has provided instruction, are sp large that it is im- 
possible for any student, within the period of four years, to 
give such a degree of attention to them all as will enable him 
to acquire more than a limited and superficial knowledge froi 
which little profit can be derived." The last sentence is an 
unanswerable argument for an elective svstem in a University. 



185G-G6. LOWEST STAGE OF ELECTION. 19 

In 1851-52, through the exertions of Professor Cooke, chem- 
istry became a required study and has ever since held that posi- 
tion ; but it did not become an elective study also until 1858-59. 
The zeal of new professors brings about either the insertion of 
now required studies into a programme already crowded, or the 
addition of new elective studies. As early as 1852 Professor 
Child urged that Anglo-Saxon should be made an elective study 
for Seniors. 

The beginning of the year 1856-57 witnessed another serious 
curtailment of the privilege of election. French was again made 
an optional study, two out of the three subjects Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics were made required studies through the Ju- 
nior year, and molecular physics was required for half the 
Junior year. At the same time the number of studies which 
a Junior or Senior could elect, and receive credit for on the 
rank-list, was reduced from two to one. One extra study was 
also allowed. Considering the gravity of this change it is re- 
markable that no direct vote on the reduction of the liberty of 
election was taken either in the Faculty or in the Corporation, 
and there is no allusion to the matter in the President's annual 
reports. A new "tabular view" was adopted — apparently 
without debate — by the Faculty, and approved by the Cor- 
poration ; and the only point to which the attention of the 
Corporation seems to have been directed, when their approval 
was asked, was „the fact that the new " view " provided for 
division of all the classes into smaller sections for recitation, — 
an improvement for which the Overseers had been asking. This 
was the lowest stage to which the election of studies had been 
| reduced for many years, and it remained at this low stage until 
1865-66. Some new elective studies were added within this 
period, but also some new restrictions were imposed upon the 
choice of the single study which a Senior or a Junior was allowed 
to select. At the beginning of 1858-59 chemistry was added 
to the list of Junior elective studies — a significant invasion. 

At the beginning of 1862-63 patristic and modern Greek 
was offered for the first time as an elective study^-in that year 
to the Junior class. On the 21st of April 1862 the Faculty 
voted that the number of electives in the Senior year be made 
smaller, and be limited to Latin, Greek, mathematics, and ad- 



20 1865. THE TURNING POINT. 

vanced Italian, and that Spanish and German be " extra studies." 
Shortly afterwards patristic and modern Greek was added to 
the " extra" studies of the Senior year. In the following year 
Italian was substituted for Spanish as a Junior elective study, 
and Spanish and patristic Greek were added to the Senior 
elective studies ; but the Senior who selected patristic Greek, 
German, Spanish, or elementary Italian could only obtain a 
maximum mark of 6 in any of those studies, whereas in all 
other studies in College the maximum mark w T as 8. The 
working of this plan was that students who had any regard 
for College rank were debarred from pursuing these under- 
valued elective studies. 

The Faculty of the year 1865-66 contained twenty members 
including the President, and the number of undergraduates was 
414 (in 1863-64 it was 422 ; and in 1864-65, 379). The whole 
number of teachers employed in the instruction of undergradu- 
ates was only twenty-one, the proportion of teachers to students 
being by no means so large as it was either in 1825-26 or in 
1845-46. The policy of dividing each class into small sections 
prevailed throughout the College ; so that much of the time and 
strength of the teachers was consumed in hearing the same 
lesson recited three, or even four, times with as many different 
sections. For twenty years the Faculty, through all changes in 
its personnel, had manifested in many ways a decided distrust of 
the elective principle, though always maintaining it in a limited 
way. The Faculty of 1865-66 was no more able than the Faculty 
of 1845-46 to provide a large amount of instruction over aiid 
above what was needed to fill out a uniform four years' course ; 
yet without explanations or prolonged discussions it suddenly, on 
the 24th on April, 1865, by a vote of seven to four (four other 
members present but not voting) ordered that botany be made 
an elective study in the Junior year, that Greek in that year be 
an elective instead of a required study, and that Juniors be 
allowed two elective studies instead of one. At a meeting on 
May 8th the Faculty further voted that German should be intro-- 
cluced as a required study into the second term of the Sopho- 
more year, and that Roman history, Greek history and philoso- 
phy, and German should be added to the elective studies of the 
Junior year. Subsequently, Greek poetry was added as an 









18G6. — THE CORPORATION ACT. 21 

elective study. Thus the Faculty set out upon a road which 
they have steadily followed ever since. Year by year they 
have endeavored to reduce the amount of the required studies, 
to increase correspondingly the amount of the elective studies, 
and to add to the number and variety of the courses of instruc- 
tion annually offered to. the choice of the student. 

In the ensuing year only one change was made in the elective 
system, but that one was in the right direction. It was voted 
June 25th, 1866, that Seniors might study elementary German 
with the Juniors and be marked on the ordinary scale, and that 
advanced German should be substituted for advanced Italian in 
the electives of the Senior year. At the meeting of April 16th, 
1866, the Faculty had appointed a committee of which President 
Hill was chairman " to consider the feasibility of increasing the 
amount of elective study in the Senior year." But before that 
committee had made any report, the Corporation, at the in- 
stance of their standing committee on Studies and Discipline, 
passed on March 26th the following vote " that in the judgment 
of the Corporation,- it is desirable to give to the students of the 
Junior and Senior classes a larger election of studies, both in 
subjects and in quantity, with the view of raising the standard 
of scholarship in every department as well as of diminishing 
the number of studies and recitations required of each student. 
And that for this purpose the Faculty be recommended to 
revise the course of study for those years, and be requested 
to report in general to the Corporation the changes which they 
may think it desirable to make." 

To better make known to the Faculty the views of the Cor- 
poration, the committee on Studies and Discipline had a formal 
conference with the Faculty, and private conversations with 
several members of the Board. The Faculty committee first 
made a report on October 15th ; but on the 22d their report was 
recommitted to a larger committee consisting of the President 
and Professors Peirce, Lovering, Cooke, Lane, Goodwin, Child, 
Torrey, Bowen, and Lowell, being all the full professors in the 
Faculty, except Professors Peabody and Sophocles. At the next 
meeting this committee was authorized "to consider the whole 
course of College studies, and to invite Dr. Gray or Professor 
J. Wyman to meet with them." On the 21st of January, 1867, 
the Faculty adopted and referred to the Corporation the fol- 



22 



A LIBERAL SCHEME OF STUDIES. HONORS. 



1 



lowing scheme of studies, which had been reported by this com- 
mittee after deliberations which extended over three months. 

^ EAR - f Mathematics, Latin and Greek, each 4 hours a week. 

{ First term. <{ French and ethics, each 2 hours a week. 
Freshman. J (^Elocution once a week. 

f Mathematics, Latin and Greek, each 4 hours a week. 
I Second " ■{ Greek history in French, 2 hours a week. 

[ Elocution once a week, 
f Required studies — chemistry and German, 2 hours a week the' 
whole year. Roman history, psychology and rhetoric, each 2 

Sophomore. -> hours a week ' half the y ear - 

Elective studies — Latin, Greek, mathematics, and applied mathe- 
matics ; each 3 hours a week, and each student must take two 
L studies. 
Required studies — physics, 3 hours a week the whole year. 

Logic and metaphysics, each 2 hours a week half the year. 
Elective studies — Latin, Greek, ancient history, mathematics, 
Junior, i chemistry, natural history, German, English; each 3 hours a 
Aveek, and each student must take two and may take three. 
Italian and Spanish, as extras, and as a condition of heing al- 
lowed to continue the study of them in the Senior year with a 
I mark of 8. • 

f Required studies — 1st Term. Political economy 2 hours a week, 

and history 3 hours a week. 2d Term. Philosophy 2 hours, 

history 2 hours, and ethics 1 hour a week. 

Senior J Elective studies — Latin, Greek, mathematics, physics, chemical 

j physics, philosophy, history and modern languages (only for 

advanced students), each 3 hours a week, and each student 

must take two, and may take three or give the time of three to 

I two. 

The committee also recommended that special honors at 
graduation be awarded to those who excel in special depart- 
ments or groups of studies. This pregnant suggestion has been 
gradually developed into the present system of honors and 
highest honors at graduation for great proficiency in any one of 
thirteen different departments of study. By promoting special- 
ization of study this system has tended strongly to multiply 
elective courses in every department, and to raise the level of 
instruction in all departments. 

The Corporation was not satisfied with the result at which the 
Faculty had arrived; but on the 13th of April 1867, "the 
standing committee on Studies and Discipline respectfully 
report that the order of studies proposed by the Faculty of the 
Academic Department seems to them better than the existing 
order, and they recommend the Corporation to assent to its 
adoption " ; and the Corporation gave their assent. 






1S69. NEW RESOURCES. RAPID EXPANSION. 



23 



For the year 1868-69 the changes made in the scheme above 
described were not large. In the elective studies for Seniors, 
physic's was dropped and English added. English (two hours 
a week) was added to the elective studies for Sophomores ; and 
that class was required to choose elective studies enough to 
occupy eight hours a week, and for this purpose Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics were offered in two-hour and four-hour courses. 

At the beginning of the year 1869-70 a vote of the Corpora- 
tion raising the tuition fee from $104 to $150 a year took effect ; 
and as the number of students suffered no diminution, but on 
the contrary increased from 529 to 563, the Corporation sud- 
denly found their income from fees increased by about $30,000. 
In 1870 or 1871 large gifts applicable to salaries were also 
received. These new resources were devoted chiefly to raising 
salaries and increasing the number of teachers. A rapid ex- 
tension and expansion of the College instruction was the result. 
The Faculty year by year pushed back required studies into 
the earlier years of the course, diminished the number of re- 
quired studies, and added new elective courses as fast as the 
Corporation could undertake to pay new salaries. Thus in 
lb72 all required studies had disappeared from the Senior year, 
in 1879 from the Junior year, and in 1884 from the Sophomore. 
The accompanying table exhibits the steps of this process : — 





Senior. 


Junior. 


Sophomore. 


Freshman. 




g 

o 






d 

3 


t3 

"3 


p 

o 

9 


p 


V 


1853-1855 


10 


6 


10 


6 


all 


none 


all 


none 


185G-1864 


13 


3* 


13 


3* 


« 


« 


« 






18G5-18G6 


10 


3 


9 


6 


it 


" 


1 1 






1867-18G8 


6 


6 or 9 


6 


6 or 9 


7 


6 


k 






18G8-1869 


6 


6 or 9 


6 


G or 9 


6 


8 


" 






1870 


h 


12 


6 


9 


54 


8 


" 






1871 


h 


12 


6 


9 


lh 


8 


u 






1872-1874 





12 


G 


9 


8 


8 


" 






1875 





12 


3 


11 


lh 


8 


i< 






187G-1878 





12 


2 


12 


4 


10 


1 1 






1879-1880 





12 





14 


2 


12 


a 






1881-1884 





12 





12 


2 


12 ' 


" 






1884 





12 





12 





12 


7 


9 



* With 3 as extra. 



24 EECENT DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM. 

The increase in the number of elective courses may be in- 
ferred from the figures given in the following table. A mon 
detailed exhibit for the last twelve years will be found in the 
Dean's Report (p. 83). 

Number of exercises per week offered in elective courses. 






In 1871-72 . 


. 168. 


In 1876-77 . . 


. 255. 


In 1881-82 . 


. 347. 


" 1872-73 . 


. 197. 


" 1877-78 . 


. 262. 


" 1882-83 . 


.351£ 


" 1873-74 . 


. 196. 


" 1878-79 . 


. . 308. 


" 1883-84 . 


. 373. 


" 1874-75 . 


. 228. 


" 1879-80 . 


. . 337. 


" 1884-85 . 


. . 382. 


" 1875-76 . 


. 240. 


" 1880-81 . 


. . 356. 







It was on December 20th, 1869, that the Faculty voted that 
there should be no required studies in the Senior year after the 
end of the current year : ' ' provided that the written exercises 
be not included in the term required studies " ; and within two 
months of this decided action the Board of Overseers adopted 
the following resolution (Feb. 15th, 1870), which the President 
was requested to communicate to the College Faculty : ' ' Re- 
solved, that the Overseers approve the elective system which 
has already been introduced into the College and recommend 
its liberal extension." The Corporation, Overseers, and Fac- 
ulty have cooperated with perfect accord since 1866 in widen- 
ing the range of the student's choice of studies, and increasing 
the number and variety of the graded courses of instruction 
which are offered in the different departments. Every spring 
the Faculty through a large committee prepares a list of courses 
for the ensuing year, and every spring the Corporation is called 
upon to decide how much new expenditure for salaries they 
will undertake for the ensuing year. Every winter a complete 
statement of the new studies, and of the changes and improve- 
ments in the arrangement of studies made or prepared during 
the preceding academic year, is laid before the Overseers in the 
Dean's annual report. 

It was sixty years ago last May that Judge Story's remark- 
able report was read to the Board of Overseers. The experi- 
ence of Harvard College during the long transition from a 
uniform required curriculum to a regulated freedom in choice 
of studies may, perhaps, be useful to other institutions which 
aspire to become universities ; for they must advance over 
the same road, although they need not be so long upon the 
way. 



PERSONS NOT CANDIDATES FOR A DEGREE. 25 

The code of "Statutes and Laws" which was adopted by 
the Corporation and Overseers in 1825 contained the following 
statute which was wholly new : " § 11. The University is open 
to persons who are not candidates for a degree and who desire 
to study in particular departments only : Provided that such 
persons have a good moral character ; that their previous acqui- 
sitions be such as are now demanded of students before admis- 
sion, so far as the studies proposed to be pursued shall require ; 
and that they be subject to all the laws of the University in 
regard to diligence and good conduct." A provision of this 
sort had been suggested in the following passage of Judge 
Story's report, May 4th, 1824: "With the view of meeting 
the demands of our country for scientific knowledge in the me- 
chanical and useful arts, the Committee further propose, that 
provision should be made for the admission and instruction of 
students in the University, who may not wish to receive a de- 
gree, but to pursue some particular studies to qualify them for 
scientific and mechanical employments, and the active business 
of life. Such students to have a right to choose their own stu- 
dies, and upon passing through the regular, prescribed course 
with the approbation of the Government, to be entitled to a 
certificate stating their character and qualifications." Professor 
Ticknor attached great importance to this opening of the Col- 
lege to all who wished to obtain any of the instruction which it 
offered, and it is highly probable that he suggested the passage 
just cited from Judge Story's report. In his " Kemarks on 
changes lately proposed or adopted in Harvard University " 
(Boston, 1825), Professor Ticknor says, "And it is at once 
the duty and the interest of a large institution like Cambridge 
to meet this demand [the demand for ' < a Jiberal education for 
many persons in all classes of the community "] ; to make its 
resources minister freely to a much wider usefulness than is 
now thought of; and to extend effectual instruction to portions 
of society that now never resort there ; for, while it is confer- 
ring all these benefits, it will, of course, be increased in the 
number of its students, and be strengthened in the interests 
and good will of the community, by having its basis so much 
more broadly and firmly laid in the very constitution of our 
society." The Keport made to the Overseers by Mr. Lowell, 



26 UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. STATUTE REPEALED. 

Jan. 6th, 1825, did not refer to this subject ; but the Overseers 
themselves acted upon Judge Story's suggestion, and the statute 
cited above was incorporated in the new code. The students 
who were admitted to the College under this statute came to 
be known as University students. There were never many of 
them. From 1828 to 1847 inclusive, the average number in 
attendance was three (see table, Appendix IV,). They felt 
themselves in a position of inferiority, and the College as a 
whole, officers and students, did not much regard them. As 
there was no instruction given in the College which was not 
elementary in its character, except perhaps in the mathematical 
department, it was not possible that a University student should 
be an advanced student. He was only a student who took ele- 
mentary instruction in fewer branches than the regular students. 
In short the statute concerning persons not candidates for a 
degree was a thing for the University to grow up to, but which 
could hardly bear immediate fruit. 

In 1847 the Faculty, acting upon the suggestion of a com- 
mittee of which President Everett was chairman (College Pa- 
pers, Vol. XV. p. 154), recommended its repeal: and repealed 
it forthwith was. The reasons given for the repeal were, — 
first, that the number of University students had at all times 
been small, and that the greater number of them had been 
young men who were desirous of entering College, but were 
not fit ; and secondly, that the foundation of the Scientific 
School had made ample provision for the class of young men 
supposed to have been originally contemplated when the stat- 
ute was adopted. 

It was in 1847 that the first students entered the Scientific 
School ; and for three years at least all members of the School 
were " special " students, and were so designated in the annual 
catalogues. No decree was offered in the School until 1851. 
There was no entrance examination at all until 1853, and then 
only in the department of Engineering ; two years later the 
Chemical Department also instituted a slight examination for 
admission. The number and choice of studies to be pursued 
were optional, and attendance on lectures and recitations was 
voluntary. None of the members of the School up to 1850 
were candidates for a degree ; so that President Everett was 



i 



UNMATRICULATED OR SPECIAL STUDENTS. 27 

quite right in saying that the Scientific School, as it was 
originally planned, could receive that class of students which 
§ 11 of the Statutes of 1825 was intended to provide for. 

But in process of time the Scientific School itself became 
more highly organized, with examinations for admission, 
elaborate courses of study leading to the degree of Bachelor 
of Science, and periodical examinations in the subjects of these 
courses. Moreover the School never embraced the classics, 
philosophy or history, as President Everett in 1847 supposed 
that it would. For these reasons it did not continue to answer 
the purposes of the repealed statute. After that repeal no 
persons were distinctly recognized by the statutes as students 
except candidates for a degree and resident graduates. 

From 1850 to 1869 the only students who had no legal 
status as members of the University were a few students at 
the Observatory, and in the last few years of that period a 
few persons attending "University Lectures" upon payment 
of a fee for each course. In 1869, however, special students, 
that is students who avowedly were not candidates for a degree, 
appeared in the Divinity School, and the number of persons 
attending "University Lectures " increased (see Appendix IV.) . 
Soon after the requirements for the degree of the Scientific 
School, including a general admission examination (1874) , were 
increased and systematically enforced, students designated as 
special appeared anew in that School ; and in 1877 this class 
of students appeared in the Law School, because in that year an 
examination for admission was instituted. 

In 1876 (March 27th and April 17th) the College Faculty, 
with the approbation of the Corporation (April 24th) , opened 
the elective courses of study ' ' to persons not less than twenty- 
one years, who shall satisfy the Faculty of their fitness to pursue 
the particular courses they elect, although they have not passed 
usual examinations for admission to College, and do not 
propose to be candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts." 
h\ 1881 the restriction as to age was removed, and the pre- 
scribed courses as well as the elective were opened to this class 
of students. Up to the year 1882 these persons had been 
called " unmatriculated " students ; they were thereafter called 
" special " students. At the time this action was taken by the 



28 SPECIAL STUDENTS. THEIR QUALITY. 

Faculty and Corporation, the College was living under statutes! 
which had last been revised in 1866, and the 37th section of I 
these statutes was as follows : < ' The qualifications for admis- { 
sion shall from time to time be determined by the Faculty,! 
subject to the approbation of the Corporation" ; but in this sec- 1 
tion admission undoubtedly meant admission to College as a 
candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. On the 10th of 
January, 1877, a new body of statutes, replacing all existing 
statutes, was finally adopted by the governing boards ; but only] 
after agreement to omit all definition of the powers intrusted to 
the several Faculties, — a definition upon which the two boards ] 
had failed to agree after patient endeavors, first in 1870 and 
1871, and then in 1876. The bulk of the new statutes was not 
more than one eighth of the bulk of the statutes which they ! 
superseded, and many topics which the old statutes dealt withl 
at length were not even alluded to in the new. There was no 
attempt in the new statutes to define the term student, and| 
there was no allusion in them to resident graduates not candi- 
dates for a degree, to unmatriculated students, to students 
attending the summer courses, or to special students in the 
Scientific and Divinity Schools, although all these classes of 
persons were actually enrolled as members of the University 
when the new statutes were adopted. 

The number of students in the University not candidates for 
any degree and not directly recognized in the statutes was, in 
1883-84, 182 and in 1884-85 is 166 (for the distribution by 
departments see Appendix VII. ) . The quality of these students 
is very various, but many of them are mature men, who are 
already well-trained and are pursuing advanced studies. Since 
1877 even resident graduates have not been provided for by 
statute as they used to be, unless they happen to be candidates 
for degrees, which often is not the case. The resident gradu- 
ates not candidates for a degree are generally very desirable 
members of any university ; in 1883-84 one half of them 
were graduates of Harvard University, and one half of other 
institutions ; in 1884-85 three fifths are graduates of other 
institutions. Among the special students in the Divinity and 
Law Schools are always to be found graduates of Harvard and 
other colleges (eight out of thirty-four in 1883-84, thirteen out 



SPECIAL STUDENTS IN COLLEGE. 29 

of thirty-two in 1884-85). Most of the persons who resort to 
the summer courses of instruction are teachers in schools or 
colleges, and ninny of them already hold some degree. Two 
special students appeared in 1884-85 in the Veterinary School, 
one a graduate of Harvard College, the other of another veteri- 
nary school. The presence of special students in the Scientific 
School is nothing new ; for from the first a considerable pro- 
portion of the members of that School have not been candidates 
tor the degree. It is the special students of the College into 
whose quality it is most interesting to inquire. In the ninth 
year (1884) from the starting of this experiment 69 special 
students were registered as members of the College, 24 of 
whom entered in a previous year. The average age of these 
students at the time of their admission was 19 years 9^ months. 
They were therefore more than a year older on the average 
than the regular students of the same College standing. From 
the carefully prepared tables in the Dean's Reports for 1882-83 
( p. 49) and 1883-84 (p. 80), exhibiting the work of the special 
students, it appears that some achieve an extraordinary amount 
|of work, while others attempt little, and complete less. On 
comparing the scholarship of the fifty-two special students who 
made a record in 1883-84 with the scholarship of the Freshman 
class in the same year as exhibited in the annual rank-list, it 
iappears that 



Of the special students 8 per cent earned an average mark of 90% or over. 

" " Freshmen 5 " " " " " " " " " " 

" special students 17 " " " " " " "80%" " 

" Freshmen 16£ " " " " " " " " " " 

" special students 27 " " " " " " "70%" " 

" Freshmen 37 " " " " " " " " " " 

" special students 63 " " " " " " "50%" " 

" Freshmen 77 " " " " " " " " " " 

That is, there was a larger percentage of very good scholars 
ong the special students than among the Freshmen in 1883- 
84, and a smaller percentage of fair and passable scholars. 
They had the great advantage over the Freshmen of choosing 
their studies. Since the Freshmen have now gained this privi- 
lege the current year may possibly show different results. A 
few special students, who wish to get transferred to College 
-•lasses with advanced standing, succeed each year in accom- 




30 ADMISSION NOT BECOMING HAKDER. 

plishing their object (in 1882-83, ten; in 1883-84, five). A 
larger proportion of special students than of regular students 
come from distant parts of the country. m Of the College special 
students a decided majority came from beyond New England 
both in 1882-83 and in 1883-84; yet it would be unsafe tc! 
infer that this larger proportional resort of special students tc 
the University from beyond the Hudson was due to the com- 
parative lack of facilities for obtaining a thorough preparation 
for college in those states ; for the experience of the principal 
German universities indicates that even in a country where 
secondary education has long been well organized and diffused, 
large numbers of special students continue to attend university 
instruction, particularly in large cities. 

On the whole it appears that the provisions made for special 
students in the different departments of the University are 
answering a useful purpose ; but it also appears that since 1847 
there has been no authority, derived from the statutes, for the 
enrollment of any students not candidates for a degree, except 
that resident graduates not candidates for a degree were pro- 
vided for by statute down to 1877. The statutes of 1877 are 
silent upon the subject ; although there were 89 such students 
enumerated in the Catalogue for 1876-77 ; and although the 
last action of the governing boards about students not candi- 
dates for a degree had been to repeal in 1847 a statute which 
for twenty-two years had explicitly recognized them as mem- 
bers of the University. 

The changes made in the requirements for admission to the 
College during the last fifteen years have not made admission 
more difficult. The percentage of candidates who are admitted 
is increasing slightly, and the percentage admitted uncondition- 
ally is increasing considerably (Dean's Eeport, p. 53). In 1884 
one half of the candidates admitted entered without ' ' condi- 
tions." Improvements made in school methods of teaching, 
and in the plan and method of the examinations themselves, 
account for this gratifying result. On the other hand the re- 
sults of the preliminary examination in 1884 were not quite as 
good as usual. 

The Dean points out (p. 51) that the ''beneficiary" funds 



USE OF THE GYMNASIUM. 



31 



are still insufficient to meet the most pressing needs of the 
meritorious young men who are unsuccessful in the competi- 
tion for scholarships. He also reports (p. 56) that the ten- 
dency of the Faculty is to cease using the penalty of sus- 
pension, and to resort instead to an absolute dismission, when- 
ever warning and probation have proved ineffectual. 

The increasing use made of the Hemenway Gymnasium can 
be roughly estimated by the number of lockers leased in suc- 
cessive years. Some lockers however are used by two persons. 



Year 1879-80. 

;ers leased . 474. 



1880-81. 
580. 



1881-82. 
591. 



1882-83. 
809. 



1883-84. 1884-85. 
837. 901. 



Of the students who now hold lockers at the Gymnasium 
rather more than one sixth have never been examined by the 
Director, — namely : 



Of the class of 1888 
.. „ << « 1887 

•• " " " 1886 
" " " " 1885 

Special students . 

Scientific " 

Law " 

Divinity " 

Medical " 



Never 
examined. 

55, of whom 18 did not keep the appointment. 

39, " " 6 " " 

15, " " 1 " " 

11, " " 1 « " 

11, " « 3 " " 

8, " " 2 " " 

18, " " 4 " " 

1 

1 



159 



35 



The number of applications for examination in 1883-84 was 
|582 ; in the current year, to December 20th, 546, of which 469 
|had been answered and the desired examinations had been 
iniade by that date. The Gymnasium is of greater service to 
weak, undeveloped persons than to those already strong ; it is 
of greater use as a means of preserving good general health, 
jand obtaining moderate and symmetrical muscular develop- 
ment, than as a means of training athletes. Yet it is also very 
serviceable to the comparatively small number of young men 
|who are ambitious to excel in particular sports or contests ; 
tor it is a well-recognized fact that general and harmonious 
development is an important element of success even in games 
pr feats which require special aptitude and some peculiar mus- 
cular or nervous power. 



32 ATHLETIC SPORTS. 

Some of the inter-collegiate athletic contests last year gave 
grave offense to many persons who have heretofore supported 
them and believed that while they did some harm, they did 
more good. In particular the game of foot-ball was played in 
such a brutal and dishonorable way that the Faculty, after 
waiting two seasons to see if the players could not reform the 
game themselves, have been obliged to prohibit inter-collegiate 
games of foot-ball altogether. It is very improbable that a 
game which involves violent personal collision between opposing 
players can ever be made a good inter-collegiate game. None 
of the popular games or contests which have proved long-lived 
and respectable, like cricket, tennis, fencing, shooting at a 
mark, rowing, sailing, hunting, jumping, and racing on foot, 
horseback, or bicycle, involve any bodily collision between con- 
testants. Boxing and wrestling, which do require such personal 
collision, are very apt to degenerate just as foot-ball has done. 
An ill effect of some of the inter-collegiate contests is their 
tendency to restrict the number of men in College who prac- 
tice the competitive sports. The keenness of the competition 
creates a high standard of excellence, and persons who know 
that they cannot reach that standard cease to play. The 
athletic sports ought to cultivate moral as well as physical 
courage, fair-dealing and the sense of honor. If any form of 
unfaithfulness, unfairness, or meanness is tolerated in them, 
they become sources of wide-spreading moral corruption. If 
students do not find their sense of honor cultivated and refined 
by their College life, they may be sure that their education is 
failing at its most vital point. 

Five out of the six professors who give instruction in the 
Divinity School have been appointed within five years, Pro- 
fessor Everett being the only teacher in the School whose ap- 
pointment antedates January 1st, 1880. The Dean states in his 
Keport (p. 94) how these five places have been filled. The 
result is that of the six professors, two are Unitarian ministers, 
one a Unitarian layman, two Baptist ministers, and one an 
Orthodox Congregationalist minister. There is no more har- 
monious Faculty in the University, and none more completely 
devoted to the unbiased search for truth. No denominational 






CONDITION OF THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 33 

differences have ever been perceptible in Faculty discussions 
upon studies and discipline, and no differences of opinion have 
arisen concerning the award of scholarships, or other bene- 
ficiary aid, to meritorious students of different denominational 
connections. In view of the great change in the constitution 
of the Faculty and the denominational relations of the School 
since 1879 the Dean calls attention to the understanding which 
was practically entered into with the subscribers to the new 
endowment of 1879, — namely, that Unitarian doctrines would 
always be entitled to respectful exposition in the School, and 
that to properly expound these doctrines at ieast two professor^ 
would always be needed, one of whom should be a professor of 
theology. Since the endowment of the School has all been 
provided by Unitarians, these propositions seem eminently rea- 
sonable ; and it is difficult to imagine circumstances in which 
they could fail to be carried out by the Corporation and Over- 
seers, unless indeed the Unitarian denomination should die 
without offspring or designated heirs, or should cease to fur- 
nish scholars competent to present its own doctrines in profes- 
sorial chairs. 

The Dean also reviews the successive measures by which the 
quality of the students of this School has been so much im- 
proved that they now constitute the most highly educated body 
of professional students connected with the University, and are 
distinguished for capacity, enthusiasm, and devotion to duty. 
During this gradual raising of the standards for admission and 
graduation, the number of students, instead of diminishing, has 
increased a little, the number having been greater during the 
Ipast five years than in any other Hve years out of the past 
thirty, except during a period including the three years 
j 1869—72, when a number of young men who had been con- 
nected with a short-lived private school for the ministry in 
Boston suddenly entered the Divinity School (see Appendix 
V.). Unfortunately the Faculty had in 1868-69 been per- 
suaded to lower their requirements for admission, so that 
young men could enter the School without any knowledge of 
Latin and Greek. In 1869-70 the Faculty corrected this error 
and restored the former requirements, but in that one year 
serious injury was inflicted upon the reputation of the School. 



34 CONDITION OF THE LAW SCHOOL. 

What the ministry needs to-day in all denominations is ac- 
curacy of knowledge, clearness of thought, candor, the caution 
and patience which come with habits of thoroughness, and a 
burning desire to serve their fellow-men. All these things 
the student learns in the Divinity School, if so much in him 
lies ; for they are incessantly inculcated there by precept and 
example. 

The small deficit which the School incurred in 1883-84 
(Treasurer's Statement, p. 5) was caused by unusual expen- 
ditures upon the building, and will not recur this year. If 
the School had a small fire-proof building near Divinity Hall, 
to contain a book-room, reading-room, and four small lecture- 
rooms, it would be fairly equipped for its work. The generous 
gift, lately received from Mrs. Ezra Abbot, of the greater part 
of Dr. Abbot's valuable collection of books makes the need of a 
lire-proof book-room more urgent than ever. 

The number of students in the Law School is always an 
interesting matter, because the School has but a small endow- 
ment, apart from its admirable building, and ordinarily derives 
at least three fifths of its whole income from students' fees. In 
imposing an admission examination in 1877 and simultaneously 
raising the full term of residence to three years, the Faculty ran 
no small pecuniary risk, and the friends of the School have 
scanned with some anxiety the statistics which annually exhibit 
in the Dean's Report the effects of these very restrictive meas- 
ures. Within the same period discussions have taken place as 
to the entire wisdom of the selection of subjects and methods 
of instruction at the School, and as to the nature of the best 
possible appointments to professorial chairs. Such debates, 
however well-conducted and fruitful, do not for the time being 
encourage the resort of students to the school under discus- 
sion, particularly in a country which is over-supplied with 
schools of law. It is therefore with especial satisfaction that 
the Faculty have seen the decline in the number of students 
since 1877-78 reach its limit in five years. The average num- 
ber of students in 1883-84 was larger by eleven than in the 
preceding year, and the number in attendance the current year 
is larger than in 1883-84. The effect of the admission exam- 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 35 

ination has been to increase the proportion of College graduates 
in the whole number of students, and to improve the quality of 
the School at the expense of its numbers. The Dean points 
out (p. 106) that the extension of the full course to three years 
lias not added much to the average length of the students' resi- 
dence at the School (from 1.35 years in the seven years pre- 
ceding 1877-78 to 1.52 years in the seven years from 1877-78 
to 1883-84 both inclusive) ; for while many students have re- 
mained longer, many have remained a shorter time, than they 
would have under the former requirement of two years' resi- 
dence. 

If the number of students had not increased since 1882-83 
the School would now be in straits ; for its expenses in Austin 
Hall are about $1500 a year greater than they were in Dane 
Hall, and the small savings of the School, laid up before 
1882-83, have been necessarily used to meet the expenses of 
moving into and furnishing (in part) Austin Hall. 

Seven eighths of the Law students live in Cambridge within 
easy walk of the Law Library, and board near by ; and this is 
undoubtedly the best way for a student in this School to live. 
Nevertheless a young man can get most of the advantages of 
the School, and do a hard day's study every day, and yet live 
at some distance from Cambridge. The lectures are all deliv- 
ered between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., and Austin Hall contains, 
what Dane Hall did not, every comfort for a student who has 
no room in Cambridge, and spends the whole day at the Hall. 
The attention of young men who can not afford to live in Cam- 
bridge, or who are obliged for family reasons to live at home, 
should be directed to this mode of attending the School. 

The great event of the year in the Medical School was the 
occupation of the new building, which was dedicated to medical 
reaching and the advancement of medical science and art with 
appropriate ceremonies o*i the 17th of October 1883. The 
sum of $17,934.63, which had to be taken from the savings of 
phe School Aug. 31st, 1884, to balance the deficit of the year 
1883-84 (Treasurer's Statement, p. 5), represents with suffici- 
ent precision the excess of the cost of the land, building, 
ittings, and furniture over the proceeds of the two public 



36 THE MEDICAL LABORATORIES. 

subscriptions therefor. Apart from extraordinary expenses 
connected with the building, the School would have had a 
small surplus in 1883-84. The building fulfils the highest 
expectations as to spaciousness, convenience and serviceable- 
ness, and also as to its good influence upon the instruction 
given in the School. The ample laboratories encourage 
teachers to offer and students to seek practical instruction, and 
they also stimulate medical research. About $6000 a year is 
now paid to demonstrators, laboratory instructors, and assist- 
ants, in order that the laboratory work of the students may 
be properly supervised. The annual expenses of the various 
collections and laboratories, including servants' wages, amount 
to nearly $8000 a year, without counting the cost of heat 
and light. The Dean's Report (p. 109) makes mention of 
the scientific productiveness of these laboratories in the first 
year they were occupied, and expresses a well-founded hope 
of their being of great service to the students and the pub- 
lic in the future. They ought to be endowed ; so that 
medical investigations could be carried on in them continually 
with every aid which chemistry and physics can supply. Man- 
kind has much to hope from the assiduous prosecution of 
physiological, pathological, histological, and embryological 
inquiries. 

The Medical School has but three professorships which have 
any endowment, and these three are very inadequately en- 
dowed. It has no professorship of the all-important subject of 
public health. Fifty-seven persons are now connected with the 
School as teachers or assistants, of whom only five were con- 
nected with the School fifteen years ago. The fourth-year 
instruction is more and more abundant and satisfactory, and 
the number of fourth-year students gradually increases ; but 
the Faculty would be much aided in their endeavor to prolong 
the course of medical instruction to four years if the College 
proper could reduce the time ordinarily spent in obtaining the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts from four years to three ; or, 
indeed, if the undergraduates should get into the habit of 
availing themselves in due season of the facilities already pro- 
vided for abbreviating the College course (see Catalogue for 
1884-85 p. 71). Parents complain that their sons who spend 



DENTAL SCHOOL. BU8SEY INSTITUTION. 37 

four years in the School are not ready to practice before they 
are twenty-six or twenty-seven years old. Since the medical 
course is too short at the best, time must be saved, if any- 
where, upon the school course and the college course. If 
young men were ready for college at eighteen, and obtained 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts at twenty-one, they would be 
ready to practice medicine at twenty-five, or twenty-six at the 
latest. 

The Law School feels the same difficulty. Indeed, since 
thorough professional training becomes more and more im- 
portant to success in the learned professions, the time devoted 
to professional study will probably reach at last the European 
limit of five years. Under such conditions the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts might cease to be taken by candidates for 
the learned professions, unless it could be obtained earlier than 
now. 

For five years past the number of students in the Dental 
School has steadily increased. By favor of the Medical Faculty, 
the School has occupied since the summer of 1883 excellent 
quarters in the North Grove St. Building ; and since the current 
year began its house No. 50 Allen St. has been sold. The 
debt of the School is thus reduced to about $6000, and as a 
partial offset to this debt the School has its Subscription Fund 
which amounted Aug. 31st, 1884, to $1385.66. The Faculty 
has been strengthened by adding to it three graduates of the 
School who give instruction in dental specialties. 

The Bussey Institution is indebted to Frofessor Storer for 
indispensable services, which have been rendered without any 
salary for two years past, and for a salary of $500 a year during 
three years preceding. Besides delivering his stated courses 
of lectures, he exercises a general supervision over the farm, 
buildings, and accounts. In spite of the fact that the proceeds 
of grass sold have always been spent for manure and so re- 
turned to the farm, many of the fields are in bad condition. 
Much labor and several years will be needed to bring up the 
farm to the condition contemplated by Mr. Bussey. The ob- 
ject in view is to make the farm support itself, and to furnish 



38 ARNOLD ARBORETUM. VETERINARY SCHOOL. 

to students practical illustration of all the processes of intelli- 
gent agriculture in this climate. The boarding of animals at 
the farm is an essential part of this policy, and a good begin- 
ning was made in this business last year. The connection be- 
tween the Bussey Institution and the Veterinary School con- 
tinues to be useful to both departments. 

The City of Boston made good progress during the season of 
1884 with the construction of the driveways which it has un- 
dertaken to provide in the Arboretum, all its work being done in 
the most substantial and permanent manner. The main drive- 
way between Centre and South Streets is nearly finished, and 
will soon be opened to the public ; but it would not be prudent 
to attempt permanent planting in connection with this driveway, 
until all the grading in its immediate vicinity is finished. With 
the exception of about 3000 plants set out during 1884 in per- 
manent bounding plantations 2397 feet long and from 25 to 90 
feet wide, the young trees and shrubs raised for the Arboretum 
still remain in nurseries. Plans are now in preparation for the 
permanent planting of the Arboretum in a natural arrangement 
by orders and genera, and $12,000 have been accumulated from 
the income of the James Arnold Fund to enable the Director 
to make the permanent plantations rapidly, whenever the con- 
dition of the work undertaken by the City shall warrant exten- 
sive planting. The University is more than ready to fulfil' 
its part of the contract with the City, having a large stock of 
young trees and shrubs in great variety and thriving condition 
waiting to be transplanted to permanent sites. The Arboretum 
is to be a museum of living specimens of all the trees, shrubs, 
and herbaceous plants which will grow there in the open air. 
The interest or beauty which it possesses will be that of a scien- 
tific collection arranged for purposes of instruction, and not 
that of an ornamental park or garden. 

Professor Lyman's second Report upon the School of Veteri- 
nary Medicine gives a full account of the first year of the 
School's existence. The instruction to be provided in the second 
year of the course was organized during last summer and is 
now in progress. It seems probable that the School will num- 
ber at least thirty members when all the years of the three- 



VETERINARY SCHOOL. ENDOWMENT NEEDED. 39 

years' course are represented by classes. A small number of 
good special students may also be looked for. The Hospital 
has been decidedly successful, both pecuniarily and in the 
treatment of injuries and diseases. If it had been possible to 
collect promptly all the bills due to the Hospital, the annual 
receipts of the School and Hospital together would have met all 
the annual charges including salaries, rent, and taxes. The 
extreme inconvenience to the students of having part of the 
instruction given at the Bussey Institution during the year 
1883-84 compelled the Corporation to sanction the expendi- 
ture of about $11,000 in making an addition to the Hospital, 
which should contain sufficient accommodations for the anatomi- 
cal and clinical instruction. This additional building is now 
finished and in use, and proves to be of great advantage to the 
School. 

It is not to be expected that the Hospital and School should 
be self-supporting, even if the hospital work continue to be 
confined to paying patients ; and it is not the interest of the 
School that the students should fail to receive the instruction 
to be derived from the large number of cases which free 
cliniques would bring before them. The wards of the largest 
hospitals for men and women are insufficient for the best 
instruction of medical students ; out-patient departments are 
necessary adjuncts. That a hospital for human beings could 
support itself nobody ever imagined. 

There are two ways of putting the Veterinary School and 
Hospital upon a proper footing ; — the best way would be to 
procure for it an endowment of from $40,000 to $50,000 ; so 
that the necessary lands and building should become the prop- 
erty of the School ; the second way would be to maintain for 
it a body of not fewer than 500 annual subscribers paying 
$10.00 apiece. The establishment had 130 such subscribers 
in 1883-84. Since the subscribers are all entitled to certain 
services, and a part of them make use of their privileges, the 
income* received from subscribers is not unencumbered. One 
of these two methods must be resorted to before long, if the 
School and Hospital are to do the best work possible *for the 
community. In connection with the veterinary establishment 
and the Bussey Institution there is excellent opportunity for 



40 THE LIBRAHY. 

experimental research upon animals — a field of scientific in- 
quiry which promises results useful to both animals and men. 
Researches of this nature, however, require either endowment 
or government support. 

As regards the number of volumes annually added to the 
collection, and the use made of the books, the College Library 
is in a very satisfactory condition. The grave problem in the 
Library is the catalogue. Before the middle of the past year 
the Library Council caused careful plans and estimates to be 
made with a view of cataloguing on the "short cards" each 
year the annual accessions and in addition a considerable'num- 
ber of the books received before 1860 or of those received in 
recent years, which have never been entered upon the " short- 
card " catalogue. The object of the Council was to obtain in 
the course of five or six years one complete catalogue of the 
books in the Library. The plans and estimates seeming to 
show that this object could be attained, the Council adopted 
them, and recommended to the Corporation that an increased 
expenditure upon the catalogue be persevered in for a term oft 
years. The increase of salaries and wages in the Library in 
1883-84 was $3366, chiefly for wages of persons employed 
in the ordering and cataloguing departments ; and yet the in- 
creased force barely succeeded in keeping up with the acces- 
sions (bound volumes) and cataloguing, on authors' cards 
alone, 2356 titles selected out of the arrears. The rate of 
progress was better in the last half of the year than in the 
first half, but does not promise a fulfilment of the expectations 
of the Council. To order, collate, catalogue, and shelve each 
volume of the annual accessions seems now to cost, on the 
average, about one dollar, a sum which does not differ much 
from the commonly received rough estimates of the combined 
cost of these various operations in other large libraries. The 
whole subject of the catalogues needs further investigation at 
the hands of the Council. 

Messrs. Van Brunt and Howe prepared during the year 
working drawings and estimates for reconstructing in a fire- 
proof way the whole interior of the original Gore Hall. The 
greater part of the building was to be converted into an iron 



NEW READING-ROOM NEEDED. 41 

book-stack ; but a large and well-lighted reading-room was 
provided, together with sufficient spaces for the catalogues 
and the delivery desks. The estimated cost of the alterations 
— $60,000 — obliged the Corporation to postpone action on 
the subject. The Gore Annuity Fund will ultimately be avail- 
able for this purpose ; but it amounts to only $21,000 and was 
still chargeable in 1883-84 with annuities to the amount of 
$842.45. The plans of Messrs. Van Brunt and Howe for the 
alterations of the old building were very attractive, and from 
every point of view would have effected a great improvement 
upon the present condition of things ; but it would be a better 
general plan to convert the old Gore Hall wholly into a fire- 
proof book-stack, and to build a new reading-room, situated on 
the north side of Gore Hall, and so slightly attached to it that 
no reasonable objection could be taken to lighting the room in 
the evening. Such a reading-room ought to have seats for at 
least 250 persons, and should be provided with ample coat- 
rooms and dressing-rooms, in order that students who had no 
rooms in Cambridge might find themselves comfortably pro- 
vided for at the reading-room during the whole working day. 
The University needs to take more thought for day-students 
than it has heretofore ; for that class of students is increasing, 
and ought to increase with the constant development of the 
means of easy access to Cambridge from the surrounding cities 
and towns. 



The activity of the scientific establishments of the University 
was well maintained during 1883-84, and the number of publi- 
cations made by them during the year was very large ; but 
they were scattered, as usual, in various scientific journals both 
American and European, in the Proceedings of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, and in the Bulletin and Memoirs of the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, and the Annals of the Observa- 
tory. Publication through these various journals, societies, 
and special serials is on the whole more satisfactory to the 
different departments than exclusive publication through a 
[: 11 channel, or channels, provided by the University, the one 
r 1 objection to the method being that the productiveness of the 



42 • SCIENTIFIC ESTABLISHMENTS. 

University in original scientific investigations easily escapes an 
observation which is only casual or hasty. 

From the Herbarium was issued (p. 136) the second part of 
the " Synoptical Flora of North America," a monumental work 
in which the Director is embodying the observations and studies 
of a life-time. It is much to be wished that Dr. Gray's sug- 
gestion, to the effect that the temporary employment of an 
assistant in the Herbarium would increase his chances of seeing 
this national work completed, may fall under the eye of some 
person who would like to render this great service to American 
botany. 

Under the judicious care of Professor Goodale the Botanic 
Garden improved greatly in 1883-84. His report exhibits 
(p. 137) a perfect comprehension of the uses of the Garden, and 
of the proper methods of an administration at once econom- 
ical and fruitful. Three lovers of horticulture united to give 
the Garden excellent new greenhouses at a cost of $4800. 

When Professor Lovering's collection of physical apparatus 
was transferred last summer from Harvard Hall to the Jeffer- 
son Physical Laboratory, the botanical department succeeded, 
by vote of the Corporation, to the occupation of the first story 
and basement of Harvard Hall. Here have been fitted up 
under Professor Goodale's direction a convenient laboratory of 
physiological botany for elementary students and another for 
advanced students. The botanical department has never pos- 
sessed such ample accommodations and satisfactory apparatus 
as it now enjoys. 

In 1871 a wooden Mansard roof was put upon Boylston Hall 
without using the precautions Which would now be thought 
indispensable. Wooden studding, furring, and lathing were 
used throughout ; so that this upper story of the building is 
much less safe against fire than the lower stories in which, 
with one exception, the partitions were made of brick and no 
furring was used. For the sum of $10,000, or thereabouts, the 
roof-story could be made safe by taking out all the light wood- 
work, and replacing it with brick walls and wire lathing ; and 
this urgent work is only delayed until the Corporation can find 
the money to pay for it. As the Director points out in his 
interesting report (p. 141) a large amount of work was done 



JEFFERSON PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 43 

during the summer and autumn of 1884 in making two new 
laboratories and a new lecture-room out of rooms previously 
occupied for other purposes. The number of students who 
elect chemistry increases from year to year, so that the vari- 
ous laboratories in Boylston Hall are used with great activity. 
The interior of the building shows many signs of the wear and 
tear of twenty-seven busy years. 

The Jefferson Physical Laboratory, the admirable gift of 
Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, was finished at the close of the 
year 1883-84 ; and at the beginning of the current year all the 
physical collections were brought together into this building, 
and all the instruction in physics was concentrated there. 
Professors Lovering, Gibbs, and Trowbridge, Assistant Pro- 
fessor B. O. Peirce, and Instructors Hall and Whiting conduct 
their classes and carry on their investigations in this building. 
It is a spacious and well-arranged workshop, 200 feet long, 50 
wide, and 4 stories high, with rough brick walls within as well 
as without, and finished throughout in the plainest possible 
manner ; but provided with everything to facilitate physical 
research which intelligent forethought could plan. The build- 
ing itself cost $95,000 and the necessary machinery, fittings, 
and furniture $20,000 more. Mr. Agassiz, as a committee 
of the Corporation, had charge of the construction, and gave 
to it a great deal of care and labor. He had the satisfac- 
tion of delivering the finished and furnished building to the 
physical department without having over-run the amount of 
Mr. Coolidge's gift — $115,000 — and the interest which had 
accumulated thereon during the process of building. The site 
of the Laboratory is one withdrawn as far as was possible from 
public streets, and was thus selected in order that the vibra- 
tions of the ground, caused by the passage of animals and 
vehicles along the streets, might not be so strong within the 
building as to interfere with delicate experiments. It was a 
wise condition of Mr. Coolidge's gift that a fund of $75,000 
should be raised, the income of which should be appropriated 
to the running expenses of the Laboratory. By the exertions of 
Mr. Agassiz and Professor Trowbridge this fund was pledged 
|by the summer of 1882, and was all paid in by the time the 
Laboratory was finished, Mr. Agassiz himself being by far the 



44 OBSERVATORY. MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY. 

largest contributor. The Laboratory is therefore not only well 
equipped but well endowed. Generosity and foresight having 
now provided ample means of instruction and research in 
physics at this University, it remains for teachers and students 
to make these provisions serviceable for sound training and for 
the advancement of physical science. 

The Director of the Observatory explains the necessity of 
reducing the staff and curtailing the operations of the estab- 
lishment because of the reduction of its income. Such curtail- 
ments are wasteful, because carefully trained assistants are 
thereby lost to the Observatory and perhaps to science ; and 
painful, because grievous hardship is inflicted upon persons 
whose only resources may be a technical skill and a peculiar 
knowledge for which there are few markets. The Observatory 
enjoys the benefit of the gratuitous, or almost gratuitous, ser- 
vices of several gentlemen who have an enthusiasm for astro- 
nomical and physical research, and its scientific productiveness 
is much increased and its reputation enhanced by their activity. 
The reductions did not take effect in 1883-84, and the work of 
the Observatory as described by the Director (p. 144) will he 
found full of interest and promise. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology has now ample room 
in which to develop an orderly arrangement of its treasures. 
The alteration of the old roof was very successfully accom- 
plished, and the whole building is now safe, spacious, and com- 
fortable. The . laboratories for the teachers and students of 
biology and geology are admirably arranged, and in short the 
facilities for the instruction of elementary and advanced stu- 
dents and for the accommodation of specialists are all that 
could be desired. The Director now contemplates some 
changes of policy in the management of the Museum, — 
changes suggested by experience and by careful observation 
of the altered conditions under which the Museum must in 
the future be carried on. His masterly exposition of the true 
policy of the institution (p. 159) should be read by every 
one who is interested in the growth of a productive school of 
natural history at the University. 






The gifts and bequests of the year, as reported by the 









AMOUNT OF GIFTS AND BEQUESTS. 45 

Treasurer, were large, — namely, gifts and bequests to form 
new funds or increase old ones (p. 25) $258,438.90, and gifts 
for immediate use (p. 14) $81,346.29. In the three years past 
the University has received gifts and bequests to the amount of 
$1,096,768.13, not including the large gifts of Mr. Alexander 
Agassiz to the Museum of Zoology. The invested funds, how- 
ever, have only increased by $570,518.11 in that period; the 
rest of the money received having gone for the most part into 
buildings (Medical School, Austin Hall, and Jefferson Labora- 
tory). On the strength of these gifts the Corporation has in- 
curred new charges ; and they have made the same use of the 
increase in the receipts from tuition fees. This process of 
applying new income to the increase of instruction, collections, 
and apparatus, however tempting and however expedient as a 
rule, must now be arrested for a time in order that the scale of 
salaries may be somewhat raised before new salaries are under- 
taken. The corps is so numerous that even a very modest gen- 
eral increase in the scale of salaries costs a large sum. Thus, 
for, example, to raise the salary of College professors doing full 
work to $4500, of assistant professors in their second term to 
$3000, and of tutors in their second term to $1500, and to 
make corresponding changes in the various salaries of instruc- 
tors, would require an additional income of about $35,000 a 
year, ^supposing the number of teachers to remain stationary. 
Even then it would still be necessary to make distinctions 
between professors as to salary. This sum is the income of 
$700,000, or the annual tuition fees of 234 students. Judging 
from experience it might take from seven to ten years to gain 
234 students, and such an increase of students necessarily in- 
volves additional expense. On the other hand, unless some 
special effort were made, it might take as many years to get a 
new endowment of $700,000 applicable to College salaries; 
for even if the present fate of $365,000 a year in gifts and 
bequests be maintained, a large portion of this annual increase 
of endowment will probably go to the professional schools, or 
to specific objects not salaries. The College salaries have 
remained stationary for fifteen years, and all that while the 
College has been demanding of its teachers more and more 
learning, labor, enthusiasm, and personal influence. The 



46 A SALARY FUND NEEDED. 

250th anniversary of the birth of the College is soon to be 
celebrated. Its graduates and friends could not commemo- 
rate that birth in any happier or more beneficial way than 
by raising a salary fund large enough to warrant a moderate 
general increase of salaries. A large giver could easily select 
a special object, provision for which would have the same 
effect as a contribution to the salary fund. Thus, whoever 
endows one of the twenty-two College professorships which 
have no endowment (for list see Appendix VI.) contributes 
directly to the raising of all salaries ; whoever provides for 
the salary of the President, Treasurer, or Librarian, or for 
the inevitable cost of administration and service in the Library 
or Gymnasium, sets free resources now used to meet those 
charges, and contributes directly to the raising of all salaries; 
whoever gives an unrestricted fund contributes by its full' 
amount to the same end. 

The course of events proves that there is to be a university 
of the first class at Cambridge. The community in which the 
University is situated has gained experience in the management 
of great trusts, and possesses a sufficient number of men both 
able and willing to serve effectually in the management of the 
L T niversity's property, the selection of its officers, and the gen- 
eral oversight of its studies and discipline. Experience shows 
that the institution will not lack land, buildings, or scholarships, 
and that it will not lack students willing to pay a considerable 
tuition-fee. Since 1864 the tuition-fee of the College has been 
doubled, and the number of students has much more than 
doubled. In regard to studies, discipline, and the selection 
of teachers, the Governing Boards and the Faculties have for 
eighteen years unitedly and steadily pursued a distinctively 
University policy, national, unsectarian, and comprehensive in 
scope, and intended to assure freedom to both teachers and 
students. There is but one point at which success is not, hu- 
manly speaking, assured, and to this point the attention of 
the friends of the University should be directed. It is not yet 
clear that advanced instruction is to be sufficiently endowed. 
The lower grades of University instruction might conceivably 
be self-supporting, but it is manifestly impossible that the 
higher grades should be. Either great endowments or govern- 



ENDOWMENT OF ADVANCED INSTRUCTION. 47 

inent subsidies are relied on for the support of real universities 
in whatever country situated. To endow professorships is also 
to endow research, and to provide not only for instruction upon 
a high plane but also for the cultivation of letters and art and 
for the advancement of science ; recent benefactions to Harvard 
University have for the most part had other objects than the 
direct endowment of teaching, and it is particularly noticeable 
that the great majority of the partially endowed College profes- 
sorships were thus endowed during the last century or in the 
earlier years of the present century. 

The usual information concerning the number of students, 
and the honors, prizes, and degrees given in 1883-84, together 
with a list of the examining committees appointed for that year 
by the Board of Overseers, will be found in the Appendix 
(VII. to XL). The attention of the Overseers is respectfully 
invited to the following reports from the Deans of the several 
Faculties, the Secretary of the Academic Council, the Libra- 
rian, the Directors of the Herbarium, Botanic Garden, Ob- 
servatory, Chemical Laboratory, and Arnold Arboretum, and 
the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 



CHARLES W. ELIOT, President. 



Cambridge, January 14, 1885. 



REPORTS OF DEPARTMENTS 



REPORTS 



DEANS OF THE FACULTIES, THE SECRETARY OF THE ACADEMIC 
COUNCIL, THE LIBRARIAN, THE DIRECTORS OF THE HERBA- 
RIUM, BOTANIC GARDEN, OBSERVATORY, CHEMICAL LABO- 
RATORY, AND ARBORETUM, AND THE CURATOR OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
administration of the College during the academic year 1883-84. 

The whole number of students at the beginning of the }*ear was 
nine hundred and seventy-one, distributed as follows : — 

Seniors 2,10 

Juniors 195 

Sophomores 247 

Freshmen 253 

Whole number of undergraduates 905 

Special Students 66 

Total 971 

One hundred and ninety-two Seniors received their degrees at 
Commencement. Of the remaining eighteen, two had died in the 
course of the year; eight had left College voluntarily, and one, for 
persistent neglect of duty, had been required to withdraw ; one, who 
was on probation, and two who were under suspension, at the end of 
the year, were not recommended for the degree at that time ; two 
were prevented by sickness from completing their studies, and two 
failed in the examinations. On the other hand, three Juniors, who 
had, for special reasons, obtained leave to perform the work of the 
L-ourse in three years, were admitted to the degree ; and one member 
bf the class of 1882, having made up the deficiencies which had pre- 
vented him from graduating with his classmates, received the degree 
out of course. 

The following table shows the number of Seniors who have gradu- 
ated at each Commencement in the last six years, with the number 
n each class who have failed to graduate, owing to deficiencies of 
scholarship : — 



50 



THE COLLEGE. 





1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


Graduated 

Failed 


189 
5 


162 
6 


182 
9 


177 

7 


203 


192 
2 







The numbers of the other three classes of last year, with their ag- 
gregate losses and gains from October, 1883, to October, 1884, are 
shown in the following table : — 



Class of 1885 . . 
Class of 1886 . . 
Class of 1887 . • 


October, 1883. 


Loss. 


Gain. 


October, 1884. 


(Juniors) 195 
(Sophomores) 247 
(Freshmen) 253 


22 

30 
24 


18 
17 

27 


(Seniors) 191 
(Juniors) 234 
(Sophomores) 256 - 



The next table shows the nature of the losses and gains of the 
several classes : — 



• 


Class of 
1885. 


Class of 
1886. 


Class of 

1887. 


Total for 
three 

Classes. 


Losses. 


















Left College without completing the year . 


9 


11 


11 


31 


Left College after completing the year . . 


4 


12 


4 


20 


Kemoyed to a lower class 


6 


5 


8 


19 


Advanced to a higher class 

Total loss 


3 


2 


1 


6 


22 


30 


24 


76 


Gains. 










From higher classes 




6 


5 




From lower classes 


2 


1 






Newly admitted 


16 


10 


22 


48 


Total gain 

Net loss 


18 


17 


27 


62 


4 


13 


3 


14 


Net gain 







Of the thirty-one students in these three classes who left College 
without completing the year, nineteen withdrew for various reasons 
of a personal nature. One, whose persistent neglect of his studies 
finally led to his dismission, has been permitted to return this year 
and join a lower class. Four withdrew at the end of the year on 
finding that they had failed in their studies to such an extent that 
they could not go on with their classes. Five were compelled by ill 
health to abandon their studies, and two died in the course of the year. 



CHANGES IN THE CLASSES. 



51 



Of the twenty who completed the work of the year, but have not 
returned to College, one was drowned during the summer vacation. 
The rest have withdrawn for various personal reasons. 

No students of very high rank are included in the list of those 
who have withdrawn from any of the classes either during or at the 
close of the }'ear. In about half a dozen cases, however, lack of 
money is believed to have prevented or postponed the return of very 
worthy students, who were making excellent use of their opportunities 
here, but whose rank in their classes was not quite high enough to 
enable them to secure scholarships. The beneficiary funds at the 
disposal of the College have helped many such students through their 
most pressing financial difficulties ; but the income of those funds is 
small in comparison with the demands that are made upon it, and 
some cases of extreme need are be} T ond its reach. 

Of the forty-eight persons newly admitted to the three classes, ten 
had previously been members of the College in some higher class, but 
had been compelled by sickness or other cause to discontinue their 
studies for a time. Seven gained admission, — one to the Junior, 
and six to the Sophomore class, — by passing the usual examinations. 
Five Special Students who had performed the regular work of the 
Freshman year in a satisfactory manner, were admitted to the Sopho- 
more class. The remaining twenty-six were graduates, or came from 
flie higher classes, of other colleges. Thirteen of these were admitted 
:o the Senior, six to the Junior, and seven to the Sophomore class. 
Nineteen were admitted without examination, three with partial ex- 
amination, and four after pursuing courses of study here for one or 
wo years. 

! The aggregate loss of the four classes due to deficiencies of scholar- 
ship is show r n in the following table, which contains also the cor- 
esponding figures for preceding years. The numbers in the first line 
nclude all students who were not qualified to go on with their classes, 
> hether they actually continued their course in lower classes, or left 
ollege at the end of the year : — 





1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


I Removed to lower classes . 
Withdrawn during the year 


17 
16 


25 
4 


14 
11 


22 
4 


18 

7 

25 

829 


14 
3 


7 
5 


23 
2 


Total 

"Whole number of under- 
graduates 


33 

823 


29 
813 


25 

819 


26 
813 


17 

823 


12 

885 


25 

905 



Examinations for admission to the Freshman class were held in 



52 



THE COLLEGE. 



June of this year in Quincy, in addition to the places in which they 
have been held heretofore, — Cambridge, Andover, Exeter, New 
York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Fran- 
cisco ; and in Cambridge again in September. Three hundred and 
seven candidates for admission were examined, of whom two hundred 
and fifteen had passed a preliminar}^ examination on from five to 
eleven subjects. Of those who presented themselves for the first time 
in June, thirty-three took the whole examination at that time, and 
fifty-two availed themselves of the privilege of postponing a part 
until the fall. The following table exhibits the results of the exami- 
nations in the several subjects embraced in the requirements for 
admission, compared with those of previous years : — 



1879. 
179 candidates. 

1880. 


PRESCRIBED SUBJECTS. 
























236 candidates. 


rA 


-d 
















~i 


3 


1881. 


b£ 


cS „ 




CO 

cu 


b£ 






£ 




o 


a 


253 candidates. 


d 


4J a 


u 


a 


2 & 








PM 




1882. 
315 candidates. 


cog 


c c 


2 


Eg> 


c 




s 

o 




o 
O 


o 


1883. 
326 candidates. 


3 


is I 


2 53 


M 


.2^3 


CU 

a 




O 
cu 


cc 

CJ 


s a 


■z 


1884. 
307 candidates. 


6 


So 




cu 
u 
3 


CJ fl 

q 3 




3 


'i 


£ 


&E.2 


9 


Percentage failing 
























in each study. 
























1879 .... 


8 


n 


20 


23 


18 


14.5 


28.5 


37 


19 


28.5 


21 


1880 .... 


14 


6 


17 


17 


15 


14 


29 


36 


11 


17 


13 


1881 .... 


8 


6 


12 


13 


15 


14 


25 


27 


7 


10 


18 


1882 .... 


7 


11 


7 


16 


11 


12 


27 


20 


14 


15 


15 


1883 .... 


10 


4 


11 


17 


9 


7 


32 


16 


14 


14 


25 


1884 .... 


7 


4 


5 


8 


9 


13 


19 


17 


21 


12 


12 






I 


1LEC1 


IVE i 


SUBJE 


CTS. 










rs 




a 














*Sc 


§ 




.2 








CO 


& 




> 

a 

c« 


33 m 

Is & 


w 

S 

o 


o 

a 

o 
O 




i 

cu 

a 

o 


cu 

a 

o 
cu 


CO 

cu 




n 






p 


.si 

-§o 


o 

M 

CU 


cu 
CD 
U 


cS 


o 

.5? 


3 


cu 


a 




O 


H) 


n 


o 


H 


H 


CO 


H 


o 


Percentage failing 




















in each study. 




















1879 .... 


16 


28 


22 


33 


13 


32.5 


60 


48 


24 


1880 .... 


14 


22 


12 


33 


14 


39 


48 


18 


9 


1881 .... 


15 


13 


12 


19 


12 


30 


41 


16 


27 




Vi 


rgil 






Cicero. 


a 


ad 


Comp. 
















1882 .... 




Ch 


rid. 




10 


19 


9 


45 


27 


17 


13 


13 


] 


LI 


29 


1883 .... 


12 




6 


17 


8 


20 


7 


45 


12 


28 


13 


1884 . . . . 


18 


] 


L2 


23 


15 


16 


8 


27 


22 


50 


13 



EXAMINATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 



53 



The next table presents the general results of the examinations 
during- the four years in which the present requirements have been 
exclusively in use : — 



Candidates examined . . 
" admitted . . 

" " clear 

" rejected . . . 

Per cent " ... 



1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


253 


315 


326 


307 


231 


286 


298 


286 


99 


116 


121 


142 


22 


29 


28 


21 


8.7 


9.2 


8.6 


6.8 



The number of candidates who presented themselves for examination 
in each of the four elective groups is shown in the following able : — 





Whole number of candi- 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


















dates 


253 




315 




326 




307 




Number offering 




Per ct. 




Per ct. 




Per ct. 


Per ct. 




Latin 


239 


94 


294 


93 


303 


93 


293 95 




Greek 


203 


80 


246 


78 


254 


78 


247 80 




Mathematics . . 


46 


18 


56 


18 


50 


15 


59 19 


Physical Science 


47 


18 


77 


24 


83 


25 


46 15 



Of these elective groups no candidate is required to offer more 
ithan two, but candidates are encouraged to offer one or both of the 
rest if they have had time and opportunity to do. the work in a 
thorough manner. The following table shows, for the past four 
years, the number of candidates who offered each of the possible 
Combinations of these groups : — 



Number of candidates who 
offered 
Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Physical 
Science 


1881. 


18S2. 


1883. 


1884. 


4 

14 

5 

1 

1 

177 

13 

25 

2 

11 


6 
17 
11 

3 

204 

12 

41 

5 

3 

13 


7 
8 

12 
4 

216 

15 

41 

4 

7 
12 


4 

16 

6 

1 

213 
24 
29 

8 

6 


Latin, Greek, and Mathematics 

Latin, Greek, and Physical Science . . . 
Latin, Mathematics, and Physical Science . 
Greek, Mathematics, and Physical Science 
Latin and Greek , . . . 


Latin and Mathematics 


Latin and Physical Science 

Greek and Mathematics 

Greek and Physical Science 

Mathematics and Physical Science .... 

Total number of candidates 


253 


315 


326 


307 



5i THE COLLEGE. 

These tables show a remarkable steadiness in the proportion of 
candidates offering the classical and mathematical groups. The gain 
in these subjects this year at the expense of the Physical Science 
group is no doubt due to the change in the requirements in Physics, 
described in my last report, which first went fully into operation this 
year. The loss in numbers, it is reasonable to suppose, is more than 
made up by improved quality and training of the candidates, who 
have persisted in preferring this department in spite of the increased 
difficultjr of the examinations. 

Of the two hundred and eighty-six candidates admitted to College, 
four by passing further examinations, and one by receiving credit for 
work done at another college, gained admission to the Sophomore 
class. Two hundred and twenty-seven entered the Freshman class. 
Of the remaining fifty-four, some have signified their intention of 
entering next year. The majority have not been heard from ; but 
some of them have probably gone to other colleges, and some do not 
propose to enter upon a college course at all. On the other hand 
twent} r -one persons who had previously been admitted came to Col- 
lege this year. Three of these passed further examinations and 
gained admission, one to the Junior, and two to the Sophomore class. 
Eighteen entered the Freshman class. Besides these accessions, two 
students from other colleges who would have been permitted to enter 
as Sophomores chose to begin their studies here as Freshmen. The 
composition of the Freshman class is as follows : — 

Admitted in 1884 229 

Previously admitted 18 

Removed from a higher class 8 

Total 255 

There were sixt} r -six Special Students in attendance at the begin- 
ning of the }^ear. The changes in their number down to the present 
time have been as follows : — 

In attendance October, 1883 66 

Registered later in the year 4 

70 
Withdrew before the Final Examinations 18 

Took Final Examinations in one or more studies . . 52 

Left College at the end of the year 21 

Admitted to a College class v . 9 

Admitted to candidacy for a higher degree ... 1 

31 

Returned as Special Students, September, 1884 ... 21 
Admitted September and October, 1884 49 

Present number 70 

Net gain, 4. « 



PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS. 



55 



Combining and comparing the statistics which have been given, we 
obtain the following results : — 

Number of students now in attendance : 

Seniors 191 

Juniors 234 

Sophomores 256 

. Freshmen 255 

Whole number of undergraduates .... 936 
Special Students 70 

Total 1006 

Whole number of undergraduates, October, 1883 . . 905 

1884 . . 936 

Increase 31 

Whole number of students, October, 1883 971 

1884 1006 

Increase 35 

Three hundred and eight candidates presented themselves for a 
preliminaiy examination this year, an increase of twenty-four over 
those of last year. An unusually large number, however, proved to 
be insufficiently prepared, and only two hundred and forty-six, — 
two more than last year, — received certificates, having passed in 
at least five subjects. The following table shows, for the last four 
years, the proportion of candidates examined in each subject, and 
the proportion of failures in each : — 



Preliminary Exami- 
nation. 

1881, 266 candidates. 

1882, 287 '♦ 

1883, 284 

1884, 308 



Percentage of the whole 
number of candidates 
who were examined 
in each study. 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

Percentage of failure 
i among those exam- 
1 ined in each study. 

j 1881 

I 1882 

1883 

! 1884 



98 
93 

93 



15 

20 
6 

15 






o 



79 

83 
81 

82 



o a 

o a 
a cs 



76 
83 

84 

77 



22 
27 
15 
19 



46 
41 
49 

88 



41 

27 
1!) 
87 



74 

75 

si 
65 



61 
64 
66 

08 



19 
87 
28 
40 



54 

51 
51 
53 



17 
17 
28 
25 



56 



THE COLLEGE. 



The next table exhibits the general results of the preliminary m 
examinations for the same period : — 





1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


Number of candidates who passed in 










Five subjects 


38 


40 


27 


39 


Six ." 


30 


28 


30 


38 


Seven " 


46 


46 


60 


57 


Eight " 


65 


58 


66 


72 


Nine " 


17 


33 


29 


23 


Ten " 


19 


24 


24 


15 


Eleven " ........ 

Received certificates 


5 


4 


8 


2 


220 


233 


244 


246- | 


Failed to pass in five subjects .... 
Total number of candidates . . 


46 


54 


40 


62 


266 


287 


284 


308. 



In administering the discipline of the College, the Faculty wag 
called upon oftener than it has been in any recent year to resort to 
severe measures. Yet the number of cases was not large. Five 
students were suspended for longer or shorter periods, one for dis- 
orderly conduct on the street, one for having a drinking party in his 
room, one for making a false statement to a College officer, one for 
taking into an examination room notes on the subject of the examina- 
tion, and one for presenting a thesis which he had copied from a 
book. Suspension is a penalty which still appears to be necessary 
for certain kinds of cases, but it is one to which the Faculty resort 
with increasing reluctance. Since the greater part of the College 
course was made elective, it has become almost impossible for a 
student, especially a Senior or a Junior, to obtain outside of Cam- 
bridge the instruction necessary to enable him to keep up in his 
studies, and prepare himself for the examinations, which he must 
pass at the regular times. Suspension, moreover, is a part of an 
order of things which has in large measure passed away, and it has 
become more and more out of place as the new spirit which has been 
infused into the College discipline in the last ten years has worked 
out more thoroughly and completely its legitimate results. In fact, 
the changes which have been wrought in that period have for their 
logical consequence the abolition of all penalties as such. The stu- 
dent has been relieved from the observance of numerous minute regu- 
lations, guarded by artificial penalties, because it is assumed that his 
conscience and judgment and self-respect are sufficiently developed 
to be fitly charged with the control of his behavior : he ought not to 
escape the responsibility which belongs to freedom of action. He is 



DISCIPLINE. 57 

subject to a few technical requirements, — those which are regarded 
as necessary for the maintenance of our system, — and to the common 
law of gentlemanly conduct. Both are essential to the orderly life of 
our academic community, and to its success in accomplishing its 
work ; and the observance of both may properly be demanded as an 
essential condition of membership in the community. 

Whether the time has come for the practical application of this 
conclusion is another question. As a step towards it, the Faculty, 
in the earl}' part of last year, revised the rule relating to Probation, 
the significance of -which has been a little vague since the old system 
of numerical penalties was abolished. Under the new rule a student 
on probation can be restored to full standing only by a special vote 
of the Faculty. While on probation he is excluded from competition 
for any honors or prizes offered by the College, and will not be 
recommended for a degree ; and if, after a reasonable period of trial, 
his conduct is still unsatisfactory, his probation may be closed, and 
his connection with the College shall then cease. In short, Proba- 
tion brings a student face to face with the alternative of leaving 
College, if he will not prove his right to stay by diligence and good 
behavior. It is rather a substitute for Suspension than preliminary 
to it, and contemplates the complete and not the temporary separa- 
tion from College of the student whom it fails to reclaim. It's chief 
application will be to students who persistently neglect their work, 
and whose college career should be cut short the moment it becomes 
clear that they will not abandon their idle ways and devote them- 
selves with reasonable diligence to fulfilling the objects of their resi- 
dence here. One Senior and one Sophomore under this rule were 
required to leave College during the year, and a Senior who was put 
on probation near the end of the year for continuing to violate one of 
the regulations after an admonition from the Faculty, failed to obtain 
his degree with his class. In a much larger number of cases, on the 
other hand, the application of the rule has proved a very effective 
stimulus to regularity and faithful work. 

Another amendment to the regulations, adopted last year, was 
designed to secure a more careful observance of the rule requiring 
continuous residence in term time, and to provide more prompt and 
definite notice of the absences of students from College, for whatever 
reason, than can be obtained through the weekly returns of attend- 
ance at College exercises. The amended rule requires a student, 
whose residence is for any reason interrupted, to give immediate 
notice of the fact to the Dean ; and if his absence is prolonged 
beyond three days, he is further required to report in person at the 
Dean's office immediately on his return. 



58 THE COLLEGE. 

The order of the College was, with a few exceptions, excellent 
throughout the year. The only serious interruptions to good order 
which have occurred of late years are the celebrations of victories in 
match games and athletic contests by nois} r fireworks and explosives, 
and bonfires surrounded by shouting crowds of students, in the Col- 
lege Yard. In dealing with these excesses last year the Faculty 
relied rather on the good sense and good disposition of the great 
majority of the students than on the punishment of individual 
offenders. After a second and somewhat dangerous demonstration 
of the kind referred to, they issued an address to the students with a 
view to defining the limits of what was permissible on such occasions. 
All horn-blowing, all bonfires, and noisy and dangerous fireworks 
were prohibited ; but cheering, music, and illuminations by lanterns, 
gas, or Bengal lights in the Yard, and fireworks on Holmes or Jarvis 
Field were not objected to, provided that all demontrations should 
cease by eleven o'clock. The students were asked to consider 
whether the safety of the College buildings, the rights of the people 
of Cambridge, and the desirable privacy of the Yard were sufficiently 
regarded on the nights when the objectionable demonstrations had 
occurred ; and the co-operation of all was invited in enforcing the 
restrictions indicated. The response to this appeal was all that could 
be desired. The students at once recognized the reasonableness of 
the Faculty's position, and for the» rest of the year kept themselves 
within the prescribed limits. 

The good feeling which had existed between the Faculty and the 
students had been much strained earlier in the year in consequence 
of the adoption by the Faculty of certain rules relating to athletic- 
contests. The rules had been prepared at an intercollegiate confer- 
ence, and were to go into effect only in case they should be adopted 
by at least five colleges. Their aim was to improve the character of 
athletic sports by giving the instructor in physical training a recog- 
nized position in each college, by strictly excluding professionals and 
restricting contests to college organizations and college grounds, and 
by placing all rules for contests and the contests themselves under 
the supervision of a committee representing the several faculties. 
The objects sought were excellent, but the rules were in some par- 
ticulars not well considered, and involved some temporary results 
which the Faculty had not contemplated in voting for them. Strong 
representations on these points were made by the students, and the 
Faculty asked the conference to consider the matter further. But as it 
had become evident by this time that the rules would not be adopted 
by the requisite number of colleges, they were dropped. This result 
is unfortunate, in as much as it leaves our students, who are b} T our 



INSTRUCTION. 59 

own rules debarred from practice with professionals, at a disadvan- 
tage in their contests with the students of other colleges who are not 
so restricted. It is to be hoped that another effort may be made to 
bring about some agreement among the colleges, which will not fail 
from attempting too much. 

The instruction given in the College in the 3-ear 1883-84 is set 
forth in detail in the tables on the following pages, which contain a 
statement of the work done in each course, the names of the in- 
structors, the number of hours a week of instruction, and the num- 
bers of students of various classes and departments,* as well as the 
total number of students, in regular attendance. 

In addition to these courses, instruction in certain subjects was 
given to voluntary classes. Professor Allen lectured once a week 
during the first half-year on the History and Methods of Classical 
Stud}'. The lectures were open to any one taking a course in Greek 
or Latin, and were regularly attended by about twenty students. 
Professor Lovering gave the usual course in Physics, lecturing once a 
week from December 1 to June 1, on Electricity, Magnetism, Electro- 
Magnetism, and Magneto-Electricity. From twenty-five to seventy- 
five students attended this course. In Elocution, in addition to the 
elective course (English 9), Mr. Jones gave instruction to twenty- 
eight Freshmen and thirty-nine students from the three upper classes. 
The latter were taught in two sections, each once a week throughout 
the year ; the Freshmen in two sections, once a week during the first 
half-year. Evening Readings were given as in previous years, em- 
bracing the following selections : The Frogs of Aristophanes (three 
evenings) , by Professor Goodwin ; the Meno of Plato (two evenings) , 
by Professor Allen ; the Heauton Timorumenos of Terence (two 
evenings) , by Mr. Preble ; the Trinummus of Plautus (two evenings) , 
by Professor Greenough ; Books II., IV., VI. of the Aeneid of Virgil 
(three evenings), by Mr. Parker ; and selections from German litera- 
ture (five evenings), by Mr. Lutz. It may be proper here to refer 
also to the rich opportunities offered to College students in the nu- 
merous public lectures given by distinguished specialists under the 
auspices of the University. 

The work done by the Special Students in attendance last year 
was of about the same average quality as that of the year before. 

* To designate the various kinds of students in the several courses, the 
following abbreviations are used : Se. for Senior, Ju. for Junior, So. for Sopho- 
more, Fr. for Freshman, Sp., for Special Student, Sc. for Scientific Student, 
Gr. for Graduate Student, Di. for Divinity Student, Law for Law Student, Me. 
for Medical Student, Ve. for Student in Veterinary Medicine, and Bu. for Stu- 
dent of the Bussey Institution. 



60 



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INSTRUCTION. 



67 



co ^ co o 




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INSTRUCTION. 



69 



c 


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70 



THE COLLEGE. 



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P4 



INSTRUCTION. 71 







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Mo"4|Ph Ph hi' Q« h! 



72 



THE COLLEGE. 



r © 

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INSTRUCTION. 



73 



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74 















THE 


COLLEGE. 






















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INSTRUCTION. 



75 



c 



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76 



THE COLLEGE. 



N N N N 



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INSTRUCTION. 7 7 





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78 



THE COLLEGE. 



O 



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INSTRUCTION. 



79 









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80 



THE COLLEGE. 



Eighteen of the seventy whose names were on the roll failed to com- 
plete the year in any study. Of the fifty-two who took the required 
examinations in at least one study, only eighteen persevered to the 
end in all the studies which they took at the start. Twenty-two per- 
severed in four of more courses, thirty-two in three or more. Thirty 
passed successfully in all the courses which they completed. The 
following table gives a synopsis of the year's work of each student. 
The numbers in the first column stand for students ; those in the 
second, third, and fifth columns represent amounts of work, estimated 
as in the case of undergraduates, the unit being a full elective course, 
or a prescribed course having three exercises a week. A year's work 
for an undergraduate varies from 5.3 to 4.2 courses. 





CO 

cu 


cu 




a B 




CO 


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28 


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57 




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56 


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30 


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56 




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88 




31 


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50 


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32 


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50 


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7 


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33 


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50 




8 


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84 




34 


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4.8 


47 


2. 


9 


4. 


3. 


80 




35 


4.2 


3.5 


45 


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10 


3.5 


1.5 


76 




36 


4.2 


3.5 


44 


1.5 


11 


5.3 


5.3 


74 




37 


4.5 


2.7 


44 


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12 


5. 


5. 


74 




38 


5.3 


4.4 


43 


1.4 


13 


4.4 


4.4 


71 




39 


4.3 


4.3 


43 


1.6 


14 


5.3 


5.3 


70 




40 


4.7 


4. 


42 


2. 


15 


4.9 


1.3 


67 




41 


4. 


2. 


42 




16 


3.5 


3.5 


66 




42 


5.3 


4.6 


41 


1.6 


17 


9.8 


9.8 


65 


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43 


5.3 


1.7 


40 


1.2 


18 


5.3 


5.3 


64 




44 


6. 


1.3 


40 


1. 


19 


4.3 


4.3 


64 




45 


2.5 


.5 


40 




20 


4. 


3. 


63 




46 


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40 




21 


9.4 


9.4 


61 




47 


5.7 


3 .'3 


39 


.6 


22 


3.5 


3.5 


61 




48 


5.3 


1.3 


36 


1.3 


23 


4.1 


4.1 


60 




49 


4. 


1. 


35 


1. 


24 


2.5 


1.5 


60 


.5 


50 


4.2 


4.2 


31 


4.2 


25 


5.3 


5.3 


59 




51 


4. 


2. 


19 


2. 


26 


3.4 


3. 


57 


1. 


52 


3. 


2. 


1 


2. 



INSTRUCTION. 



81 



From this table and from the corresponding statistics for 1882-83, 
the following averages are obtained : — 

' - 1882-83. 1883-84. 

Average number of courses completed by each student . 3.69 3.41 

Average per cent 58.2 58.9 

Average amount of failure for each student 53 .58 



The number of Special Students who, in each of these two years, 
earned certificates of proficiency by attaining a mark of seventy-five 
per cent in one or more studies was as follows : — 

1882-83. 1883-84. 
In studies amounting to less than one full course 4 7 



at least 1, but less than 2 courses 

2, " 3 

3, " 4 

4, " 5 
"« 5, " 6 

" 6 courses 



Whole number entitled to certificates 



10 


13 


4 


4 




2 


3 


1 




1 


1 




22 


28 



The number of those who attained an average of seventy-five per 
cent on four or more courses last year was three. The number in 
1882-83 was four. 

In the scheme of instruction for 1884-85, which was issued, as 
usual, early in May, the Faculty were able to announce some valuable 
additions and improvements. The following new courses appeared 
in the list : — 



History of the Babylonian Assyrian Religion. One hour. Professor Lyon. 

Ethiopic. One hour. Professor Tot. 

Pali. Two hours. Professor Lanman. 

History of Greek Literature. Three hours. Professor Allen. 

Studies in Greek History, with especial reference to Topography and Monu- 
ments. One hour. Professor Goodwin. 

History of the later Greek Philosophy, — the Stoics, Epicureans, and Skep- 
tics. Two hours, with a third at the pleasure of the Instructor. Professor 
Greenough. 

English Composition. Three hours. Mr. Wendell. 

History of German Literature and Art. Three hours. Dr. Fkancke. 

Romance Philology. Two hours. Professor Sheldon. 

French Conversation and Composition. One hour. Mr. Metivier. 

The same (Advanced Course). One hour. Mr. Cohn. 

Philosophical Theism (History of the chief philosophical controversies about 
the Being and Nature of God). Three hours, first half-year. Dr. Royce. 

History of Financial Legislation in the United States. One hour. Professor 
Dunbar. 

History of the North American Colonies and their Growth into a Federal 
Union (1600-1789). Three hours. Dr. Hart. 



82 



THE COLLEGE. 



Ancient Art. One hour. Mr. A. R. Marsh. 

The Art of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. One hour. Mr. Moore. 
Higher Principles of Analytic Mechanics. Three hours. Professor Peirce 
Elementary Course in Electrical Potential. Three hours. Dr. B. O. Peirce. 
Palaeontology (Advanced Course). Two hours. Professor Siialer. 



Some of these courses take the place of others temporarily or, in 
a few instances, permanently withdrawn from the list, or are de- 
signed to be given alternately with such courses. The two one- 
hour courses in Fine Arts are a temporary substitute for Professor 
Norton's courses, omitted on account of his absence for the 3-ear. 
The introduction of a new course in American History ensures a 
much more thorough treatment of that subject than it has heretofore 
received in the single course devoted to it. The latter will now be 
modified so that the two courses will be consecutive, and will together 
embrace the history of the country from, the year 1600 to the begin- 
ning of the civil war. 

Besides the establishment of new courses, some important changes 
in the existing courses were made. Professor Child's first course in 
English Literature was divided into two courses, to be given alter- 
nately, one devoted to Chauoer alone, the other to Bacon and Milton. 
In the same department the course in Oral Discussion, which was for- 
merly given by Professor A. S. Hill, but has been necessarily omitted 
for a number of years, was revived and placed in charge of Dr. Royce. 
In Greek, the number of Composition courses was reduced from three 
to two, with the provision, however, that the more advanced course 
can be taken twice, the work being changed from year to year. In 
this way a saving of time for the instructors was effected without 
diminishing the amount of instruction offered. In Mathematics the 
half-course in the Elements of Mechanics was enlarged to a full 
course. 

In all, one hundred and fifty-six courses of instruction were offered 
for the present year. Of these, one hundred and twenty-three are 
rated as full courses, and thirty-three as half-courses. If we reckon, 
as heretofore, each full laboratory course as a three-hour study, and 
assign two and a half hours to each stud}' in which there are regularly 
two exercises a week, with a third at the pleasure of the instructor, 
the aggregate amount of instruction offered in elective courses is 
three hundred and eighty-two hours a week. The following table 
shows the number of hours a week of instruction offered in elective 
courses in the several departments for the last twelve years : — 



INSTRUCTION. 



83 



Number of exercises 
per week in elective 
courses offered in 

Semitic Languages 
Sanskrit and Zend 

Greek 

Latin 

Greek and Latin . 

English 

German 

French 

Italian and Spanish 
Philosophy . . . 

Ethics 

Political Economy 

History 

Roman Law . . . 

Music 

Fine Arts .... 
Mathematics . . 

Physics 

Chemistry . . . 
Natural History . 



Aggregate . . 



22 
15 



20 

12 
14 
23 



196 



6 

2;; 
15 

5 

1! 

18 

14 

9 

3 

6 

20 

3 

11 

6 

24 

14 

14 

23 



228 



25 

19 

3 

8 

14 

12 

17 

9 

3 

6 

20 

3 

14 

9 

20 

15 

14 

23 

240 



23 

20 

3 

11 

17 

15 

17 

12 

3 

6 

23 

3 

11 

4 

23 

15 

18 

25 



255 



3 

3 
23 

18 

2 

14 

1!) 

15 

17 

12 

3 

6 

28 

3 

12 

6 

24 

17 

IS 

24 



262 



4 
6 

24 

22 

2 

15 

24 

15 

19 

IS 

3 

6 

25 

3 

13 

9 

2S 

22 

21 

30 



308 



4 

6 
26 
18 

3 
16 
25 
15 
20 
23* 

3 

9 
25* 

4 
13 

8 
30 
21 
26 
42 

337 



11 
11 
29 
22 

3 
16 
22 
14 
20 
24 

3 

9 
30 

4 
15 

6 
26 
19 
26 
46 



356 



10 

25 
2G 

8 
10 
23 
IS 
20 
17 

3 

7 
35 

5 
14 

8 
2G 
19 
23 
86 



347 



13 
10 
254 
23 

3 
15 
23 
14 
18 
20 

4 

7 
35 

4 

14 
11 
24 
20 
23 
45 



351* 



16 
10 
26 
27 

6 

15 
21 
16 
12 
20 

4 
144 
324 

4 
11 
15 
25 
23 
26 
49 



373 



17 
10 
29 
21 

H 

19i 

20 
20 
18 
2U 

4 

144 
33 

4 

7 
15 
27 
20 
24 
49 



382 



In a communication received April 15, the Board of Overseers 
invited the attention of the Faculty to the report of a special com- 
mittee containing certain recommendations relating to the study of 
English. The measures recommended were : (1) that the conditions 
of admission should be so changed as to insure greater attention in 
schools to the study of English Literature, — including modern his- 
tory, especially that of England and the United States, — and to the 
practice of Composition; (2) that English Composition should be 
made a part of the prescribed work of the Freshman year ; (3) that 
more practice in composition than is now afforded should be given to 
the students ; (4) that Honors in English should be given at gradua- 
tion ; (5) that courses of lectures in English Literature should be 
instituted ; (6) that more attention should be paid to instruction in 
Elocution. 

Independently of these recommendations, the Faculty had voted to 
insert in the Catalogue a notice that the passages set for translation 

* Elective courses amounting to four hours a week in Philosophy and six hours 
in History were established in 1878 to take the place of the prescribed work in 
those subjects, which was abolished at that time. They formed no actual in- 
crease in the amount of instruction given. 



84 THE COLLEGE. 

(from Greek, Latin, French, and German) in the examinations for 
admission must be rendered into simple and idiomatic English, with 
a request to teachers to insist on the use of good English as an 
essential part of the candidate's training in translation ; and Dr. 
Ro3 r ce, who had been appointed Instructor in Forensics for the pres- 
ent year, adopted, with the approval of the Faculty, a new plan for 
conducting the work in that department, by which it is hoped that 
better results may be obtained. With the cooperation of instructors 
in nearly all departments, Dr. Ro} 7 ce prepared a list of over two 
hundred and fifty topics, which was printed and distributed at the 
beginning of the year. From this list the subjects of all forensics 
written this year are to be selected. The number of forensics hereto- 
fore required has been four in each of the last two } T ears. The new 
plan provides, in the first place, a brief course of lectures on the 
subject of argumentative composition. The work of the students 
consists of (1) a forensic, treating some topic that can be profitably 
discussed within a moderate compass ; (2) a thesis in forensic form 
(corresponding to the second and third forensics of the old system) 
on a subject that demands a fuller and more elaborate treatment ; 
and (3) a final examination, in which each student is required to 
write an essay, in the examination room and within three hours,- 
on a subject assigned at the time by the Instructor from a list of six 
subjects previously selected by the student. The advantages which 
it is hoped will be secured by this plan are, that the work in foren- 
sics, being thus systematized and furnished with a final examina- 
tion, will acquire something of the character of a regular course and 
thereby assume greater importance in the eyes of the student ; and 
that through the wide range of topics presented, by which the stu- 
dents in almost any course are enabled to treat of subjects that have 
a direct bearing upon their chosen studies, elective work and forensic 
work will be brought into close relation with one another, to their 
mutual advantage. 

Of the recommendations of the Board of Overseers, the first was 
referred by the Faculty to a committee which then had under consid- 
eration the subject of the requirements for admission, and which has 
not yet made its report. The second, third, and fourth recommenda- 
tions have been carried out to some extent this year. The proposi- 
tion to make English Composition a part of the prescribed work of 
the Freshman year had been before the Faculty more than once ; but 
no one had been able to suggest a practicable plan. The difficulty 
has now been removed, however, by the introduction of elective 
studies into the Freshman year, to be described presently. Of the 
seven hours a week of prescribed work appointed for the present 



instruction, 85 

Freshman class, three are given to Rhetoric and English Compo- 
sition. The addition of a full elective course in English Composition 
has been recorded above. Honors in English have been established, 
the conditions being distinguished excellence in six elective courses 
in the department, including at least one in Composition. In regard 
to the suggestion that courses of lectures should be established in 
English Literature, it may be remarked that besides the lectures on 
certain authors which constitute a part of the instruction in Pre- 
scribed Rhetoric, the elective studies in English Literature open to a 
student amount to six full courses, — which is half of the whole 
amount of elective work required of him after his Freshman year. 
Nevertheless the field is far from being adequately covered, and the 
Faculty would gladly see additional courses established. In Elocution 
instruction is provided for voluntary classes, and last } r ear the ex- 
periment was tried of allowing a course of two hours a week in this 
study to count as a half-course of elective work. The Faculty regard 
the plan as still on trial, and were not prepared to go further and 
establish a second course in Elocution when the matter was before 
them in the spring. 

Besides Honors in English, the Facult3 T also established Honors in 
Modern Literature, the conditions of attaining which are distinguished 
success in six elective courses, — two in English, two in German, 
and two in French literature ; ability to read German and French 
with facility at sight ; and a thorough acquaintance with the works of 
some author to be selected by the candidate himself with the approval 
of the committee of examiners. An advanced course in Italian or 
Spanish may be substituted for one of the French or German, but not 
for either of the English courses required. 

The meetings of the Faculty during the greater part of the past 
year were chiefly occupied with the discussion of proposed changes, 
of a serious character, in the requirements for admission. The sub- 
ject was finally referred to a committee of eleven members, with the 
President as chairman, who gave much time and labor during the 
closing months of the College year to the preparation of plans. They 
had not yet completed their work when the year came to an end. 

The}' had however, before that time, reached the conclusion that 
whatever scheme of admission requirements might eventually be 
adopted, the Freshman work would be made in large part elective ; 
and they accordingly obtained leave to bring in a plan of studies for 
the present Freshman } T ear, which with slight modifications was 
adopted. 

Under this plan, which is now in operation, the following studies 
are prescribed for all Freshmen : Rhetoric and English Composition, 



86 



THE COLLEGE. 



three hours a week ; German or French (the one not presented by 
the student for admission) , three hours a week ; lectures on Chem- 
istry and Physics, each once a week for a half-year. In addition to 
these prescribed studies, every Freshman is required to take three 
full courses, or their equivalent, of elective study ; and of these three 
courses, not more than two can be taken in any one department. 

The list of elective studies open to Freshmen was prepared and 
distributed in the summer vacation. In each of the departments of 
Greek, Latin, Mathematics, and Physics, a group of elective courses 
appeared in place of the old prescribed work, and to these were added 
a limited number of elective courses in other departments. The de- 
partments, and the number of courses in each, included in the list, 
were as follows : — 

Full Courses. Half-Courses. 

Greek 5 

Latin 4 

German 2 

French 2 2 

History 1 1 

Mathematics 3 3 

Physics 2 

Chemistry 2 

Natural History 4 

Total 25 6 

These figures, with their total equivalent to twenty-eight full 
courses, — of which thirteen and a half represent the old prescribed 
work and are not included in the table on page 39, — indicate the 
whole amount of instruction provided for Freshmen. The range of 
choice open to any one student was in the nature of the case much 
less extensive, since the courses in many of the departments are 
graded to suit students of different degrees of proficiency. Moreover 
no Freshman was allowed to concentrate his work to the extent of 
more than two courses in any department. 

. The Freshmen were strongly urged to make their selection of 
studies with the utmost care, seeking the best advice within their 
reach, particularly that of their former teachers. They appear to 
have heeded this injunction, and their choices, which are given 
below, are on the whole encouraging. To the influence of their 
teachers is probably due the fact that Greek, Latin, and Mathe- 
matics, which have now for the first time been made entirely elective 
in College, have attracted the largest number of students. 



INSTRUCTION. GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 87 



Whole number of Freshmen 2 



;>.) 



Number of Freshmen taking one or more elective courses in 

Greek 163 

Latin • . . . 196 

German 26 

French 98 

History 131 

Mathematics 141 

Physics 25 

Chemistry 11 

Natural History 50 

Number of Freshmen whose choice includes studies in 
Greek, Latin, and Mathematics 83 

This scheme of Freshman studies has been adopted for the current 
year, and is not to be regarded as permanent in its present shape. 
No final disposition of the matter can be reached until the character 
of the admission requirements, with which the work of the Freshman 
year must necessarily stand in close relation, is determined. The 
discussion of that momentous question will be resumed during the 
present year. To devise a plan which shall give to what are called 
modern studies an opportunity to show their worth as preparatory 
training for a liberal education, without endangering the position of 
the old studies, whose value has been proved b} r long experience, is 
the problem before the Faculty. With its wise solution the interests 
of education are deeply concerned. It is a question which neither 
prejudice nor innovating zeal can fitly approach. It demands the 
most careful and candid inquiry, to ascertain existing facts and to 
anticipate the remote results of measures proposed. It fully merits 
the long and patient deliberation which it is receiving at the hands of 
the Faculty. 

CLEMENT L. SMITH, Dean. 

November 22, 188L 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the state 
of the Graduate Department for the year 1883-84 : — 

The number of students in the department was eighty-four. Of 
these, sixteen were persons studying at the University, without being 
candidates for a degree or holders of fellowships ; sixtj^-one were 
candidates for the degree of Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, 
or Doctor of Science ; and eight (including one candidate for the 
degree of Ph.D.) were holders of fellowships. 

Nineteen persons were admitted to candidacy for the degree of 
Master of Arts, and the whole number of candidates for that degree 



88 GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 

was twenty-one ; of whom seven withdrew, and fourteen received the 
degree at the close of the year. 

This enumeration does not include those who were admitted to the 
degree of Master of Arts in connexion with a professional degree. 
The number of these persons was nine ; one in Divinity, six in Law, 
and two in Medicine. 

Thirteen persons were admitted to candidacy for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts, and the whole number of 
candidates for that degree was thirty-four ; of whom eleven have 
withdrawn, one has become a candidate simply for the degree of 
Master of Arts, five received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at 
the end of the year, and seventeen are still candidates for it. One 
candidate for this degree took the degree of A.M. at the end of the 
year, but still continues his candidacy for the degree of Ph.D. 

Two persons were admitted to candidacy for the degree of Doctor 
of Science, and the whole number of candidates for that degree was 
six ; of whom two have withdrawn, one received the degree at the 
end of the year, and three are still candidates for it. 

The following are the names of persons admitted to degrees, on 
recommendation of the Academic Council, at Commencement, 1884 : — 

A.M. 

Joseph Randolph Coolidge, A.B. 1883. 

Harold Clarence Ernst, A.B. 1876, M.D. 1880. 

James Newton Garratt, A.B. 1883. 

Ernest Flagg Henderson, A.B. 1883. 

Charles Austin Hobbs, A.B. 1880. 

Horace Addison Hoffman, A.B. {Indiana University) 1881. 

Herbert Eveleth Greene, A.B. 1881. 

Berwick Manning, A.B. {Amherst College) 1882. 

Alanson Herbert Mayers, A.B. 1881. 

John Farwell Moors, A.B. 1883. 

Samuel Newell Nelson, A.B. 1878, M.D. 1882. 

Walter Ferris Price, A.B. {Haverford College) 1882. 

William Stanford Stevens, A.B. 1880, M.D. 1883. 

Merle St. Croix Wright, 'A.B. 1881. 

Theodore Lyman Wright, A.B. {Beloit College) 1880. 

A.M. as an adjunct to D.B. 
Arthur Anderson Brooks, A.B. 1879. 

AM. as an adjunct to LL.B. 
Harry W. Mack, A.B. {College of City of New York) 1880. 
Henry Melville, A.B. {Dartmouth College) 1879. 
James Parker Parmenter, A.B. 1881. 
William Andrews Pew, A.B. 1880. 
Edward Lothrop Rand, A.B. 1881. 
Winthrop Howland Wade, A.B. 1881. 



DEGREES CONFERRED. 89 

A.M. as an adjunct to M.D. 

Frank Herbert Daniels, A.B. 1879. 
Herbert William Newhall, A.B. 1879. 

Ph.D. and A.M. 

Herbert Morison Clarke, A.B. 1878, A.M. 1879. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Greek and Latin Literature. Thesis, " Ques 
tiones de Synizesi Homerica." 

Edward Southworth Hawes, A.B. 1880, A.M. 1882. 

Department, Philology. Subject, Classical Philology. Thesis, " Suramariurn 
Usus Plautini in Enuntiationibus Condicionalibus." 

Charles Bingham Penrose, A.B. 1881. 

Department, Physics. Subjects, Heat, Magnetism, and Electricity. Thesis, 
"The Mathematical Theory of Thermo-Electricity ; and the Relation between 
Thermo-Electricity and Superficial Energy." 

Charles Robert Sanger, A.B. 1881, A.M. 1882. 

Department, Physics. Subject, Chemistry. Thesis, "The Constitution of 
Pyro-mucic Acid." 

Harold Whiting, A.B. 1877, A.M. 1878. 

Department, Physics. Subject, Modern Mathematical Methods as applied to 
[ydrodynamics, Electricity, Magnetism, and Heat. Thesis, "ANewTheory 
>f Cohesion, applied to the Thermodynamics of Liquids and Solids." 

S.D. 

William Trelease, S.B. {Cornell University) 1880. 

Department, Natural History. Subjects, Botany and Entomology. Thesis, 
" Observations on several Zoogloeae and related forms." 

The Parker, Kirkland, and Walker * Fellowships were held by the 
following persons during the year 1883-84 : — 

Parker Fellowships. 

Frank Nelson Cole, A.B. 1882, studying Mathematics. 

Harold North Fowler, A.B. 1880, studying the Classics. 

William Patten, S.B. 1883, studying Zoology. 

Edward Emerson Phillips, A.B. 1878, Ph.D. 1880, studying the Classics. 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship. 
Paul Shorey, A.B. 1878, studying the Classics. 

James Walker Fellowship. 
Benjamin Rand, A.B. 1879, A.M. 1880, studying Philosophy. 

4 



90 GRADUATE DEPARTMENT. 

All the holders of these fellowships pursued their studies in Europe 
during the academic year, except Mr. Rand, who was obliged by 
illness caused by overwork to return to this country before the end of 
the year. Mr. Patten took the degree of Ph.D. at the University of 
Bonn. Dr. Phillips and Mr. Shorey withdrew from their fellowships 
at the end of the year, both gentlemen having done excellent work in 
the department of Classical Philology. Messrs. Cole, Fowler, Patten, 
and Rand were reappointed to their respective fellowships for the 
year 1884-85. 

The following new appointments to fellowships were made at the 
close of the year : — 

To a Parker Fellowship. 

James Kichard Jewett, A.B. 1884, a distinguished student of the Semitic 
Languages, who purposes to continue the study of those languages in the East 
and in Germany. 

To the KirMand Fellowship. 

John TTlric Nef, A.B. 1884, a distinguished student of Chemistry, who pur- 
poses to continue that study in Germany. 

The Harris Fellowship and the Rogers Scholarship are bestowed in 
accordance with recommendations of the College Faculty, and are 
under the supervision of that Faculty. They were held by the fol- 
lowing persons during the year 1883-84 : — 

Harris Fellowship. 
Charles Hall Grandgent, A.B. 1883, studying Modern Languages. 

Rogers Scholarship. 
Henry Edwards Scott, A.B. 1881, studying History. 

On the 30th of January 1884, the Corporation voted to appro- 
priate, for the present, a portion of the income of the fund then 
recently bequeathed without restrictions to the University by the 
late Henry T. Morgan, Esq., of New York, to the establishment of 
graduate scholarships in the department of Arts, and requested the 
Academic Council to prepare rules for these scholarships. Four 
scholarships on this foundation have been established, with an income 
of five hundred dollars each ; and are now named the Morgan 
Fellowships. 

The Morgan Fellowships are assigned to persons undertaking 
advanced liberal studies in the departments in which the degrees of 
Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Science are given ; that is, at 
present, in Philology, Philosophy, History, Political Science, Mathe- 
matics, Ptrysics, Natural History, and Music. No academic degree 



MORGAN FELLOWSHIPS. DIVINITY SCHOOL. 91 

is required as a qualification, nor are the incumbents of these fellow- 
ships necessarily candidates for any degree. But every applicant for 
appointment must exhibit proof of such previous training, attain- 
ments, and capacity, as promise special fitness for the work which he 
purposes to undertake ; and the holder of a fellowship must carry on 
hisstudies in Cambridge throughout the academic year, under the 
supervision of the standing committee in the department in which 
his studies lie, and is forbidden to engage in any other occupation, 
except such public instruction as may have been approved by the 
Academic Council. * The term of appointment to a Morgan Fellow- 
ship is one year, but the holder is eligible for appointment for a 
second }~ear. 

The following persons were appointed to these fellowships for the 
year 1884-85 : — 

Morgan Fellowships. 

William George Brown, S.B. {Univ. Virginia) 1877, a student j of 
Chemistry ; 

Horace Addison Hoffman, A.B. {Indiana Univ.) 1881, A.M. {Harvard) 
1884, a student of Classics; 

Leander Miller Hoskins, S.B. and B.C.E. {Univ. Wisconsin) 1883, a stu- 
dent of Mathematics ; 

William Albert Loey, S.B. {Univ. Michigan) 1881, S.M. {Ibid.) 1884, a 
student of Zoology. 

JAMES MILLS PEIRCE, 

Secretary of the Academic Council. 
14 November 1884. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Dean of the Faculty of Theology, I respectfully submit 

the following report for the academic year 1883-84 : — 
Twenty-three students were connected with the School during the 

year. They were distributed as follows : — 

Resident Graduates 3 

Senior Class 3 

Middle Class 4 

Junior Class 6 

Special Students 7 

Of the resident graduates two represented Oberlin Theologica 
Seminary and one the Union Theological Seminary of New York. 
The number of students is of interest, as this year was the first to 
be affected by the great elevation of the standard of admission that 
had been recently made. For the eleven years previous the number 
of students, as stated by the Catalogue, had only twice been above 
the number of last year ; and of the twenty-three students of last 



92 THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

3 T ear, eleven were new men. It would appear then, so far as can 
be judged Irv the experience of a single } T ear, that a higher grade of 
scholarship has been secured with little, if any, loss of numbers. 

Besides Divinity students, forty-nine members of the undergraduate 
department of the College and one member of the post-graduate 
department attended the exercises of the School. 

The nature and amount of instruction given, together with the 
attendance of Divinity students and of College students, may be 
learned from the accompanying table, pp. 98, 99. 

In addition to the regular courses of the School, lectures were 
given by officers of the University, not teachers of the School, as 
follows : — 

The Minister and the People : Phillips Brooks, D.D., of the Board of Over- 
seers. 

The Evolution of a Christian Minister : J. F. Clarke, D.D., of the Board of 
Overseers. 

One Word more about Free -Will: William James, M.D., Assistant Professor 
of Philosophy. 

Plato's Idea of Immortality : W. W. Goodwin, LL.D., Professor of Greek. 

The Natural History of Altruism: N. S. Shaler, S.D., Professor of Palae- 
ontology. 

Vivisection : H. P. Bowditch, M.D., Professor of Physiology, and Dean of the 
Medical Faculty. 

These lectures were given in the chapel of Divinity Hall and were 
very largely attended ; the chapel being in every case well filled. 
They were interesting and instructive. 

Professor Lyon's course on the Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old 
Testament was also largely attended by persons not connected with 
the School. 

The most marked event in the history of the School during the 
year was the death of Ezra Abbot, D.D., LL.D., who had held the 
position of Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Inter- 
pretation since 1872. A memorial of Dr. Abbot is to be published 
by the School, I will therefore simply remark here that his students 
and his colleagues feel the loss of his personal presence not less than 
that of the great learning which he brought to the service of his 
department. 

Happily the vacanc}' left b}- Dr. Abbot could be at once filled by 
the election of Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D., to be his successor. 
The acknowledged position of Dr. Thayer as a scholar, his experi- 
ence and success as a teacher in a similar department at Andover, 
his genial personality, the fact that he was the most intimate and 
confidential friend of Dr. Abbot, and the fact that he was for a 
year a student in the Harvard Divinity School and that he belonged 






DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHOOL. 93 

already to its corps of teachers, — all unite to make this appointment 
a most desirable one. The appointment of Dr. Thayer is a further 
illustration of the advantage of the present broad policy of the School, 
by which it is not limited to a single denomination in its selection of 
teachers. 

In this connection it may be well to bring together into a single 
view certain lines of development which have been happily com- 
pleted in the recent history of the School. 

The first of these which I will name is that in the direction of the 
freedom of the students, to which I called special attention in my last 
report. Marks for absence were first given up at lectures, then at 
chapel, and finally the student was left free to select the studies 
which he would pursue and the order in which he would pursue them, 
subject only to such control as the nature of each study required or 
as may be necessary in order that no department should be neglected. 
All that can be further accomplished in this direction is such increase 
in the number of courses offered as shall make the advantage of this 
freedom more and more marked. 

The second line of development to be noticed is that in the direc- 
tion of a higher standard of scholarship. The successive steps by 
which the result now reached has been attained were : The estab- 
lishment of the degree of Bachelor of Divinity, which was given to 
such graduates as had reached the required degreee of scholarship in 
certain branches that were indicated ; the doing awa} r with the pos- 
sibility of graduation, except by winning the degree of Bachelor of 
Divinity in the manner just stated ; the refusal to give scholarships 
or other pecuniaiy aid to students who had not reached a percentage 
of seventy-five per cent on their examinations ; and, finally, the re- 
fusal to give the degree of Bachelor of Divinity to men who had not 
received a collegiate education or its full equivalent ; and the re- 
quiring from Special Students an examination equal to that which 
had* been before required for admission to the Junior class. No 
further advance would seem possible in this direction, except that 
increase in the number of students may require a higher standard for 
the reception of a scholarship. To admit to the School only college 
graduates would not only be, in my judgment, on general considera- 
tions unwise ; it would run counter to the terms of the bequest of the 
Williams Fund, which prescribes that '* no student shall be debarred 
of this charit} r by reason of not having had a degree at a college." 

The third line of development to which I refer is that in the direc- 
tion of practically carrying out the principle of non-sectarianism 
which is embodied in the constitution of the School. This prescribes 
that " no assent to the peculiarities of any denomination of Christians 



94 THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

shall be required either of the instructors or students." In point of 
fact, however, up to the 3'ear 1879 the School was conducted as if 
it were strictly a Unitarian organization. All the instructors were 
Unitarian and so were, with rare exceptions, the students. 

In the year 1879 an appeal was made for the further endowment 
of the School. This appeal was addressed as a matter of course to 
the Unitarian churches of the countr}'. There was obviously danger 
that such an appeal would make it more difficult in the future to effect 
an} T change in the management of the School so far as denominatio- 
nal relations are concerned. To obviate this danger, President 
Eliot wisely made a fresh, and more explicit statement of the theory 
on which the School was founded. In a public meeting held in the 
First Church in Boston for the purpose of bringing the needs of the 
School before the public, President Eliot said : — 

" The Harvard Divinity School is not distinctively Unitarian, either by its 
constitution or by the intention of its founders. The doctrines of the unsecta- 
rian sect, called in this century Unitarian, are indeed entitled to respectful ex- 
position in the School so long as it exists, simply because the School has been 
founded, and for two generations at least has been supported, by Unitarians. . . . 
But the government of the University cannot undertake to appoint none but 
Unitarian teachers or to grant any peculiar favors to Unitarian students." 

The address of President Eliot, of which the words just quoted 
form a part, was published with other addresses in a pamphlet which 
was made the basis of the appeal to the churches. The statement 
of the position of the School made by President Eliot was received 
with great satisfaction by the Unitarian body. The idea of a school 
in which Unitarians should have rights, but no monopoly, appealed 
to its sense of what was best for itself and was most in harmony 
with its own principles. On the strength of the assurances thus 
given the money which was asked for was soon raised, — the gifts 
indeed overflowing the limit of the request. 

Since the events just described five professors have been ap- 
pointed. Of these one is a Unitarian minister, one is a Unitarian 
layman, two are Baptists, and one is Orthodox Congregational. 

The enlarged denominational position of the School has been recog- 
nized to some extent by students of Theolog} r . Of the twenty-three 
students of last year at least six were connected with denominations 
other than Unitarian. It so happened that to these six were given 
the six largest scholarships awarded during the year. This coinci- 
dence may indicate the quality of the men thus attracted to the 
School ; while the fact that at the time of the assignment this co- 
incidence was not noticed may illustrate the nature of its manage- 
ment. 



DENOMINATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE SCHOOL. 95 

The change in the denominational relations of the School has 
practically been so great and the view of its real position is in many 
minds so obscure that it ma} r be well that some explicit statement 
of the position of the School should be made ; and especially that 
some statement should be left on record of the understanding with 
which the movement above described was carried on. 

The fundamental question is obviously as to the meaning of the 
words " respectful exposition" in the President's address. 

AVhen it is remembered that with the exception of the Hancock 
and Mollis professorships which were founded before the School was 
established, the endowment of the School has been made by ^Uni- 
tarians, and when it is considered further that the Unitarian body 
is not merely one denomination among others, but that it differs 
from most other denominations in points in regard to which they are 
practically in accord, I think that it would be admitted that the 
Unitarian doctrine could not be regarded as respectfully entertained 
if it were not represented by at least two professors, one of whom 
should be a teacher of Theology. 

In regard to this latter point, — namely, that there should be a 
professor in the School who should teach Theology from the Unita- 
rian standpoint, — it may be remarked that this was explicitly stated 
after consultation with the President, by Rev. W. M. Salter, who was 
emplojed as an agent for the School, and by myself, in our appeals 
for money. 

If it should be thought that putting the teaching of Theology per- 
manently into the hands of Unitarians gives to the Unitarian body 
an undue advantage, I can suggest no other way by which this diffi- 
cult} T could be avoided than the founding of a new professorship, to 
be filled by an Orthodox professor of Theolog}'. I know that the 
idea of a theological school in which opposing S} T stems of Theology 
are taught strikes man} T as absurd. A little thought will show, 
however, that the idea is wholly reasonable. 

The first consideration that may be adduced is that theological 
study has not yet reached the point where it may be regarded as a 
science. I do not mean that it is nowhere scientifically taught. 
Each denomination would perhaps claim that in its schools The- 
ology is taught as a science. The existence of other schools how- 
ever, in which a different form of Theology is taught, would show 
that the justice of its claim had not yet been acknowledged. In this 
respect the teaching of Theology is somewhat like that of Philosophy. 
It is recognized to be a natural and proper thing that different sys- 
tems of Philosophy should be taught in the same university ; for 
though each may claim that it has reached the truth, the claim of 



9(5 THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

each is disputed by students whose judgment carries weight. It is 
true even in regard to physical science that, so far as it is progres- 
sive, there must be within it departments in regard to which like 
statements could be made. A few years ago it was not considered 
absurd that the theory of development by natural selection should 
have both defenders and opponents among the teachers in Harvard 
College. 

Whether or not Theology can ever become a science in the sense 
in which I have been using this term, is a question not to be discussed 
here. It will be admitted, however, that the more nearly it may 
reach the point of development at which it may be worthy of this 
name the better ; and surely nothing would tend more to accomplish 
this result than the existence of a school in which different systems 
of Theology are presented side by side for study and comparison. 

A second consideration that may be adduced in this connection 
is that the study of Theolog}' is largely historical. The history of 
Doctrine is one of its most important elements. No history, if the 
phrase ma}^ be allowed, is more important than that of the Present. 
If Divinity students could become acquainted with other existing 
forms of Theology than their own they would be able to teach their 
own with far better effect. 

It cannot be expected that a professorship like that here indicated 
would be founded by Unitarians as such or by Orthodox as such. 
If founded at all it must be by friends of the University who desire 
to establish theological teaching upon the broadest possible foun- 
dation. 

While for the reasons that have been indicated certain professors 
maj T be selected as representing one denomination or another, it 
would obviously be a violation of the charter of the School and 
wholly foreign to its spirit to subject their teaching, or that of any 
instructor of the School, to a denominational standard. One great 
object of the institution is to promote the scientific study of Theology, 
and this end would fail of accomplishment if any test were applied 
to its teaching of a nature different from that to which teachers of 
philosophy and science are subjected. 

In regard to the three lines of development that have been de- 
scribed it may be remarked that it is a matter for congratulation 
that such an elevation of the standard of scholarship has been accom- 
plished with so little loss of numbers ; that it has been possible to 
remove so many restrictions from students with no disturbance of the 
regular working of the School ; and that the denominational relations 
of the School have been so greatly enlarged with no loss of the con-, 
fidence of that bod}' to which it owes its existence and its support. 



THE LIBKARY. 97 

The library during the last year has been under the efficient care 
of Arthur Anderson Brooks, A.M. The library has received during 
the year the following additions : — 

Bound volumes 202 

Pamphlets 33 

Periodicals . . . . 168 

The librarian made a careful account of the volumes in the library 
with the following result : — 

Bound volumes 17,284 

Pamphlets 2,271 

Periodicals 3,366 

The number of bound volumes was found to be larger than previous 
estimates had indicated, owing to the fact that in former enumera- 
tions, pamphlets after being bound had still been reckoned as 
pamphlets and not as volumes. 

The card-catalogue increased slowly during the year and a begin- 
ning was made in a card subject-catalogue. 

I cannot omit reference to the generous donation by Mrs. Ezra 
Abbot of a large part of Dr. Abbot's library, the gift including 
nearly four thousand volumes. Mrs. Abbot, without making any 
formal condition upon which the gift depends, yet states in her letter 
of donation that .she should be glad to be assured of two things : first, 
that the collection shall be kept, under the title of the Ezra Abbot 
Library, so far intact as is consistent with its usefulness ; second, 
that there shall be secured as soon as possible for this collection, and 
for the rest of the Divinity School library, a more adequate and safe 
place of deposit. The nature of the collection will probably make it 
easy to fulfil to a large extent the first of these requests. The second 
brings to light a need of the School that has been long felt and which 
is made by this gift more pressing, that of a fire-proof library dis- 
tinct from Divinity Hall, but easily accessible from it. This is im- 
portant for the preservation of our books, for the encouragement of 
future donations, and for making possible the transferance from Gore 
Hall of volumes important to students of Theology. Such transfer- 
ance is made to some departmental libraries to the great advantage 
of students in these departments. It cannot be done in the case of 
Divinity library, as the risk from fire is too great. 

Among the donations received during the last year may be men- 
tioned an anonymous gift of $750, and a gift of $450 from George S. 
Hale, Esq. This latter amount is, at the request of Mr. Hale, devoted 
I to the purchase of books for the library. 



98 



THE DIVINITY SCHOOL. 



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INSTRUCTION. 99 





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100 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 



General Exercises. 

Preaching by students in the Chapel of the School, open to the public. Once 

a week. 
Debate by students, each speaker being criticised in the presence of the School. 

Once in two weeks. 
Conference Meetings, conducted by students, alternating with the above. Once 

in two weeks. 
Morning Prayers, conducted by teachers and students. 

C. C. EVERETT, Dean. 
November, 1884. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report upon the Law School 
for the academic year 1883-84 : — 

The table on pp. 104, 105 gives the courses of study and instruction 
during the year, the names of the instructors, the text-books used, 
the number of exercises per week in each course, and the number of 
students who offered themselves for examination in each course at 
the end of the year. 

The following table exhibits the attendance at the School during 
the last fourteen 3 r ears : — 





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2 


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£ 


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Whole no. of students in 






























the School 


165 


138 


117 


141 


144 


173 


199 


196 


169 


177 


161 


161 


138 


150 


No.thatwereintheSchool 






























during the whole year 


107 


107 


109 


121 


130 


153 


168 


172 


137 


138 


136 


139 


120 


130 


No. that were in theSchool 






























only part of the year . 


58 


31 


8 


20 


14 


20 


31 


24 


32 


39 


25 


22 


18 


20 


Average number . . . 


136 


123 


113 


131 


137 


163 


184 


183 


154 


157 


149 


146 


129 


140 



The following table exhibits the School as divided into classes since 
the establishment of the three gears' course and the examination for 
admission : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1S83-84. 


First Year . . . 


72 


63 


78 


57 


61 


59 


58 


Second Year . . 


79 


50 


32 


58 


41 


38 


40 


Third Year . . . 


— 


— 


21 


14 


25 


20 


22 


Special Students . 


31 


47 


46 


32 


34 


21 


30 



RESULTS OF EXAMINATIONS. 



101 



In regard to the foregoing table it is to be observed that, al- 
though the three-} T ears' course went into operation at the beginning 
of 1877-78, there was no third-year class until 1879-80. It is also 
to be observed that the second-year class of 1877-78 did not take the 
three-years' course, but was graduated at the end of the second year, 
that class having entered the School before the three-years' course 
went into operation. 

The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for 
admission in each }'ear since they were established : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


Offered 

Admitted .... 


16 

7 


15 

7 


18 
12 


25 
13 


19 
16 


12 
10 


12 
5 



The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for 
a degree in each year since the establishment of the three-years' 
course : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 




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First Year . 
SecondYear 
Third Year. 


6Q 51 15 
6Q 47 19 


50 42 8 
40 39 1 


73 69 4 

28 26 2 
22 18 4 


45 43 2 
49 46 3 

18 18 


49 44 5 
38 37 1 
36 33 3 


46 44 2 
36 34 2 
21 19-2 


51 41 10 
35 31 4 
26 25 1 



In regard to the foregoing table it is to be observed that it in- 
cludes no Special Students, and hence that all the applicants included 
in it were either graduates of colleges or had passed the examination 
for admission. Of course this remark does not apply to the second- 
year class of 1877-78, and this accounts in part for the much greater 
number of failures in that class. 

The following table exhibits the results of the examinations for the 
honor degree in each year since it was established : — 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Second Year . 
Third Year . . 


26 12 14 


17 7 10 
9 7 2 


39 16 23 
5 3 2 


27 11 16 
13 10 3 


32 11 21 
11 10 1 


21 7 14 

8 5 3, 



102 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 



The following table exhibits the number of students who, since the 
establishment of the three-years' course, have been examined for a 
degree in the studies of any year without having been members of the 
School during that year : — 





1877-78. 


1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


t i 

£ 1 

O PH 


T3 

P^ 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


Offered. 
Passed. 
Failed. 


First Year . 
Second Year 
Third Year . 


5 2 3 


3 2 1 


6 4 2 
1 1 
5 4 1 


6 4 
4 4 


2 



2 11 

10 8 2 


3 3 
3 2 1 


7 6 1 
3 3 



The following table exhibits the number of students who have 
entered the School in each year during the last fourteen j^ears, and 
shows how many of them were graduates of colleges ; and of the 
latter, how many were graduates of Harvard and how many of other 
colleges : — 





ci 

OO 


oo 


CO 

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CM 

oo 


oo 


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■<* 

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CD 
OO 


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00 


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T 

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I 

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Whole number of en- 
tries 

Graduates of colleges . 

Harvard graduates . . 

Graduates of other col- 
leges 

Non-graduates .... 


105 
60 
19 

41 
45 


92 
56 
26 

30 
36 


87 
47 
22 

25 
40 


95 

58 
29 

29 
37 


102 
55 
40 

15 
47 


119 

67 
39 

28 
52 


128 
77 
47 

30 

51 


111 

79 
47 

32 

32 


102 
62 

38 

24 
40 


124 
76 
59 

17 

48 


91 
60 
41 

19 
31 


97 
53 
29 

24 
44 


84 
56 
33 

23 

28 


86 
61 

47 

14 
25 



It is still too soon to speak with confidence of the combined effect 
upon the School of the examination for admission and the three- 
years' course. The effect of the former is indeed pretty obvious. 
On the one hand, it has largely reduced the number of non-graduates 
entering the School ; while, on the other hand, it has not ve*ry much 
affected the quality of those non-graduates who still enter, — that is 
to say, a large majority of the non-graduates who now enter the 
School enter as Special Students, without even attempting to pass 
the examination for admission ; and of those who attempt to pass the 
examination a large portion fail, at least in the first instance. It 
may be said, therefore, that the chief effect of the examination for 
admission has been to improve the qualit}^ of the School at the ex- 
pense of its numbers. When the examination was established, the 



RESULTS OF EXAMINATIONS. 103 

Faculty was greatly in the dark upon two points : first, what propor- 
tion of those entering the School without a degree would be able to 
pass the examination in languages without any or much special pre- . 
paration ; secondly, to what extent would candidates prepare them- 
selves for the examination as they prepare themselves for admission 
to college. On neither point has our experience thus far been en- 
couraging. Indeed, a considerable proportion of those who finally 
pass the examination for admission, enter the School in the first 
instance as Special Students, and prepare themselves for the admis- 
sion examination and pass it during the three years that they are in 
the School ; for our present practice enables one to obtain a degree 
by remaining in the School three full years and passing all the neces- 
saiy examinations, though he be only a Special Student during a 
portion — or even during the whole — of the three years. 

The extension of the course to three years is supposed chiefly to 
have affected graduates of colleges ; and to what extent and how it 
has affected them it is difficult to say. It is not clear that it has 
prevented airv considerable number of graduates from entering the 
School. During the last fourteen years the number of graduates 
entering the School has not varied greatly in the different years ; nor 
is it clear upon the whole whether the number has increased or 
diminished. The most important change has consisted in a large 
increase of Harvard graduates and a corresponding falling off in 
graduates of other colleges. It is not clear that the latter phenome- 
non has any connection with the extension of the course ; and an 
obvious explanation of it may be found in the fact that local law- 
schools have been constantly springing up in different parts of the 
country. As to Harvard graduates entering the School, they have 
more than doubled during the last fourteen years. From 1870 to 
1879, both inclusive, they increased pretty constantly and regularly, 
until in the latter year they reached fifty-nine. In the three follow- 
ing years the}'' fell off largely, — namely, to forty-one in 1880, to 
twenty-nine in 1881, and to thirty-three in 1882. In 1883, however, 
the} T increased again to forty-seven ; and during the current year 
fifty-five have entered to this date, being one more than entered up 
to the corresponding date in 1879. This falling off in Harvard 
graduates has been an important factor in diminishing the size of the 
School during the last three or four years ; but there is no reason to 
suppose that the falling off was produced by the lengthening of the 
course or by any other than accidental causes. It is to be observed 
that the lengthening of the course took effect in 1877, that up to that 
time the largest number of Harvard graduates that had entered the 
School in any year was forty-seven, and that in two years from that 



104 



THE LAW SCHOOL. 



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INSTRUCTION. 



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106 THE LAW SCHOOL. 

time the number increased to fifty-nine. A large majority of the 
Harvard graduates who enter the School do so immediately upon 
graduating ; and hence the size of any given graduating class and 
the proportion of the class who intend to study law are facts which 
have much effect upon the number of Harvard graduates entering 
the Law School during the following 3^ear. On the one hand, there- 
fore, the falling off in Harvard graduates in 1880, 1881, and 1882, 
cannot be attributed to the lengthening of the course ; and, on the 
other hand, the increase in Harvard graduates in 1883 and 1884 can- 
not be regarded as a recovery from the first effects of the lengthening 
of the course. 

The great obstacle in the way of the success of the three years' 
course has been and is, not the difficulty of inducing students to 
enter the School, but the difficulty of inducing them to remain for 
three years. During the seven } 7 ears extending from 1870 to 1876; 
both inclusive, the average length of attendance of all students enter- 
ing the School was a trifle over a year and a third (1.35 years). 
During the seven years extending from 1877 to 1883, both inclusive 
(being the period during which the three years course has been in 
operation) , the average length of attendance has been a trifle over 
a year and a half (1.52 years). The latter period, therefore, shows 
a gain over the former of only one sixth of a year in the average 
length of attendance ; nor can this gain all be credited to the three 
years' course, for it has in the main been gradual and has extended 
through the whole period of fourteen } T ears. It must be confessed, 
therefore, that the three years' course has not yet produced very 
much fruit so far as regards the School as a whole. The foregoing 
statement, however, is liable to give an erroneous impression as to 
the number of students who have remained in the School for three 
full years since the three years' course went into operation. The 
lengthening of the course from two years to three years was liable to 
shorten as well as to lengthen the average attendance ; for it would 
have a tendency to shorten the average attendance of all those who, 
in consequence of it, abandoned all idea of getting a degree ; and 
that it has had the effect of shortening the average attendance of that 
class of students to some extent there can be no doubt. 

It is evident that the success of the three years' course, as well as 
the prosperit}'- of the School generally, is chiefly dependent upon 
graduates of colleges ; and of the graduates of colleges who enter the 
School, the Harvard graduates bear a constantly increasing propor- 
tion. As to the latter, the time of their entering the Law School, in 
relation to the time of their graduating, is conceived to be a fact of 
much significance. A residence at the University for seven years is 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



107 



much to expect from the average student at best ; and it is believed 
that we cannot as a rule secure so long a residence, except in those 
cases where it is continuous. In other words, if a student, upon 
graduating as bachelor of arts, severs his connection with the Uni- 
verse and ceases to reside in Cambridge he is, it is believed, very 
unlikely to return to the University, or, at all events, to the Law 
School, and complete his seven } T ears of residence. It is of much 
importance therefore to the Law School, that Harvard graduates 
should enter it immediately on graduating rather than at some subse- 
quent date. In this respect there has been a great change for the 
better within the last fifteen } T ears, as will appear from the following 
table : — 





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Of course the number of students who will hereafter enter the Law 
School from College classes which have recently graduated can only 
be estimated. There is no reason to suppose, however, that the 
figures in the foregoing table will be materially changed by entries 
to be made hereafter from College classes which graduated prior to 
1880, as Harvard graduates seldom enter the Law school more than 
five } 7 ears after graduating. 

C. C. LANGDELL, Dean. 

Austin Hall, Nov. 17, 1884. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Dean of the Medical Faculty I have the honor to sub- 
mit the following report upon the Medical School for the academic 
year 1883-84 : — 

During the past year the School has fairly entered upon a new 
career. The occupation of the new building on Boylston Street has 
given to the Faculty the opportunity so long desired of arranging its 
course of instruction in the full possession of all those facilities for 
work which modern educational methods imperatively demand. With 
its spacious and well-lighted lecture-rooms and its large and well- 
appointed laboratories the School is now enabled to arrange to the 



108 THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

best advantage its graded course of systematic instruction. The 
good results which were anticipated from this extension of its oppor- 
tunities for instruction and work have already shown themselves in 
the increased number of original investigations which have been 
made under the auspices of the School, and there is no doubt that 
the number will be still further increased as soon as the facilities 
for research which the School offers are fully realized by the medical 
community. 

The new building was dedicated to its uses with appropriate cere- 
monies on the 17th of October, 1883, on the 100th anniversary of the 
foundation of the School. The interest of the occasion was greatly 
increased by the presentation of a picture of Dr. O. W. Holmes and 
a bust of Dr. H. J. Bigelow, both of which works of art now adorn 
the walls of the anatomical lecture-room. A handsome pamphlet 
containing the addresses and exercises on this occasion has been* 
printed and widely distributed. 

A year's occupation of the building has, as was to be expected, 
led to certain slight changes in details of construction and has at 
the same time shown the necessity for more important changes in 
the method of heating and ventilation. What these changes are to 
be cannot at present be indicated, but it is believed there will be no 
serious difficulty in making the building as satisfactory in this respect 
as it already is in every other. 

Though by its removal to the new building the School has been 
carried farther from the Massachusetts General Hospital, where a 
large portion of the clinical teaching is given, it has at the same time 
been brought into greater proximity to the Boston City Hospital, 
where equally important opportunities for instruction can thus be 
more easily secured. Practically the distance from the hospitals has 
not been found to cause any inconvenience, as the programme of 
exercises has been so arranged as to render it unnecessary for the 
students to go from one part of the city to another during the hours 
of instruction. 

In this connection it should be mentioned that the School has been 
greatly benefited by the erection of the new building for the out- 
patient department of the Massachusetts General Hospital ; for the 
hospital authorities have granted every facility for instruction not 
only by providing spacious new quarters, but also by admitting freely 
patients from all parts of the country. The advantages of this liber- 
ality are particularly felt by the instructors in special subjects, such 
as dermatology, laryngolog3 T , &c. 

On the removal of the Medical School to its new quarters the 
Dental Faculty asked for and received permission to occupy a por- 



ANATOMY. PHYSIOLOGY. CHEMISTRY. 109 

tion of the old building in North Grove Street for the purposes of 
the Dental School. Another portion of the building has been used 
during the past year for giving laboratory instruction in the applica- 
tion of surgical apparatus, and it will doubtless be found that, in 
extending the course of medical instruction, the proximity of this 
building to the Massachusetts General Hospital will render it very 
desirable for many of the exercises of the second and third years. 

The amount and character of the regular instruction given to 
students during the year will be found fully set forth in the ap- 
pended tables, but in several of the departments considerable work 
has been done which is not thus reported, but which deserves special 
mention. 

Anatomy. — In this department particular attention has been given 
bj- the professor and his assistants to the improvement of the anatom- 
ical portion of the Warren Museum. Among the valuable prepa- 
rations which have thus been added to the collection may be men- 
tioned the following : — 

1. Frozen sections mounted so as to be conveniently studied. 

2. Thin sections of bone arranged in regular series and showing 
its minute structure. 

3. Corroded wax injections of the blood-vessels of various organs. 

4. Fusible metal injections of various organs and cavities of the 
body. 

Physiology. — In this department the time of the instructors has 
been largely occupied in the arrangement of the new laboratory and 
in providing facilities for future work. The professor of Physiology 
and his assistant have, however, continued their investigations on 
the action of the vaso-mo^or nerves, a preliminar}^ report of which 
was published in the " Central-blatt fur die medicinischen Wissen- 
schaften," July 21, 1883. A similar study of the vaso-moter nerves, 
extending the investigation to cold-blooded animals, has also been 
made during the past year by Dr. F. W. Ellis of Monson. The 
result of this research will soon be published in the "Journal of 
Physiology." 

It may be proper to mention in this connection that the work done 
b}- Dr. Ernst in the culture of bacteria, under the direction of the 
pathological department, was to a large extent performed in the 
physiological laboratory on account of the better opportunities for 
such work which could be there secured. Several of the officers of 
instruction have also availed themselves of the facilities offered by 
the laboratory for the prosecution of original research. 

Chemistry. — The chemical laboratory has been occupied during 
the past year by one hundred and fifty-nine regular* and five special 



110 THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

students. In addition to the regular instruction in general chemis- 
try, qualitative analysis, and medical chemistry (including urinary 
chemistry), with special reference to the diagnosis of urinary and 
renal diseases, and toxicology, special investigations have been made 
during the year upon the following subjects : — 

1. The distribution of arsenic in the body in cases of poisoning by 
that substance. This investigation is still in progress, the material 
being chiefly obtained from cases of suicide by arsenic or Paris green 
occurring in this city. 

2. The sources of domestic arsenical poisoning. 

3. The milk and food supply of the State, the material being 
obtained from the State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. 

4. The water supply of Boston, specimens from the various sources 
of supply being obtained from the Boston Water Board. 

5. The sanitarj T condition of the public schools of Lynn with refer- 
ence to the contamination of the air in the school-rooms. This inves-, 
tigation was made at the request of a special committee appointed to 
inquire into the subject, and the results appear in their printed report 
presented to the School Board of Lynn, December, 1883. 

Pathology. — In this department facilities were offered to Drs. Ernst 
and Nelson, candidates for the degree of A.M., who were pursuing 
bacteriological investigations. The results of Dr. Ernst's work were 
published in the "American Journal of Medical Science" for Octo- 
ber, 1884, and the theses of both these gentlemen received honorable 
mention on the Commencement programme. Dr. Gannett also gave 
special extra instruction to a class of second-year students during 
the Christmas recess in the methods of examining sputa for the tuber- 
culous bacillus. There were also in this department two special 
students in courses of general pathology. 

Histology and Embryology. — During the past year the School'has 
secured the advantages of greatly improved laboratory facilities jn 
this department, so that students can now receive thorough advanced 
and special instruction. Over thirt} 7 persons have availed themselves 
of the opportunities thus offered. Of these over twenty were first- 
year students taking a special course and doing four hours extra 
work a week throughout nearly the whole year ; four second-year 
students have done special work upon the histology and development 
of certain organs ; one post-graduate has taken a general course in 
Histology, and a special investigation on the structure and function 
of the ciliary muscle has been made by Dr. Myles Standish. Dr. 
J. C. Warren and Dr. S. G. Webber have also used the laboratory 
for researches upon which they have been engaged. Dr. C. S. Minot 
has published the results of observation on the vesiculae seminales of 



WARREN MUSEUM. Ill 

the guinea-pig in the " Archiv fur mikroskopische Anatomie," com- 
pleted an investigation on the skin of insects, and made considerable 
progress with a treatise on human embryology. A large amount 
of material for future work in Histology and Embryology has been 
collected. 

The demand for and the usefulness of a histological laboratory are 
thus ampty demonstrated and it is hoped that means will be found 
for still further increasing the opportunities offered by the School for 
this important branch of medical stud}^. 

Warren Museum. — No department of the School has profited more 
by its removal to the new building than the Warren Museum ; for 
the most valuable part of the collection, for which the old building 
offered no proper security against fire", and which consequently had 
to be stored for safe keeping in Temple Place, has now been united 
to the rest, and placed in its proper position upon the shelves. The 
most important gift to the Museum is that of Dr. J. Collins Warren, 
who has presented the anatomical collection of his father, the late 
Dr. J. Mason Warren. Many of the preparations are of historic as 
well as of professional value. 

The Museum has also been enriched by the addition of a number 
of pathological specimens, as well as by the preparations described 
in the report on the department of Anatomy. The collection as a 
whole is in excellent condition, and the present working force is 
amply sufficient to keep it so. 

The only changes of any importance in the course of instruction 
during the past yea,r were the addition of a course of lectures on 
Hygiene to the fourth-year students by Dr. Durgin, a course of lec- 
tures on the same subject with practical demonstrations to the first- 
year students by Dr. Harrington, and a laboratoiy course on the 
application of bandages and surgical apparatus to the second-year 
students by Dr. J. C. Warren, assisted by Dr. West. Dr. Durgin's 
course was supplemented by visits to the Brighton Abattoir, the 
sewers, and other places of interest in connection with public medi- 
cine. 

Shortly after the beginning of the academic year the School was 
called upon to mourn the death of Dr. Calvin Ellis, Professor of 
Clinical Medicine, and for many years Dean of the Medical Faculty, 
an indefatigable laborer in the cause of medical education, and one 
to whose untiring efforts more than to those of any other single indi- 

rvidual the School may be said to owe its present high position among 
the medical schools of the country. 
Tne vacancy thus created in the chair of Clinical Medicine was 
filled by transferring Dr. R. T. Edes from the chair of Materia Medica. 



112 



THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



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INSTRUCTION. 



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THE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 



The whole number of students in attendance 

During the year was 250 

During the first term 248 

During the second term 245 

Of these 134 had literary or scientific degrees. 

There were G4 applicants for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
the 3 years' course, of whom 14 were rejected. 

There were 11 applicants for the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the 
4 3'ears' course, of whom 2 were rejected. Of the 9 students who received 
the degree, two received it cum laucle and with it the degree of A.M. 

The Fourth Class was composed of 12 students, 5 of whom postponed 
graduation in order to become candidates for Hospital appointments. 

The Scholarships were awarded as follows : — 

1st Barringer Scholarship, E. P. Stone . . . 4th Class. 

2d »■; " J. B. Hyland ... 3d " 

Faculty " Owen Copp ... 3d " 

" * " J. H. Gifford ... 3d " 

E. D. Roe .... 2d " 

H. F.M.Smith . . 2d " 



TABLE II. — SHOWING NUMBER OF TERMS SPENT AT THE 
SCHOOL BY GRADUATES. 





1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


1884. 


Spent six 
terms . 


14 

47% 


25 

69% 


40 

65% 


41 

85% 


G2 

88% 


39 

86% 


49 

81% 


79 

91% 


67 

88% 


57 

96% 


Spent five 
terms . 


7 
23$ 


5 

1% 


9 

• 15% 


4 

8% 


2 

2% 


1 

2% 


G 

10% 


2 

2% 


4 

5% 





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terms . 


6 

20% 


4 

n% 


8 

14% 


3 

6% 


3 

4% 


4 

8% 


4 

6% 


4 

4% 


4 

5% 


2 

3% 


Spent three 
terms . 





2 

5% 


1 

1% 





2 

2% 





1 

1% 





1 

1% 





Spent two 
terms . 


3 

10% 





3 

5% 





1 

1% 


1 

2% 





1 

1% 








Total grad- 
uated . 


30 


36 


Gl 


48 


70 


45 


GO 


86* 


76f 


59J 



Includes nine students of the Fourtli Class. f Includes six students of the Fourth Clas%. 
\ Includes nine students of the Fourth Class. 



TABLE III. — STATISTICS OF EXAMINATIONS. 



EXAMINATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 



1834. 



f June I 



Sept. 



Physics. 
. 2G 



Offered 
Conditioned G 
Offered . . 19 
Conditioned 5 



Latin. 
27 



English. 

29 

10 

20 

4 



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29 

3 
19 

6 



Rejected. 
4 



INSTRUCTION, 



117 



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118 THE DENTAL SCHOOL. 

9 

In view of the generous response which has just been made by the 
community to the appeal of the School for the supply of its material 
wants, it may seem ungracious to insist further upon its pecuniary 
needs ; but it should be constantly borne in miud by the friends of 
the School that the high standard which has been adopted must 
always cause the classes to be smaller and consequently the fees to 
be higher than in the other principal schools of the country. There 
is no doubt that excellent students are often deterred by this extra 
expense from entering the Harvard Medical School, and no better 
service could be rendered to the cause of medical education than by 
providing endowments for the professorships, which would enable the 
School to reduce its fees and thus extend more widely the oppor- 
tunities which it offers for systematic training in medicine. 

The usual tables of statistics relating to the School will be found 
above. 

H. P. BOWDITCH, Dean. 



To the President of the University : — 

Sir, — I have the honor of presenting my report of the Dental 
School for the year just past : — 

Compelled to evacuate the quarters in the Massachusetts General 
Hospital which we had occupied since the establishment of the 
School, we petitioned the Faculty of the Medical School for the use 
of a portion of their abandoned building in North Grove Street, 
and our petition was generously granted. At considerable expense 
of time and money the necessary alterations were made, and since 
December the rooms have been occupied for our Operative and Me- 
chanical departments with great satisfaction. The first-} T ear stu- 
dents have as usual attended the lectures of the first-year class in 
the Medical School, including dissecting, and with them passed the 
annual examinations. Out of thirteen students who went up, five 
passed in all branches, six failed in one, and two failed in all. Seven 
second-year students went up for examination, of whom two failed 
to pass. The number of graduates was ten, — of whom four were 
failures of last year's graduating class, and one of the year before 
last. 

The second-year students attended as usual the lectures on Surgical 
Pathology of Dr. J. Collins Warren of the Medical School, and four 
lectures on Oral Surgery and Anaesthetics, being a portion of the Sur- 
gical lectures of Dr. Cheever, Professor of Surgery. In the Dental de- 
partment they studied besides : Dental Therapeutics with Dr. Brackett, 
Materia Medica with Dr. Briggs, and Oral Pathology with Dr. J. W. 



INSTRUCTION. THE LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 119 

Warren. Each of these gentlemen lectured one hour each week 
throughout the }*ear. The Operative department, besides the regular 
clinical instruction by the corps of faithful and intelligent clinical 
teachers, occupying the whole of eveiy afternoon during the } T ear, 
also had one lecture each week by its Professor, Dr. Thomas Fille- 
brown. The Professor of Mechanical Dentistiy also gave one lecture 
each week throughout the year, and one hour or more to the clinical 
work in the Laboratory. Dr. Grant, the efficient and faithful Demon- 
strator in the Mechanical department, attended during the mornings 
of five* da}*s in the week, stimulating the students by his own interest 
in the work, and aiding them by his instruction when help was needed. 
At the close of the year he felt compelled by the pressure of his pri- 
vate business to resign the position held so many years with such 
credit to himself and advantage to the School. 

Dr. Pond, the able Demonstrator in the Operative department, 
and four of the clinical instructors who had been connected with the 
School for terms varying from eight to two years, also — and for the 
same reason — resigned their positions, depriving the School of an 
efficient and earnest corps of workers and necessitating an almost 
entire change in the clinical board. 

It seems useless to again call attention to the pecuniaiy needs of 
the School, which has absolutely nothing to depend upon but the fees 
of the students, and which from its impecuniosity is compelled }'ear 
after } r ear to lose invaluable instructors, — its oldest and most ex- 
perienced, — who can no longer afford to give to the School f£e time 
demanded by their practice. 

THOMAS H. CHANDLER, Dean. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report upon the 
Lawrence Scientific School for the academic year 1883-84 : — 

The number of students registered during the year was twenty-six. 
The}^ were classified as follows : — 

I. Engineering 8 

II. Chemistry 1 

III. Natural History 4 

IV. Mathematics 

Special Courses 13 

Total 26 

These students attended the exercises of thirty-four different in- 
structors. The whole number of courses taken, prescribed and 



120 THE BUSSEY INSTITUTION. 

elective, was one hundred and twenty-five ; an average of nearly five 
to each pupil. The distribution of studies is shown by the following 
statement : — 

Mechanical Drawing . . 9 

Music 1 

Natural History .... 30 

Philosophy 7 

Political Economy ... 2 

Physics 10 

Spanish 2 

Surveying 2 



Chemistry . . . . 

English 

Fine Arts 


. . 11 
. . 5 

. . 7 


French 


. . 5 


German 


. . 10 


History 

Mathematics . . . 


. . 1 
. . 11 


Mechanics .... 


. . 5 



125 
Two persons received degrees at Commencement, — one in Engi- 
neering and one in Natural History. 

H. L. EUSTIS, Dean. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I respectfully submit the following report upon the Bussey 
Institution for the year 1883-84 : — 

Five students were registered in the course of the year, of whom 
two were in regular standing, while three devoted themselves par- 
ticularly to Horticulture. It is eight years since so small a number 
of students have presented themselves, and eleven years since the 
number of students was less than five. In explanation of this falling 
off it ipia} 7 be urged as probably true that the establishment of a 
Veterinary School in the University may have attracted to that de- 
partment two or three students specially interested in animals who, 
in the absence of other opportunities, would naturally have followed 
the courses in Anatomj' and Zoology which are given at the Bussey 
Institution, as had been the habit of such students in previous years. 
It is not impossible moreover that the establishment by the State of 
Massachusetts of eighty free scholarships in the school at Amherst, 
which were abundantly advertised in the summer of 1883, may have 
had some slight tendenc} r to hinder students from seeking instruction 
at the Busse}^ Institution. 

Throughout the year instruction was given in Agriculture by Mr. 
Motley ; in Horticulture by Mr. Watson ; in Botany by Mr. Faxon ; 
in Anatomy by Dr. Harrison and Dr. C. A. Cheever ; and in Agri- 
cultural Chemistry by Professor Storer. For a short time, at the 
beginning of the year, Mr. Hinckley acted as Demonstrator in the 
dissecting-room until relieved by the appointment of Dr. Cheever to 
that position. The ordinary work of the Farm should be mentioned 
a^o as a "valuable means of instruction. Not only do city-bred 



THE BUSSEY FARM. 121 

students find their advantage in watching the various operations of 
agriculture and occasionally lending a hand for the furtherance of 
them, but to many a country lad the methodical conduct of a kitchen 
garden is of the nature of a revelation. In this sense the ability to 
keep at the Farm young men desirous of agricultural instruction who 
are willing to work there in payment of their board is a distinct gain 
for the Institution in that it extends legitimately its power for doing 
good. 

Beside the Bussey students proper, as above stated, the students 
and instructors of the Veterinary department occupied the stone 
building during afternoons as "guests" throughout the year, with the 
result not onty that the running expenses of the establishment for 
fuel and service were largely increased, but that the building suffered 
more through wear and tear than it had during the previous twelve 
years of normal occupancy. 

The superintendent of the Farm, Mr. Hinckle}', with his workmen 
was fully occupied during the winter in caring for some seventy ani- 
mals that were boarded for longer or shorter periods, varying from a 
week or two to five months, and in securing fire- wood from the out- 
lying wood-lots to be disposed of to the students at Cambridge 
through the agenc}^ of the Harvard Cooperative Society. A con- 
siderable quantity of manure was hauled from the Veterinaiy Flospital 
in Boston and, together with a still larger quantity made at the Farm, 
was emplo3*ed for the production of carrots and other roots to be dis- 
posed of to the Veterinary department for use in its Hospital ; as 
well as potatoes, beans, and squashes to be consumed at the Memorial 
Hall in Cambridge. The first step was thus taken towards the much- 
needed recuperation of the Farm. 

A careful consideration of the income and expenses of the Farm 
thus far gives promise that this particular branch of the Institution 
may soon be able to support itself. Many expenses were necessarily 
incurred in the beginning for fittings and equipment, which are not 
likely to be soon repeated. The fact that the fiscal year of the 
University (September to September) differs completely from the 
natural agricultural periods of seed-time and harvest puts the state- 
ment of Farm accounts at a disadvantage, in that the record of Farm 
income and expenses submitted to the Treasurer of the University 
at the end of August does not give the least indication of the great 
store of agricultural products which have been harvested during the 
year and wmich were actually at that time safely stored for use during 
ithe succeeding autumn and winter. Eighty tons of hay and as many 
cords of wood, to say nothing of some scattering bushels of roots and 
tubers, naturally represent a money value of considerable importance. 



122 



THE VETERINARY SCHOOL. 



The Institution was indebted to the late Mrs. Joseph Iasigi oi 
Boston for the gift of a horse which has proved itself extremely use-| 
ful and well adapted for work upon the Farm ; and to Mr. A. W. 
Cheever of Wrentham for several volumes of agricultural newspapers. 
The Hon. Ambrose A. Ranney, M.C., has again sent to the Institu- 
tion a large number of seeds from the Department of Agriculture at! 
Washington to be distributed among students and graduates of the 
School and other trustwortlry persons. 

F..H. STORER, Dean. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I beg to submit herewith the second annual report of the 
School of Veterinary Medicine : — 

In accordance with the plan alread}' decided upon as to the develop 
ment of the course of study in the School, the subjects of the first 
year, viz. Anatonry, Plyysiolog3 T , Chemistry, and Botany, have this 
year been augmented by the addition of those of the Theory and 
Practice of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Medical Chemistry, 
and Pathological Anatomy, which, with their various subdivisions 
and with daily exercises in Practical Anatomy, constitute the work 
for the second 3 r ear of the proposed three-years' course. 

Of the nine students which composed the class of last year, eight 
went up for examination, four passed successfully, three failed in one 
subject each, and one in two. Those who fail to pass in two major 
subjects are not allowed to go on with their class. 

Twelve candidates presented themselves for the entrance examina- 
tions. Of these, nine were accepted for the first and two for the 
second class. There are also four Special Students, two in subjects 
of the first and two in subjects of the second year, — making in all 
twenty-three students, seven of whom are graduates from colleges 
or members of a profession. 

The resignation of Dr. Whitney from the post of Instructor in 
Histology in the School was accepted, and Mr. Franklin Dexter was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Dexter comes exceedingly well 
qualified for the position, having been for some time assistant to Dr. 
Whitney who, it may be said, still retains his connection with the 
School as Instructor in Parasitic Diseases. 

Dr. Harrison, whose first appointment as Instructor jn Anatomy 
terminated with the end of the academic year, was reappointed for 
three j^ears, — which gives him a place in the Faculty of the School. 

The resignation of Mr. Faxon from the position of Instructor in 
Botany at the Bussey Institution, at whose charge the Veterinary 



THE VETERINARY HOSPITAL. NEW BUILDING. 123 

students were taught Botaii}- last year, created another vacancy in 
our teaching staff, to which Mr. Hollis Webster was appointed, and 
he now holds the position of Instructor in Botany in the School. 

A further addition to the teaching staff of the School has been the 
establishment of two Demonstratorships in Anatomy. The appoint- 
ments are to be made annually from the second-years' students for 
merit after competitive examination. 

In future the subjects of General Chemistry and Plrysiology of the 
first, and Medical Chemistry and Pathological Anatomy of the second 
year, will be given at the Medical School ; all other exercises, includ- 
ing Practical Anatomy, will be held at Village St. instead of at the 
Bussey Institution as heretofore. 

The Veterinary Hosjiital. — From the 27th of September, 1883, at 
which time the figures for the last report were taken, until the 31st of 
October of the present year, there have been treated at the Hospital 
1462 patients. Of these, G73 were " out-door clinics" ; 99 were sent 
to the Farm buildings at the Bussey Institution, and 690 were in-door 
patients at the Village St. building. Of these last, 476 were horses, 
189 dogs, 10 cattle, 14 cats, and 1 squirrel. Besides this a consider- 
able number of horses have been shod in the Forge to which the atten- 
tion of one or the other of the Veterinary officers has been given, and of 
which no record has been kept ; and numbers of in-door patients have 
received treatment, while in Hospital, for more than one ailment, — but 
have not been counted for more than one in making up the total. 
The Hospital, as a rule, has been full and at certain times it has been 
necessary to refuse admittance to applicants because of lack of room 
for their proper accommodation. The building has proved itself to 
be all that was hoped for it ; good light and air are furnished in abun- 
dance, and its various appointments are convenient and well adapted 
for their purpose. 

New Building. — Because of the very great amount of time con- 
sumed in going to and from the Bussey Institution it became evi- 
dent, during one year's experience with students, that if it was desired 
to give them the full advantage of the course, room must be pro- 
vided in the city wherein the} r could receive such instruction as they 
were then getting at Forest Hills. For this purpose it w T as decided, 
after mature consideration, to bivy a dwelling-house on Lucas St. ad- 
joining the Hospital building, to take it down and to erect upon the land 
a building which should give a small but very much needed addition to 
the Hospital, as well as the further necessary accommodation for the 
School. This building, although parts of it have already been occu- 
pied, is just (Dec. 31) at the point of completion. It contains on the 
lower floor a stable capable of accommodating 10 horses, connected 



124 



THE LIBRARY. 



through a short passage with the main Hospital building. Above 
this stable there is a lecture-room, an anatomical laboratory, a 
reading-room and library, a room for the museum, and a house- 
surgeon's bed-room. 

Museum. — By the kindness of friends many very good specimens 
of anatomical and pathological interest have been received during the 
past year which, together with similar objects gradually accumulated, 
already promise a collection which will very materially aid in the 
instruction. 

Library. — This embraces as yet but few volumes, because there 
has been until . now no place in which such books could be kept. 
Large additions, however, are promised and no doubt a fair quan- 
tity of books of reference will before long be at the disposal of the 
students. 

Finances. — Under the arrangements as they have existed during 
the past year the School has managed to be self-supporting and a 
little more. That is, from its earned income from all sources it has 
been able to pay all charges of whatever nature against it, includ- 
ing the 6% interest and taxes on the Hospital building and the 
salaries of the instructors. The growing demands of the School 
have made necessaiy a further expenditure for buildings of between 
$10,000 and $11,000, the interest upon which at 6% as well as some ! , 
further charges for salaries of additional instructors as herein shown, 
must, as matters now stand, be a farther charge upon the earnings. 
The hope and belief is that the additional space given for stalls will 
increase the Hospital earnings by the desired amount. But if it 
should be found possible to obtain by subscription a fund with which 
the buildings could be bought and given to the College, thus decreas- 
ing the amount of annual expenditure by the sum of the 6% in- 
terest and taxes, the relief to your Veterinary officers and in some 
respects the advantages to your Veterinary School would be very 
great. 

Bussey Farm. — The arrangements under which animals have been 
sent from the Hospital to the Bussey Farm and the management of 
them while there have been found to be quite satisfactory and of 
great advantage to convalescent patients. 

CHARLES P. LYMAN, Secretary. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — Three numbers of the Bulletin of Harvard University have 
been issued under the immediate charge of the Librarian during the 
past year, and the cost of them has been shared in part by the same 



COLLECTIONS OF MAPS. 125 

kind friends who have been helpful in this respect in former years. 
Those are Messrs. Charles P. Curtis, William B. Weeden, Heniy 
Lee, Alexander Agassiz, and Charles S. Sargent. Of the Biblio- 
graphical Contributions, also issued separately by the Library, two — 
The Bibliography of Ptolemy's Geography, by the Librarian, and A 
Classified Index to the Maps in Petermann's Geograpliische Mitlhei- 
lungen (1855-1881) , I13' Richard Bliss — have been completed. There 
has been an unusual demand for these from Europe, particular!}* from 
the public cartographical bureaus and from geographical societies. 
Another contribution, The Kohl Collection of Early Maps, is still in 
progress. 

A very valuable portion of the Ebeling collection, which came to 
the Library b} r the gift of Col. Thorndike in 1818, consisted of a 
large number of maps. A brief title-catalogue of them was printed 
in 1831, and a marked copy of this catalogue has been till recently 
the guide to the maps as they existed in the folds in which they were 
received. I referred in an earlier report to a new arrangement in 
portfolios of that portion of the map collection of the Library which 
pertains to the American continent. During the past year Mr. Henry 
C. Badger has had charge of completing the rearrangement of the 
collection as covering both hemispheres. 

The entire series of maps, excluding atlases but including a mass of 
charts, will occupy at least 900 portfolios, of which about 360 pertain 
to America, counting in this latter number 72 which hold maps of the 
Coast Surve}\ The bulk of the collection is of the Ebeling gift, but 
the proportion of other maps is larger in the American part than in 
the rest. It embraces many atlases of which the maps have been 
heretofore in some cases kept folded together, and in other cases 
were separated and classed by their geographical relations. These 
scattered parts have now been brought together and over 50 of these 
atlases have been strongly bound. Some of them were found to be 
too incomplete to bind. Maps illustrating certain geographical ques- 
tions have also been classed together for binding, and perhaps another 
50 volumes can be bound the coming year. Taking out these bound 
volumes — about 100 in number — there still remain probably about 
15,000 loose maps which occupy the 900 portfolios alread}* mentioned. 

During the interval since the Ebeling portion of the entire collec- 
tion was catalogued in 1831 the maps have been but little used. 
From a tally made in 1836 it w T as found that several maps were then 
missing which are now in place. Losses since that time seem to be 
few. These portfolios have been placed in twenty-one cases of slides, 
four new cases having been added to the seventeen in use before. 
The portfolios rarely hold over twenty maps, usually about fifteen. 



126 



THE LIBRARY. 



The maps in the main belong to the 17th and 18th centuries, and 
were collected previous to 1817, when Ebeling died. 

The rearranging will be completed early in the coming 3-ear. Mean- 
while considerable progress has been made in a descriptive catalogue, 
written on slips, which are kept in drawers near the cases of port- 
folios. These entries have been completed for the maps of Great 
Britain, France, Spain, Italy, and Scandinavia. When this catalogue 
is finished, an historical and topographical index is proposed. The 
maps in atlases will be eventually included, and perhaps important 
maps in geographical serials and other books. With this extent of 
catalogue and index service it is not probable that questions of his- 
torical geography can be settled so well anywhere in this country as 
in this Library. 

The accessions to the University Library for the year, and the 
present extent of the various departments, are as follows : — 



Departments. 


Volumes added. 


Present extent in 


Volumes. 


Pamphlets. 


Gore Hall (College Library) . 
Law School 


9,879 

1,028 

37 

203 

565 
163 
160 
150 
175 


220,341 

20,952 

2,465 

17,286 

2,078 

16,379 

3,233 

4,482 

2,627 

867 


215,097 
2,890 

2,271 

10,275 
5,931 

2,928 

855 

1,003 


Scientific School 

Divinity School ....... 

Medical School 

Museum of Zoology . ... 
Astronomical Observatory . . 

Botanic Garden 

Bussey Institution 

Peabody Museum 


Totals 


12,360 


290,710 


241,250 



The figures of last year are given for the Medical School, the 
changes in that department rendering an accurate account for this 
year impossible. 

The Whitney Library of Geology, a component part of the collec- 
tion in the Museum of Zoology, is not yet included in the count of 
the Museum Library. 

Of the accessions to the Gore Hall collection, there were added by 
gift 1,600 volumes and 7,972 pamphlets; and such accessions also 
include 507 volumes of bound serials (received in parts), and 518 
volumes, made by binding pamphlets. 



STUDENTS USE OF THE LIBRARY. 



127 



The accessions of recent 3-ears to the Universit}^ Library have been 



3d as iollo\ 


vs : — 






In 1878 . . 


. . 9,933 vols. 


In 1882 . . 


. . 9,192 vols 


11 1879 . . 


. . 10,389 " 


" 1883 . . 


. . 9,818 " 


" 1880 . . 


. . 7,247 " 


" 1884 . . 


. . 12,360 " 


" 1881 . . 


. . 9,804 '• 







It will thus be seen that the accessions of the past year have been 
considerably in excess of those of any previous year since the College 
Library, with those of the departments, has been made to constitute 
what is known as the University Library. 

The following tables show the use of books at Gore Hall in -1883-84 
as compared with previous years : — 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


1. Books lent out 

2. Used in the building . . 

3. Overnight use of reserved 

books 


41,296 
10,921 

7,519 


41,986 

7,812 

10,506 


45,481 
11,724 

11,872 


48,194 
10,498 

12,891 


48,231 

8,654 

12,678 


48,655 
9,047 

11,399 


Total (excluding No. 3, 
which is included in No. 1) 


52,217 


49,798 


57,205 


58,692 


56,885 


57,702 


Officers of instruction re- 
serving books 

Number of books reserved . 


1 


35 
3,330 


38 
3,418 


41 
4,251 


44 

4,316 


48 
4,782 



Owing to the large number of books on the reserved shelves, and 
the increased difficulty in finding them, it was found to be for the 
convenience of students to make a special card-catalogue of reserved 
books and to place it in the reading-room. 



SUNDAY USE. 



lumber of Sundays open 

Persons using 

Average 

Highest number .... 



1880-81. 



37 

1,846 

46 

64 



1881-82. 



36 
2,067 

57 
91 



18S2- 



36 

2,268 

63 

92 



1883-84. 



36 

2,448 

68 

95 



It will also be seen by the following tables that the use of " Ad- 
mission Cards," by which students have access for investigation to 
special classes of the books at the shelves, is steadily gaining in 
favor, judging from the increased frequency of such use : — 



128 



THE LIBRARY. 



ADMISSION-CARDS . 



History 

Science 

Art (including Music) 

Literature 

Classics 

Philosophy 

Theology 

Political Economy . . 



1879-80. 1880-81 



Total students 
Times of use 



60 
340 



85 
870 



1881-82. 18S2-S3 



200 
2,542 



4(1 

16 

14 

42 

36 

5 

3 

5 



167 
,340 



45 

18 
12 
37 
42 
6 



176 
3,520 



There was no record of the classification of use preserved for the 
first year of trial of the system. 

The use of the Library by the members of the so-called " Annex" 
is also increasing. A pass-booji: containing titles of books wished for 
is sent by a messenger to Gore Hall twice a day. Many of the titles 
thus presented have all the defects, of inexactness and ambiguity 
which comes from inexperience in using titles, and as it devolves 
upon the Library attendants to attach shelf-numbers to assist in find- 
iag the books there is a considerable expenditure of time on the 
Librae's part in aid of that institution. The over-night use by the 
"Annex" of books which have been reserved for the special use of 
our own students is confined to such titles as at the da} T 's close have 
not baen required to supply the latter. That this discrimination is 
necessary appears from the fact that five-eighths of all books drawn 
by the " Annex " are from the " reserved " shelves, — 518 of the 860 
total issues to them being of this class, while of the 342 other issues 
a large part have apparently no relation to their special studies, but 
belong to the class of general reading. 

Mr. Kiernan has drawn from our records the following comparative 
statement of the use of our books now, five years ago, and nine 3 T ears 
ago, by the same classes of borrowers. The column marked " Whole. 
No." shows the number of students in each department at the re- 
spective dates. The class of " Resident Graduates " includes, beside 
those so called, unmatriculated students and those studying for a 
higher degree. The figures are confined to those departments of the 
University whose members live in Cambridge and whose use of the 
Library is considerable. 



STUDENTS USE OF THE LIBRARY. 



129 



The result is this : Nine years ago 57% of the students, five years 
ago 77%, and during the past }'ear 84% used the Library. It is to 
be hoped a still larger proportion may hereafter be shown ; but 1 have 
no confidence that aii3 r considerable increase upon these figures can 
be produced till a remodelling of the old part of the building ren- 
ders the administrative service of the Librar} T more effective not only 
by day but also in the evening. 



i 


STUDENTS 


' USE 


OF THE LIBRARY. 










1874-75. 


1S79-80. 


1883-84. 


i 


Students of 


Whole 
No. 


No. taking 
books. 


Whole 
No. 


No. taking 
books. 


Whole 
No. 


No. taking 
books. 


i . 


Divinity 


20 


16 


23 


23 


21 


21 


- 


Law 


139 


63 


165 


119 


146 


118 




Scientific 


29 


21 


16 


15 


26 


17 


L 


Resident Graduates . 


55 


18 


6 ii 


40 


68 


51 




Senior Class .... 


152 


109 


171 


151 


209 


188 


fi 


Junior Class .... 


159 


96 


201 


168 


195 


171 


fr 


Sophomore Class . 


208 


124 


196 


163 


248 


210 


tih 


Freshman Class . . 


197 


108 


245 


160 


253 


202 


If 
k 


Totals 


959 


555 


1083 


839 


1166 


978 
















u 








, 


The percentage of users a 


mong the undergraduates 


has risen during 


r 


the same time, as follows : - 












1874-75. 


1879- 


10. 


1883-84. 


















For Seniors 




71 


88 




90 




For Juniors 




60 


83 




88 


For Sophomores 




59 


83 




85 




For Freshmen 


54 


65 




SO 















These statements do not cover the use of ' ' reserved books " — a 
ystem not in use in 1874-75, — a considerable number of the users 
:>f which never take other books from the Library. 

The work of the catalogue department is indicated by the following 
:able which has been furnished by Mr. Lane : — 






130 



THE LIBRARY. 





1878-79. 


1879-80. 


1880-81. 


1881-82. 


1882-83. 


1883-84. 


1. Cards put into the Public 

Catalogue 

2. Cards prepared 

3. Volumes received during 

the year 

4. Pamphlets received dur- 

ing the year 

5. Volumes (old and new) 

catalogued 

6. Pamphlets (old and new) 

catalogued 

7. Volumes catalogued for 

Departments, eic. . . 


36,390 
20,595 


35,315 

24,887 


41,215 
25,705 

7,873 


34,168 
18,235 

6,848 

4,469 

4,271 

1,363 

1,354 


29,480 

17,015 

8,441 
7,650 
6,222 
1,333 
1,659 


40,542 
21,524 

9,879 

8,782 

8,566 

1,121 

1,825 



Referring to the figures under No. 1 it is necessary to explain that 
over 10,000 of these cards have been put into the drawers not for the 
first time ; but are in fact a returning to the drawers of that number 
which had been taken out for rectification on account of the receipt 
of successive parts of serials. The order-files show slips for 1,422 
titles of " continuations," as the}' are technically called, or books issued 
in parts, including collections, transactions, proceedings and the like; 
and the corresponding cards for each of which have to be taken out 
and rectified, almost always two for each one — and it may be as many 
as twenty — at intervals during a year. In addition to these there are 
veiy many sets of public documents and publications of institutions, 
which come regularly by gift, the cards for which are similarly with- 
drawn and restored many times during the year. 

Of the 21,524 cards mentioned under No. 2 there were 2,356 
author-cards which had no corresponding subject-cards, thus dividing 
the catalogue work into " full work" and " short work," — the latter 
system having been temporarily applied this year to such titles as are 
of little present interest, in order to bring as rapidly as possible into 
the authors' catalogue large arrears of titles which in the insuffici- 
ency of the staff it seemed impossible to embody in the catalogue, 
if they were done in the " full work" style. This " short work" has 
been applied for some years to the work of the Department libraries 
as included in our official catalogue. 

Considerable work has been done in the revision of the subject- 
catalogue, preparatory to printing an index to it ; and some of the 
changes have been fundamental — all in the pursuit of a more per- 
spicuous method. Mr. Lane's opinion is strengthening, as the work 
goes on, that the cards of books concerning authors should be put in 



THE CATALOGUE DEPARTMENT. 131 

the authors' catalogue in connection with the cards representing their 
works, as is done in the classes of Latin and Greek authors, and that 
these last, now in the subject catalogue, should be transferred to 
their proper alphabetical place in the authors' catalogue. The im- 
pediment to making this change at present is the insufficiency of the 
number of drawers in the case given to the authors' catalogue. The 
cases which hold the drawers are fast becoming inadequate. One 
year's cards closely pressed as they stand on edge measure from 
20 to 25 feet ; and they would fill a dozen drawers of double rows. 
This rate of increase signifies an extent of the catalogue in the near 
future very much beyond the present capacity of the space devoted 
to the cases ; and as now constructed the cases are built on a plan 
which sacrifices ease of consultation to increasing the capacity. 

Mr. Frank Carney, who under Mr. Lane has charge of the shelves, 

i reports that 13,556 volumes have been permanently placed in the 

, new stack since the last report, making 86,929 so placed out of 

. the 220,000 volumes constituting the Gore Hall collection. During 
the year the Greek authors and attendant literature have been ar- 
ranged, making 5,488 volumes, as well as the Latin collection of 
3,980 volumes. These, with 4,088 other volumes added to classifi- 
cations already permanently arranged, make up the 13,556 volumes 
named above. There are various classifications intended ultimately 

| for this stack, which have not been arranged and cannot well be 
touched till the old part of the building is remodelled so as to receive 
the books now occupying the prospective places of these unarranged 

I books. 

Current accessions, which are ultimately intended for new classi- 

1 fications, are now kept separate in rough divisionary assortments. 
These now number over 12,000 titles, and all have accrued since the 
new classification began. They represent, I presume, about 20,000 
volumes. 

We are already beginning to feel at some points, in the temporary 
provision which is making for books, that the further extension of 
the stack eastward cannot long be put off. The remodelling of the 

I old portion of the building is at present more imperatively demanded. 
Plans for the satisfactory readjustment of its parts were made by 
Mr. Van Brunt during the early part of the year ; but the estimated 
cost of canying out the plan proved too great for the present re- 
sources of the Corporation. 

An examination of the records of the ordering department, care- 
fully kept b}* Mr. Tillinghast, the head of that department, indicates 
the rapid increase of its work. While our annual appropriation for 



132 THE LIBEARY. 

the purchase of books is far from as much again as it was four 3'ears 
ago, the amount in money-value of the orders submitted to this de- 
partment is nearly two and a half times as great now as then. This 
would be embarrassing except from the fact that about two thirds of 
any year's orders are not filled within that year ; and as these unfilled 
orders are carried forward successively to the new year's account, the 
amount of outstanding orders grows year by year, with a diminishing 
proportion of those ever likely to be filled. The mass will become in 
time so unwieldly as to invite some searching process for eliminating 
those titles whose continuance on our lists is useless. 

This department has now on hand in its several files about 9,000 
slips, one third of which (3,003) represent titles which our agents 
in this country and in Europe are seeking for; 1,422 constitute 
standing orders for serial publications (not proper periodicals) of 
which we have received the parts already published ; about 4,000 
are slips which for one reason or another have been cancelled, but 
are preserved for certain bibliographical records which they contain. 
The rest (nearly 2,000 in number) represent orders not yet acted 
on because undergoing revision, or lacking approval, or because they 
have been deferred for prudential reasons. 

In March, 1884, a change was made in the process of ordering. 
Previously orders for a given agent were suffered to accumulate to 
be despatched in large lots in succession to the different agents. 
The change referred to produced daily sendings or nearly so, and the 
orders went in smaller lots, many on postal cards. During the seven 
months which followed (March to September) nearly 4,100 titles 
were submitted to the department for verification. Of these over 
700 were found to be already in the Libran T ; so that in one case out 
of six the department is called upon to spend on the titles time which 
there was means of saving. During these seven months the orders 
absolutely sent were nearly 2,500 in number, or about 350 a month. 
At the end of September over 300 titles had accumulated within a 
short space, which needed more verification than could be given them 
before the statistical year ended. This makes about 3,500 titles 
which had been carefully examined in the seven months, while the 
other 600 titles liad passed into the deferred files or had been taken 
out, for one reason or another, of the regular channel. When it is 
considered that every regular order passes through twenty-two stages, 
devised as a protection against error, and when one of these stages 
involves an examination of from ten to seventeen alphabetical records, 
it can be judged how intricate and devious the work, necessaiy in a 
large library dealing with titles of all kinds in all languages, has be- 
come to insure the avoidance of errors. If there were no tricks or 



THE ORDERING DEPARTMENT. 133 

devices of authors and publishers to confound titles, no possible vari- 
ations in names and catalogue entries, and no lack of bibliographical 
knowledge in the slips submitted to the department, and if there was 
also unfailing ingenuity in our own officers to solve^ all questions, — 
there could be great simplifying of processes and but a few errors 
would occur ; but with frailties of all sorts on all sides the best work 
which we can do is but approximately accurate and is protective in 
the same degree. 

We received during the year from our foreign agents 28 boxes 
containing 5,505 volumes, and to these must be added a few books 
which came by mail. Dividing these importations among our agents, 
we received from Germany 38%, from England 29%, from France 
23%, from Scandinavia 6%, and from Italy 4%. This proportion, 
however, does not accurately represent the proportions of the lan- 
guages of those countries in our foreign purchases. We get through 
England many books in the Iberian, Eastern, and in other less- 
common languages, which serve to make English seem to be more 
in demand than French, while the truth is probably otherwise. The 
Classics come for the most part from German}', as do the Slavic 
books, so that the lead given to German is excessive as a record 
of books in that language, though as I believe German is still the 
language of the largest class of our accessions as they came fiom 
foreign agents. If we add books purchased in America, — only 355 
volumes for the year, — of which nearly all are in English, the books 
in our vernacular of all classes will probably, especially if gifts be 
added which are almost wholly in English, stand equal to those in 
German in number, if they do not exceed them. 

Not counting continuations of serials we sent to our foreign agents 
4,746 orders (works) during the year, and of these 3,931 were re- 
ceived by the agent in time to have the work ordered returned to us 
in the same year if procurable promptly. Of this 3,931 orders 2,307, 
or not two thirds, were answered during the }ear ; and if to these, 981 
works are added which came during this } T ear in response to older 
orders, there were 3,288 foreign orders filled during the year. The 
Scandinavian agent, Lynge of Copenhapen, filled 87% of the orders 
which he received, and this is the largest proportion of the seven 
regular agents in foreign countries. From Loescher, the Italian agent, 
we received nothing owing to the disappearance of a box which was 
despatched by him, and his proportion cannot be shown ; but Rein- 
wald, the French agent, sent only 24% of his orders, — a fault, I 
fear, common to all French agents, for the book trade does not seem to 
be organized in that country in a way to insure despatch in the filling 
of the kind of orders which we send. Friedlander (Berlin) in his 



134 



THE LIBRARY. 



restricted line sent 80% of his orders. Of Harrassowitz's (Leipzig) 
more general orders 64% came. Of Triibner's (London) 78% came. I 
Orders for the rarer and more difficult books of all kinds were sent to 
Quaritch (London), and 45% of his orders came. About one half of 
our orders were to our regular German agent Harrassowitz ; to Triib- 
ner less than a quarter ; and to the others in smaller proportions. As 
to the rapidity with which these orders were filled I find from Mr. Til- 
linghast's records that when they were filled at all within the year 
30% came within three months, 78% within six months, leaving 
22% which took from ten to twelve months. These figures pertain 
to the three principal foreign agents, — Trubner, Harrassowitz, and 
Eeinwald. 

The ordering department has also charge of the receiving of the 
gifts of miscellaneous books to the Library. They average a month 
about 75 volumes and something short of 1,000 pamphlets. At least 
a third of these titles prove duplicate, and about a quarter of the 
pamphlets which are retained prove of interest enough for one reason 
or another to be prepared at once for the shelves. 



When a library becomes large, and particularly if it has a character 
to sustain, and is under some necessity of securing for posterity the 
books which investigators deem to be cardinal — at a time when they 
can be purchased at less prices than they are likely to command in the 
future, — it watches with some concern the lifting of the commercial 
value of such books in spite of the depressing influence of business 
gloom. I do not remember when this has been observable in so great 
a degree as within the last } T ear or two. In England there have been 
such extraordinar}^ sales as the Hamilton, which produced £170,000 in 
a sale of forty days' continuance ; the Sunderland, with an aggregate 
not much short of £50,000 ; the Gosford of £9,000 ; and several other 
sales of significance, though of more restricted range, like the Laing 
and Collier libraries. In France sales particularly interesting to 
Americans have included such as the Dr. Court collection — a re- 
markable gathering of rarities ; and those of Pinart and the Abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. In America the library of the late Henry 
C. Murphy produced a competition to enhance prices which was only 
equalled at some other sales in which an artificial competition was 
devised to the detriment of the public, as in the case of the Brinley 
and Cooke collections. 

This scattering of important private libraries makes good the aph- 
orism of the late Thomas Watt, so long the useful mentor of the 
great library of the British Museum, that the use of private collections 
was to feed the great public ones. This definition was in large part 



PRIVATE LIBRARIES. 135 

intended to characterize the engulfing by the large public or semi- 
public libraries of private collections bequeathed or purchased for 
presentation, in order that the value attaching to their completeness 
might not be lost b} 7 " a public sale. Still, the uncontrolled dispersal 
of great and particularly of ancestral collections gathered through suc- 
cessive generations, is not a small advantage to public collections, 
particularly when with their increased resources they seek to supply 
the deficiencies left in their early years of small things. In the vicis- 
situdes of families, and in the decay of that taste which values books, 
some of the splendid ancestral libraries — of England particularly — 
fall occasionally into hands which can without a regret, and may with 
public advantage, dispose of them so that the interests of learning 
and of expectant libraries can be advanced. When several years ago 
it came in my way to inspect the great library at Blenheim, and the 
pungent odor from the cases told of the devastation which was going 
on, I felt that a sale which could be sure to place a large part of its 
rare and important books where scholars could use them, would not 
diminish the credit which belonged to its possessor and might benefit 
the world of letters. There seem to be, so far as I can learn, few 
such libraries forming in England now among the landed families, the 
most conspicuous new libraries being in the houses of the success- 
ful men of business, as is the case with the splendid collection formed 
by the late Henry Huth. I fear that the old collections of the county 
families are now not much increased. Such I think to be the case 
with the peerless collection at Althorpe, whose splendor is associated 
with the somewhat unworthy name of Dibdin. The Mudie S}^stem of 
book distribution throughout England has conduced largely to allay 
the thirst for acquisition in such quarters, while political employment 
weakens the taste for it in manj- of the present representatives of such 
families. 

Our American interest in these English private collections is a 
necessary one, since they are the sources from which, as our public 
libraries approach completion, we must to a considerable degree draw 
those books which are both scarce and important. Once passed into 
a public collection, a book is usually beyond future acquisition. Some 
of the greater libraries, like the British Museum, have ceased to make 
sale of duplicates, — having had some unfortunate experience in buying 
back at much increased cost books which they had sold as supposed 
duplicates. 

If prices for the class of books which I have mentioned are steadily 
increasing, it is doubtless due more to competition from the United 
States than to am r other cause and a leading American library is at 
present likely to find itself at foreign sales competing with its near 
neighbors. 



136 



THE HERBARIUM. 



The Library still continues to have charge of the issue of the weeklv 
Calendar of the University. 

JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian 
Gore Hall, Nov. 15, 1884. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Herbarium I have the honor to repoi 
upon the condition of this establishment as follows : — 

From the memoranda kept by the Curator it appears that during 
the academic year closing on the 31st of August, 1884, 10,090 sheets 
of specimens have been selected, poisoned, mounted, and distributee 
into their places in the Herbarium ; the greater part after more or less 
critical examination. Those belonging to the flora of North Ameri( 
have been principally received from our correspondents in varioi 
parts of the country. Those from the Old World were chiefly froi 
the Joad Collection, a generous present from the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, of which an account was given in my report of the precedii 
year. This collection has yielded to our Herbarium about 8,000 sheet 
of specimens. We have received, but not yet added to the Herbarium, 
the first four parts of the Flora JExsiccata of Austria and Hungary, 
edited by Professor Kerner, containing 800 species in beautifully 
prepared and critically determined species. For these, and for th( 
promise of the remaining portions of this very valuable distributioi 
we are indebted to the thoughtful intervention of Professor Goodak 
when in Vienna four years ago. 

The library has been increased by 160 volumes and 44 pamphlets 
(besides those which have been collected and bound into volumes 
during the year) , not counting parts of works belonging to uncom- 
pleted volumes. About half of these are gifts from the Director, of 
publications received by him from the authors. 

The publications of the past year which represent the botanical in- 
vestigations of the Director and of the Curator are partly published 
in two papers in the ' ' Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences," and in the second part of the " Synoptical Flora of 
North America" (comprising the vast order of Composite and some 
smaller orders) , which was issued in August last. The chances of the 
completion of this national work would be much increased if the pe- 
cuniary means of the Herbarium were even temporarily augmented, so 
that an assistant could be employed and the powers of the Curator, 
Mr. Watson, be more directly utilized to this end. But even for the 
Curator's small salary we are mainly indebted, for the past as well 
as for the preceding year, to a gift of $1000 from the Trustees of the 
Societjr for the Promotion of Agriculture. 

ASA GRAY, Director. 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN PLANTS. 137 

To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Botanic Garden I have the honor to sub- 
mit the following report for the academic year 1883-84 : — 

Owing to the favorable weather of the spring and summer it has 
been possible to complete most of the changes proposed in my last 
report. The orders of polypetalous plants formerly cultivated under 
disadvantage from* too great exposure, in the ground next to Ray- 
mond St., have been transferred to better soil near the main path, 
where they have become well established. The land left clear by their 
removal has been devoted to groups of shrubs and small trees which 
have long been needed for illustration. This addition to our small 
Fruticetum nearly completes the screen on the east and south sides 
of the Garden, and in the shelter of this shrubbery it has been found 
practicable to cultivate some herbaceous perennials in large quantities 
for class use. 

All the plots devoted to the illustration of the morphology of stems, 
brai ches, inflorescence, and types of flowers have attracted much at- 
tention from teachers and pupils of botany. The plants have thrived 
so well and the groups have been so useful to large numbers of per- 
sons, that some increase in the size of the plots for the next season is 
in contemplation. The climbing plants (illustrating Darwin's work 
on the subject) have been given more space than heretofore and have 
been extensively emplojecl for study by our own and b}^ other stu- 
dents. 

The large collection of vegetables illustrating variation in domesti- 
cated plants has been of considerable use in class-work and it seems 
best to widen the range of selection for the coming year. In compli- 
ance with requests from visitors a portion of this plot was given up to 
the numerous salad-plants which are well known abroad, but which 
have been but little grown in this country. It is thought that the 
number of these can be profitably increased next year. 

The nursery has yielded enough plants of good vigor to repair 
nearly all the losses caused by drought iu the last few years. With 
another summer as good as the last we hope to make good all the 
losses. The nursery has furnished also a large supply of plants for 
the improvements in the land behind the greenhouses. The changes 
in the open land have all been made at a cost slightly within the esti- 
mates. The herbaceous perennials have become well established and 
have already given an abundant supply of the best material for class 
illustration. The plants in these plots have been so selected and ar- 
ranged as to afford a large number of specimens of our native flowers 
during late autumn and early spring, the only season when the Garden 
out of doors can be made of use to our College students. To this new 



138 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 



land were carried all the plants from the old rockery under the maples 
which had become filled with the roots of trees and which it wa?l 
almost impossible to keep in order without much expense. B}' thhji 
change the expense of weeding has been reduced. 

In June we removed all our larger greenhouse plants, except a few 
delicate exotics, to the shaded space formerly occupied by the large I 
rockery. The gardener exhibited great skill in grouping the plant' ; 
so as to form a tropical garden of much beauty. The plants thus 
carried from the houses have appeared to suffer no injury from th( 
exposure and it is therefore proposed to make the same display 01 
them next year. 

The stone bank of the central pond was reset in Ma} T , and toe bot 
torn of the basin was so far repaired as to give us a good depth ol| 
water through the whole summer, and we were therefor able to culti- 
vate some water-plants which have not hitherto done well in ouij 
Garden. The larger pond has given considerable trouble during the 
year. The water supply from rainfall has been insufficient to give usf 
anything but a stagnant and unsightly marsh. It will be necessarj 
to make important changes in it within a short time, but it is not cleai 
that the funds of the Garden will permit us to engage in the work the 
coming year. 

To guard against the possibility of being cut off from the city sup- 
ply of water in time of scarcity, the driven well — spoken of in the 
last report — has been finished, a tank-house built, and an engine 
procured. The water is much harder than that furnished by the city 
and it will therefore be used for the present chiefly for the ponds anc 
the paths. 

The dwelling-houses in the Garden are old structures which annu- 
ally need considerable repairs to make them comfortable, and this 
expense must be borne by the income of our funds. During the past 
3'ear the expenses for this purpose have been more than ordinarily 
heav} T . On July 4th the roof of the gardener's house was set on fire 
by a cracker and much damage was done before the fire department 
could be summoned. It seemed, on the whole, best to take advan- 
tage of this undesired opportunity ; the whole roof was put in good 
order and other necessary changes were made. 

It was stated in the last report that our palm-house and its wings 
had become unsafe. The necessity for immediate rebuilding had be- 
come so urgent, that the Director would have been justified in drawing 
down the slender capital for purposes of reconstruction. But, hap- 
pity, this necessit}' was obviated by the timely generosity of friends 
of the Garden, who authorized the erection of a plain and substantial 
structure on the site of the old one. Bv the wish of the donors the 



GREENHOUSES. 139 

greenhouse architects, Messrs. Lord and Burnham of Irvington, 
>'. V., were engaged to perform the whole work. In planning the 
house, the advice of Mr. B. M. Watson, Jr., was sought and acted 
upon. 

The present house is somewhat larger and higher than the old one 
and is in all respects a satisfactory structure. 

Some changes have been made in the whole heating apparatus, so 
that all the boilers have been brought into one cellar, thus securing 
additional protection against fire and a more complete control of the 
heat in all the houses. 

The cost of the new greenhouses (exclusive of these changes in the 
heating apparatus and a few other modifications rendered necessary 
by rebuilding), is $4,800. This sum was given to the University 
by Messrs. H. H. Hunnewell, Frederic L. Ames, and B. P. Cheney. 
This gift has placed the University in possession of a strong, con- 
venient, and beautiful house adapted in every way to the needs of 
University instruction. 

The first greenhouse built at the Garden was a " lean-to" which 
was as long as the present palm-house and the east wing taken to- 
gether, and was nearly as wide as the wing itself. In 1842, when 
Professor Gray assumed charge, this house was in a fair state of 
preservation. In 1858 the Corporation received from the executors 
of the Dowse estate the sum of $2,000 for the construction of a con- 
servatory. To this sum was added by private gift the further amount 
of $685, the whole of which was expended for the palm-house and its 
wings. The rafters of the old house were used in building a useful 
greenhouse behind the first range. In 1872 a very important ad- 
dition was made by gift of H. H. Hunnewell, Esq. ; a well-planned 
house was built to connect the new lecture-room (also his gift) with 
the western wing of the palm-house. Changes by which the heating 
apparatus was much improved were made in 1876. Three years 
later a small house was built by money received from private gift, 
and the frame of the historic " lean-to" was replaced in that year 
by an entirely new set of rafters. When this change was made the 
old sashes were turned to account for the construction of hot-bed 
frames and the like, so that we are now using in the service of the 
Garden some of the materials which were first employed near the 
beginning of the present century. 

The following classes have been supplied with material for study 
from the Garden : Natural History 3 (general Botany, an elementary 
course), Natural History 5 (Biology), Natural History 7 (advanced 
Botany), and the Summer School. The Summer class in Botany was 
conducted by Professor William Trelease of the University of Wis- 



140 



THE BOTANIC GARDEN. 



cousin. The number of pupils in attendance was discouraging^! 
small and naturally suggests the propriety of discontinuing the enter I 
prise. If it were possible to utilize the Summer Course in any waj 
for undergraduate instruction in Botany during the only time wheril 
the Garden can be expected to furnish all needed material, the thought 
of giving it up would not be entertained. But experience has showr 
that no College students, after the year's work in Cambridge, are] 
willing to remain for six weeks more in the summer vacation. 

It is to be remembered that every plant in the Botanic Garden 
costs something, either in original outla}^ or in its care, and it is a 
difficult as well as a delicate problem to decide as to the number and; 
kinds to be cultivated. Since the Garden is to be maintained pri- , 
marily for purposes of instruction and research, and since the tei 
when students are in Cambridge for instruction and research extends, 
only from October to Jul}' (the months when plants must be culti- 
vated under glass and at great expense) , it is plain that heavy expen- 
ditures must be made during the winter and spring months, and that 
comparatively little of our income can remain for ordinary running 
expenses in summer. But, on the other hand, the Garden is an attrac- 
tive adjunct of the Universit}' and it must be maintained in a manner 
wortlrv of the University even in the months when no students are on 
the ground. Even with our present income it is possible to render the 
Garden attractive to students and teachers in our public schools, to 
amateurs interested in Botanj', and also to provide with materials for 
investigation the few students who find their waj" to it in the summer. 

A large part of the apparatus and supplies for the Laboratory of 
Vegetable Physiology has been already transferred to the convenient 
rooms in Harvard Hall assigned for the purpose by the Corporation, 
and work by advanced students has already been begun. To defray 
the necessary running expenses of the Laboratory, and to bring it 
up to a good degree of efficiency, considerable expenditures must be 
made. It is believed that by the exercise of great economy a part of 
these expenditures can be met for the present year by the income of 
the Botanic Department Fund. If the experiment of conducting our 
well-equipped Laboratory upon these slender means should prove a 
success, there can be no doubt that the friends Of the department will 
aid in placing it upon a secure and ample foundation. 

During the past year the Garden has conducted some advantage- 
ous exchanges and has been the recipient of many plants by gift. 
Among the latter should be mentioned the shrubs furnished by the 
Arnold Arboretum. 

At the close of the last College j^ear our head gardener, Mr. 
William Falconer, left the Garden in order to accept private employ- 



THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 141 

k 

ment. His place has been satisfactorily filled by Mr. W. A. Manda, 
young man of experience and great industry, who has heartily 
-operated with the Director in every way. 

GEORGE LINCOLN GOODALE, Director. 
November, 1884. 



c 
as 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — As Director of the Chemical Laboratory I have the honor 
to present the following report for the academic year 1883-84 : — 

During the past year Professor Jackson was absent in Europe and 
the courses of instruction in this department were distributed as fol- 
lows : the course of elementary lectures on general chemistry to the 
Freshman class was given by the Director ; the lectures in Chem- 
istry 1 (of the elective courses of the College) were also given by the 
Director, while the Laboratory work was under the charge of Mr. G. S. 
Hartshorn ; the course on Mineralogy (Chemistry 2) was given by Mr. 
|0. W. Huntington ; the course on qualitative analysis (Chemistry 3) 
was given hy Professor Hill, assisted by Mr. C. P. Worcester. The 
course on quantitative analysis (Chemistry 4) was given by the Di- 
rector, assisted b}~ Mr. O. W. Huntingtsn ; the course on organic 
chemistry (Chemistry 5) was given by Professor Hill ; the advanced 
■ourse in general chemistry (Chemistiy 6) was given by the Director, 
was also a course in crystallography and the optics of c^s- 
Itals (Chemistry 7) ; the advanced students in organic chemistry 
i (Chemistry 9) worked under the special direction of Professor Hill. 

The several laboratories were under the oversight of the following 
assistants. The qualitative laboratory under that of Mr. Worcester; 
ithe quantitative laboratory and the mineralogical laboratoiy, of Mr. 
Huntington ; the organic laboratory, of Mr. Garratt. 

The total number of students occupying desks was one hundred and 
ninety-one. They were distributed as follows : Seniors 29, Juniors 38, 
| Sophomores 75, Freshmen 2, Lawrence Scientific students 9, Special 
students 8, Graduate students 4, Summer course 25. These stu- 
dents were distributed among the several courses as follows : — 

Chemistry 1 100 

Chemistry 2 i . . . 16 

Chemistry 3 35 

Chemistry 4 15 

Chemistry 5 12 

Chemistry 6 7 

Chemistry 7 1 

Chemistry 9 2 

Summer course . _26 

214 



142 



THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 



This last aggregate is larger than the number of persons studying 
in the Laboratory, because twenty of these students took more thai | 
one course in Chemistry. 

As in previous 3-ears, the number of advanced students was incon 
siderable as compared with those who elected the elementary courses I 
Courses 1 and 2 comprise more than one half the students using th< 
Laboratory, while in Courses 5, 6, 7, and 9 there were only fburteei 
students, most of whom however elected more than one course 
These facts indicate an unsatisfactory condition, which demand, 1 
serious consideration. Large numbers are induced to elect the ele ! 
mentary courses by the interest which the presentation of the remark 
able results of chemical science in the lectures of the Freshman yeaj 
naturally commands ; but as these men come to the study of th( 
subject with no previous preparation or preliminary training, th( 
larger number find that they have no aptitude for experimental worl 
and only the few continue the study whose natural abilities enabk 
them to overcome the disadvantages under which the} r labor. The 
Director desires to call special attention to this point, because he is 
convinced that the best results of scientific culture cannot be obtaint 
in the Laboratory until the students bring to the University a prep- 
aration corresponding to that which is demanded by the literary 
departments. 

'The scientific results from the work at the Laboratory were less 
than usual during the past year in consequence of the diminution of 
the working force arising from several causes, although the zeal an( 
activity of those able to work was unabated. 

Professor Hill and Dr. Sanger have studied the bromine deriva- 
tives of pyromucic acid. They prepared two isomeric monobrom- 
pyromucic acids and studied in detail their properties and decom- 
position products. They have also shown that two isomeric dibrom- 
pyromucic acids are formed in the decomposition of the pyromucic 
tetrabromide with alkalies and the products formed by the oxidation of 
these acids enabled them to draw certain conclusions concerning the 
constitution of pyromucic acid itself. They have also made the tri- 
bromp3 r romucic acid. Professor Hill and Mr. Hartshorn prepared and 
studied certain bromine derivatives of furfuran, the most interesting 
of these being a dibromfurfuran and its tetrabromide. This dibrom- 
furfuran absorbs oxygen from the air at ordinary temperatures, and 
when shaken with air and water yields maleic acid. J. N. Garratt, 
under Professor Hill's direction, studied the chlorine derivatives of 
pyromucic acid and prepared a dichlorpyromucic acid, which how- 
ever he was unable to stud}^ more fully. 

Professor Hill studied somewhat more in detail the acid isomeric 



TIIERMO-CHEMICAL STUDIES. 143 

with monobrommaleic and monobromfumaric acids obtained by the 
action of alkalies upon mucobromic acid, but reached no definite con- 
elusions as to its structure. The results of these studies were an- 
nounced in the following papers : — 
Leber die Einwirkung von Alkalien auf die Mucobromsaure. Berichte d. 

deutsehen chem. Gesellschaft. H. B. Hill. XVII. 238. 
[Jeber Substituirte Brenzschleimsaure. Berichte d. deutsehen chem. Ge- 
sellschaft. H. B. Hill and C. R. Sanger. XVII. 1759. 

Mr. Young made a series of thermo-chemical studies of the alkaline 
illuminates, determining the heat of formation as well as the heat of 
solution of these unstable compounds with a view of defining the 
limits, if such exist, between the effects of solution and those of 
chemical combination. As some of his results were in conflict with 
data given by Thomsen, he undertook an exhaustive investigation of 
the reaction between solutions of alum and potassic hydrate, on which 
the most fundamental of these data was based. The work is not yet 
fully completed, but thus far the results indicate that this reaction is 
not simple and well defined as heretofore assumed. 

Under the oversight of the Director a large amount of work in 
tbei mo-chemistry was also accomplished by the students in Chemis- 
try 6. Thomsen's new work on the subject was followed as a guide 
and many of the results of this eminent investigator were verified ; 
and although the work did not furnish any results worthy of publica- 
tion, the experience gave the Director increased confidence in the 
value of this new direction of chemical study as a means of higher 
education in experimental science. 

Thirty years ago the writer suggested the idea that the combining 
proportions of elementary substances migftt vary within certain limits, 
basing the lrypothesis on an investigation of the composition of cer- 
tain crystalline compounds of zinc and antimony formed under deter- 
minate conditions. Within a short time this hypothesis has been 
revived and advocated by commanding authority ; and although the 
writer's subsequent experience has not tended to confirm his earlier 
views, yet in continuing his revision of the atomic weights he thought it 
desirable to study cases of weak chemical compounds where we should 
expect the variations of proportions, if an} 7 , to appear most marked. 
With this view he has studied the preparation of oxide of silver and 
its reduction by Irydrogen gas. The study has involved an extended 
investigation of the conditions under which oxide of silver and hydro- 
gen gas can be prepared in large quantities in a state of great purity 
and has led to the conclusions : first, that the proportion of oxygen 
and silver in this unstable oxide are absolutely definite ; and secondly, 
that in the reduction of oxide of silver by hydrogen gas a consider- 



144 



THE OBSERVATORY. 



able portion of the oxygen escapes without uniting with hydrogen 
These results not only indicate that the fundamental law of chemistrjj 
is absolutely definite, but they also point to a probable explanatior 
of the anomalies observed in the reduction of oxide of copper. 

Until the present year the Summer School in Chemistry has beer I 
from its beginning under the direction of Dr. C. P. Maber} r , who hasfj 
wisely adapted its courses to the needs of those seeking to learn the 
best methods of teaching experimental science. The appointment olj 
Dr. Mabery to a professorship in the Case School of Applied Science | 
in Cleveland, Ohio, was noticed in the last report, and the Summer 
School has thus lost his valuable services. During the last summer 
the School was carried on under the direction of Mr. A. V. E. Your 
and Mr. Charles P. Worcester, who fully maintained its previous 
standard of efficiency. Courses were given in experimental chem- 
istry and in both qualitative and quantitative analysis, and the' 
number of students was nearly as large as before. 

The equipment of the Laboratory has been considerably increased 
during the last year. A work-room has been furnished with ap- 
paratus for crushing and pulverizing, which has long been needed. 
The store-room has been removed to the upper story of the building, 
and on the third floor a private laboratory and a class-room have 
been fitted up for Professor Hill. On the lower floor a laboratory has 
also been opened for advanced students. 

JOSIAH P. COOKE, Director. 



TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE ^UNIVERSITY : 

Sir, — The termination of the annual subscription in aid of the 
Observatory and the partial replacement by the income of a recently 
subscribed endowment, were mentioned in nry last report. The 
amount of the temporary subscription somewhat exceeded the an- 
nual sum of $5,000. Moreover many of the contributors paid their 
subscriptions for the whole term of five years soon after making 
them, thus enlarging their donations by a considerable amount of 
interest since accumulated in the hands of the College Treasurer. 
The expiration of the subscription, therefore, did not immediately 
produce its full effect in diminishing the available resources of the 
Observatory. But the time has now arrived when a considerable 
restriction of scientific work appears to be inevitable. The recently 
subscribed endowment, indeed, will permit the continuance of some 
important researches undertaken during the past five years, which 
without it must now have been laid aside. Still the decrease during 



GIFTS. 145 

the last ten years in the rate of interest yielded by the funds of the 
University is so great that the income of the new endowment of 
150,000 does not fulty replace the diminution in that received from 
the older endowments. For the ten years ending in 1876 the average 
Irate of interest was 7.21 per cent, while for the last } T ear it has been 
only ">.17 per cent. The new endowment must therefore have been 
as much as $70,000 to prevent a reduction in the resources of the 
I Observatory. 

The liberal response of the friends of astronomy in this neighbor- 
hood to former appeals for assistance prevents a further demand upon 
their generosity at the present time. The alternative of a reduction 
in the expenses of the Observatory must therefore be accepted. It 
has accordingly been found necessary to dispense with the services of 
live assistants, and to make a corresponding decrease in expenditures 
bf other kinds. The retirement of so man}' assistants is particularly 
unfortunate since the special skill which they had gained in their de- 
partments of work by the experience of several years will now be lost 
ito the Observator} 7 . At the same time they will be subjected to the 
(inconvenience of adapting themselves to other pursuits, after having 
devoted much time and labor to the attainment of their present pro- 
ficiency in the principal kinds of observation and computation which 
are required b} T the researches here pursued. 

The place of one assistant has fortunately been supplied without 
expense to the Observatory by the courtesy of Commodore Walker of 
the U. S. Nav} r . He has ordered Ensign E. E. Hayden to dut} r at 
:his institution, to assist in the work carried on with the Meridian 
Circle. This arrangement, it is believed, will result in mutual benefit, 
4nce an opportunity of acquiring skill in advanced scientific work is 
thus afforded to an officer of the Navy, while the Observatory enjoys 
:he advantage of the excellent preparation for such work resulting 
pom his previous education and experience. 

It is to be hoped that the present restriction of the activity of the 
Jbservatory may prove to be only temporary, through the continued 
Addition of unsolicited donations. An important bequest of $5,000 
pas been received during the past } T ear from the estate of the late 
Fiiomas G. Appleton, who has thus given a further evidence of the 
uterest which he showed in the Observator} 7 during his life. The gift 
>f £25 received from Mr. T. W. Backhouse of Sunderland, England, 
jis a contribution to the subscribed endowment, also demands special 
icknowledgment, since it indicates that the interest taken in the wel- 
fare of this Observatory extends be} T ond its immediate vicinhrv. 

Many valuable additions have been made by astronomers in this 
•ountry and in Europe to the collection of astronomical photographs 






146 



THE OBSERVATORY, 



undertaken last 3' ear. It is hoped that before long a catalogue of the 
collection may be prepared. 



East Equatorial. 

Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. — Photometric observations of these 
eclipses have been continued upon the system adopted in 187d. In 
all, two hundred and eighty-four eclipses have now been observed, 
forty-seven since the end of October, 1883. 

Revision of Zone Observations. — The revision of the observations 
given in Volume VI. of the Annals of this Observatoiy, so far as they 
relate to stars between 50' and 60' north of the equator, has been 
completed during the last year. Some discrepancies in position and 
magnitude have been found which cannot readily be explained b> 
errors in the observations. The stars thus indicated as interesting 
objects for further examination will be reobserved. 

Standards of Stellar Magnitude. — The charts of twenty-foiu 
regions extending 4 m in right ascension and 10' in declination, andi 
following a series of twenty-four bright stars, as described in the last 
report, have now been completed. Valuable assistance in revising 
these charts has been received from Professor E. S. Holden, Director 
of the Washburn Observatoiy, Madison, Wisconsin. The telescoi 
of the Washburn Observatory has a slightly larger aperture than that 
at this Observatory. Similar assistance has been promised by some 
other observers with still larger telescopes. 

Meanwhile the selection of stars for standards of stellar magnitude 
has been made for many of the regions thus charted, and photometric 
measurements of their light have been begun. The brighter stars of 
each region are within the reach of the meridian photometer. To 
connect these with others of the tenth and eleventh magnitudes the 
modified wedge photometer is employed in nearly the same manner 
as in the revision of the zone observations already mentioned. Witl 
the addition of a simple shade-glass stars of the second magnitude 
may be observed with this wedge, and a further connection is thus 
made between its work and that of the meridian photometer. Th( 
stars in each region which are too faint for observation with th( 
wedge are compared with the bright star, preceding the region undei 
examination, hy means of Photometer I. described in Volume XI. of 
the Annals of the Observatory. Many of the stars observed with the 
wedge can also be measured with Photometer I. and all the results of 
the work may thus ultimately be referred to the meridian photometer. 
Additional photometric methods of measurement are under consider- 
ation and it is hoped that the magnitudes of the standard stars which 
are selected in each region will be determined with a satisfactory 
precision by these investigations. 



EAST EQUATORIAL. 147 

Comet*. — The observation of comets has been continued by Mr. 
Wendell with the object of furnishing material for the early com- 
putation of their orbits and of providing means for subsequent deter- 
minations of greater accuracj^. The observations therefore are 
chiefly confined to the few days following the discovery of a comet 
and to occasions when it is too faint to be observed with any but 
powerful telescopes. Comets 1884 I., II., and III. were respectively 
observed on 6, 6, and 7 nights. 

Spectra and Color of Stars. — Two separate series of investigations 
with regard to stellar spectra have been undertaken. It has been 
proposed to examine all stars known to have banded spectra with the 
object of approximately determining the positions of the bands in 
each upon a uniform S}*stem. This would afford means for a more 
definite and satisfactory classification of these spectra than at present 
exist. The method of measurement consists in comparing the spec- 
trum with a notched bar beside w r hich it is placed in the field of the 
telescope. The proper position of the spectrum is secured by a 
previous reference to an image of the star formed by light allowed to 
pass beside the prism which forms the spectrum. 

For the acquisition of more definite knowledge than, at present 
exists with regard to the color of stars, it has also been proposed to 
observe all stars to the fourth magnitude inclusive, and north of the 
thirtieth parallel of south declination, with an instrument designed 
for the purpose. The spectrum of the star to be observed is properly 
placed in the field by the same means as in the other instrument just 
described. It is then carried by its diurnal motion behind a series of 
narrow bars placed at right angles to the spectrum, small portions of 
which are accordingly visible in the narrow spaces between the bars. 
The successive extinction of these portions of the spectrum is ob- 
served in a wedge of tinted glass. In this manner the relative bright- 
| ness of definite parts of different spectra may be compared. 

The diminished resources of the Observatory will probably not 
permit the completion of these observations upon the original plan. 
The observations relating to the banded spectra must be somewhat 
restricted, and those relating to the color of the stars must be confined 
to stars of the* first three magnitudes. 

Revision of DM. Magnitudes. — The meridian photometer permits 
the observation of stars as faint as the magnitude 9.0 and even some- 
what fainter. But for the observation of the faintest stars in the 
Durchmusterung a more powerful instrument is preferable. The 
modified wedge photometer used with the East Equatorial in the 
revision of the zone observations alread3 r mentioned has accordingly 
been applied to the observation of the zone between 49° 50' and 50° 0' 






148 



THE OBSERVATORY. 



north of the equator. This zone is a part of that which has beer 
observed here since 1870 with the meridian circle, for the determine ' 
tion of the positions of stars. It is also under observation with the 
meridian photometer, which will accordingly furnish points of refer- 
ence for the observations made with the wedge photometer applied to 
the equatorial. Each star belonging to the zone and occurring in the 
Durchmusterung is twice observed, on different nights, and the inter- 
val between its transit over a bar and its disappearance in the wedge 
is recorded. This work can be carried on by a single observer,/ 
although some time is saved by the assistance of a recorder when it 
can be had. If the results prove satisfactory a more extensive revi- 
sion of the magnitudes given by the Durchmusterung will be under- 
taken in the same way. 

Meridian Circle. 

The observations of fundamental stars has been continued through- 
out the 3 T ear, but with less regularit}- than during former years 01 
account of the interruption caused by the reobservation of scattering 
zone stars of the Durchmusterung list. During the Autumn Equino: 
of 1883, 604 observations of fundamental stars were made. The Sun 
was observed on 34 days, and Polaris on 26 days. During the Spring 
Equinox of 1884 the Sun was observed on 33 days, .Polaris on 3( 
da}-s, and 261 observations of fundamental stars were obtained. At 
other times during the year the Sun was observed 46 times, Polaris 
59 times, and 301 observations of fundamental stars were made. 

At the completion of the reduction of the zone stars, observed be- 
tween 1870 and 1879, it was found that about 400 stars require 
further observation. In the greater number of cases it was foui 
that the wrong star had been observed when two or more were in tt 
same field of the telescope. In other cases it was considered ad- 
visable to settle doubtful cases, especially with regard to the minut 
of declination, by a reobservation. This revision of the zone observe 
tions was begun October 9, 1883,- and was completed August 9, 1884. 
1463 observations were made of zone stars, and 671 correspondit 
fundamental stars were observed in addition to the observatioi 
enumerated above. It will be seen from this summary that the tot 
number of observations made with the meridian circle is 3528, ai 
does not materially vary from the number in former years. 

The investigation of the errors of the east circle has occupied s ; 
large portion of the time since July of the present year. Eighteer 
determinations of the stars of the 30° divisions of the circle have 
been made with very satisfactory results. Two independent determi- 
nations of the 15° divisions have also been made. It is proposed tc 



MERIDIAN PHOTOMETER. 141) 

continue the investigation of the main subdivisions of the circle at 
regular intervals throughout the coming year. This work will for the 
most part occupy the entire time of Professor Rogers for several 
months, and will take the place of the ordinary observations. During 
the year considerable progress has been made in printing Volume XV. 
The catalogue of all the primary and secondary stars observed be- 
tween 1870 and 1879 for the epoch 1875.0, together with the mean 
values of the coordinates of each star for each year of observation is 
printed, and will shortly be issued in advance of the publication of 
the entire volume. The reductions of the zone stars observed during 
the past year are about one half completed. 

Meridian Photometer. 

During the past year 141 series of observations have been taken 
with the meridian photometer by Mr. Wendell and myself. The 
total number of separate settings is about 27,500, an increase of more 
than a third over the previous year. The accordance of the results 
also shows a decided improvement in the accuracy of the measures. 
The average deviation of the separate measures of the one hundred 
eircumpolar stars to which all the others are referred, amounted to 
about .18 of a magnitude with the first meridian photometer. The 
new instrument gives .15, .12 and .11 for the same quantity in the 
three years in which it has been emplo} T ed. Since the value of the 
observations is proportional to the squares of these quantities, it ap- 
pears that one of our present observations is nearly equal to three 
with the smaller instrument employed in the observations whieiP^Aave 
been published in Volume XIV. 

The principal investigation now carried on with the meridian pho- 
tometer consists in the measurement of stars the magnitude of which 
has been estimated at each of two observations during the recent 
revision of the Durchmusterung. The number of such stars is about 
eight thousand. Besides the two estimates just mentioned, two others 
were made in the original formation of the Durchmusterung, and 
additional estimates for many of the stars also occur in other cata- 
logues. The results obtained by the meridian photometer will there- 
fore have a wide application in the determination of scales of magni- 
tude. In connection with the photometric observations, estimates of 
magnitude are made by the observers. 

Another class of stars observed with the meridian photometer com- 
prises a part of those alread}' measured with the smaller instrument 
of the same kind employed here during the years 1879 to 1883. The 
stars selected for re measurement are those for which the magnitude 
resulting from any single observation differed more than 0.5 from the 



150 THE OBSERVATORY. 

mean of the other results. All stars belonging to Flamsteed's British 
Catalogue, and not already measured with the first meridian photo- 
meter, are likewise observed with the new intrument. These observa- 
tions will serve to complete the reduction of the comparisons made by 
Sir William Herschel. Other observations made with the meridian 
photometer relate to asteroids, to known and suspected variables, to 
stars with peculiar spectra, and to objects having an}- special charac- 
ters which may make it a matter of interest that their light should 
be measured. 

Almucantar. — It was mentioned in the last report that a small 
instrument bearing this name and devised by Mr. Chandler had been 
emploj-ed hy him with very satisfacto^ results in the observation of 
transits over given parallels of altitude. He accordingly decided upon 
the construction of an instrument of the same kind and sufficiently 
large for the execution of researches similar in importance and deli- 
cacy to those usually undertaken with the best meridian instruments. 
The telescope of this large almucantar is 4 inches in aperture and 
43.8 inches in focal length. The frame to which it is attached floats 
in a shallow trough of mercury, as in the previous instrument, and 
the entire apparatus revolves upon a vertical axis. Various difficul- 
ties which occurred in its construction were removed by the ingenuity 
of the inventor, and it was mounted during April, 1884. After about 
a month of experimental observations it was applied to the determina- 
tion of the corrections required by the right ascensions of certain fun- 
damental stars near the pole, and the declinations of others near the 
eqi!:^i It is hoped that the results of this investigation will estab- 
lish the value of the new principles of construction and of observation 
employed in thi? undertaking. Up to November 1, about 700 observa- 
tions of 190 stars had been made. Many additional observations 
have been made for other purposes ; in .particular, the determinations 
of clock error required hy the time service of the Observator} 7 have 
been frequently made by the almucantar. 

The results thus far secured seem to justify the expectations enter- 
tained of the capacity of the almucantar to determine with exactness 
the relative positions of stars widely separated from each other. It 
will be useful, accordingly, not only in observations of time and lati 
tude but also in various higher and more delicate problems of practical 
astrononry, for the solution of which it furnishes a new method. 

The probable error of a single observation of zenith distance is 
in general iO.'^, and of a single observation of right ascension 
•4- 0. s 025. Certain minor improvements in the apparatus, now under 
consideration, are expected to afford a still further increase in accuracy. 

The latitude of the dome of the Observatory given by three nights' 



MISCELLANEOUS. 151 

Lork with the new almucantar is 42° 22' 47. "58 ± 0."09, which closely 
igirees with the value 42° 22' 47. "63 found last year by the small 
ilmueantar. 

The character of the various results given above encourages the 
hope that the use of the almucantar may become a permanent part of 
the work done at this Observatoiy. Should the results prove no more 
accordant than those of other instruments, the fact that they are ob- 
tained b} T an entirely independent method would free them from many 
of the errors which are commonly repeated in meridian observations. 

Miscellaneous. 

Variable Stars. — The observation of telescopic variables was con- 
tinued by Mr. Chandler upon the same s3-stem as before until May, 
since which time he has been chiefly occupied with the almucantar. 
He obtained 1240 observations of the light of variable stars between 
November 1 and June 1 . He also made 952 observations of the color 
of 108 variable stars. The color was generally estimated upon an 
arbitrar} T scale, but many determinations were also made by the est- 
imation of magnitudes with and without the use of a blue shade glass. 
The results of this work seem to establish the law that the redness of 
variable stars increases with the length of their periods. 

Three observers of variable stars have acted in Cooperation with 
this Observatory during the past year : Mr. H. M. Parkhurst, of New 
[York, Rev. J. Hagen, S. J., of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, and 
| Mr. J. H. Eadie, of Bayonne, N. J. Mr. Parkhurst, in addition to 
estimates of relative brightness, has made many photometric observa- 
tions with apparatus devised by himself. He has recently undertaken 
the observation of the comparison stars employed for seA^eral variables 
by previous observers. Father Hagen, assisted by Messrs. Zwack 
and Zaiser, besides observing man}' known variables, has examined 
a number of bright stars suspected of variability. Mr. Eadie is act- 
ing in special cooperation with Mr. Parkhurst, in such a manner as 
to obtain the best results without needless repetition of work. The 
labors of all these gentlemen have secured a large amount of valuable 
knowledge. 

Under the title of " Recent Observations of Variable Stars " (Proc. 
Amer. Acad. XIX. 29G) information was brought together for the 
guidance of observers in that branch of astronomy with regard to 
the selection of objects for observation. The pamphlet contains a 
list of variable stars with indications of the work recently done in 
observing them, so that the relative importance of further observa- 
tions of any object in the list may be apparent. The publication 
will be continued annually if it appears to meet a want among astrono- 



152 THE OBSERVATORY. 

mers, and if they comply with the request expressed in the pamphlet! 
to forward to the Observatory such notices of their observations'oi] 
variable stars as ma} r serve to render the list more complete. 

Time Signals. — The new standard time referred to in my last 
report was introduced in November, 1883. At Greenwich midnight 
on the seventeenth of that month the signals according to the me- 
ridian of the Boston State House were discontinued ; at the next 
Greenwich noon signals over our lines were sent conforming to the 
minute and second of Greenwich mean time ; and at mean noon on 
the seventy-fifth meridian on Sunday the eighteenth the Boston time- 
ball was dropped according to Eastern time, five hours slow of Green- 
wich mean time. 

The office of the U. S. Signal Service having been moved on 
October 1, 1884, from the Equitable building to the Boston Post- 
Office and Sub-Treasury building, the time-ball has been dropped 
since that date by an officer detailed by the Police Commissioners. 
A new ball, however, is to be erected on the Post Office building to 
be dropped by the Signal Office. The public has been much indebted 
to the management of the Equitable Life Assurance Company for ac- 
commodating the ball upon the roof of their building and for furnish- 
ing and maintaining the apparatus used there. 

Several companies having recently begun operations for distributing 
time by electric clocks and by striking the hour and minute to the 
listener at a telephone, our time has been furnished them during their 
experimental steps either gratuitously or for a small compensation 
The Observatory however has not been responsible for ascertaining 
that the companies have furnished their patrons with time conforming 
to the standard. Negotiations are pending for a more intimate con 
nection of one or more of these enterprises with us. The Western 
Union Telegraph Co. have received our signals and have been per- 
mitted to transmit them automatically to others. The following list 
comprises those who receive our time for regulating their time-pieces 
and similar purposes, but who are not authorized to directly transmit 
or automatically repeat the signals to others : American Watch Co., 
C. W. Beals, Bigelow, Kennard & Co., Wm. Bond & Son, Boston 
Electric Time Co., C. A. W. Crosby, Equitable Life Assurance Co., 
E. Howard & Co., Kattelle Bros., J. V. Kettell & Co., Geo. H. 
Morrill & Co., Jas. Munroe & Son, N. E. Telegraph and Telephone 
Co., G. II. Richards, Jr., P. I. Electric Co., Shreve, Crump & Low, 
Alvah Skinner & Son, Ira P. Stere & Co., U. S. Signal Service Office. 
The large subscribers, on whom depends the existence of the time 
service as now conducted, are the city of Boston and all the steam 
railroads having stations in Boston, except the Boston & Concord 
R. R. and the Revere Beach R. R. 



1 



PUBLICATIONS. 153 

Telegraphic Announcements. — This department of the work of the 
Observatory is conducted by Mr. Ritchie upon the enlarged system 
mentioned in the last report. During the year announcements have 
been sent to thirty institutions or individuals in this country. The 
total number of messages is 246, of which 107 related'to asteroids, 
119 to comets, and 20 to the elements of cometary orbits. The num- 
ber of asteroids discovered was nine/ but with regard to one of these 
discoveries no telegraphic information was received from Europe. 
The number of comets discovered was four. All the notices were 
distributed \>y means of the Associated Press and the local news- 
papers, as well as by telegraph. The " Science Observer " also issued 
thirteen special circulars relating to the various announcements. 

Publications. 

The chief publication of the Observatory during the past year has 
been Volume XIV., Part I. of its Annals. This gives the principal 
results of the work done with the first meridian photometer. It in- 
cludes a catalogue of 4,260 stars with their magnitudes as determined 
by the photometer and according to the estimates or measures of 
seventeen other authorities. As uniformity in reference to catalogues 
is always desirable, it has been suggested in the volume that this cata- 
logue should be known as the "Harvard Photometr} T " and designated 
by the abbreviation H. P. Since it contains the approximate places 
for 1880 of all stars visible to the unaided eye in this latitude, as well 
as their magnitudes, its principal columns have been separately re- 
printed and offered for sale at the cost of publication, under the title 
of Harvard Photometry. The stereot3 T pe plates of this portion of the 
catalogue will be preserved, so that additional copies ma} r be printed 
at an}- time when they may be needed. 

The second part of Volume XIV. is now in course of publication. 
It contains the discussion of many special topics connected with the 
photometric observations recorded in the first part of the volume, and 
with the corresponding estimates or measures of other observers since 
the time of Ptolemy. 

The publications named below have appeared since the similar list 
in the last report was drawn up, either as official communications 
from the Observatory or as papers prepared by its officers indi- 
vidually : — 

Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard 
College. 

On the Possible Connection of the Comet Pons-Brooks with a Meteor- 
stream. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Astronomische Nachrichten, cvii. 275. 



154 THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 

Observations and Ephemeris of U Ophiuchi. By S. C. Chandler, Jr.j 
Id. cviii. 55. 

Observations of Meteors, 1883, December 6. By O. C. Wendell. Id.; 
cviii. 433. 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet 1884 II. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. 
cix. 223. 

On a Convenient Formula for Differential Refraction in Ring-micrometer 
Observations. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Id. ex. 177. 

On Gegenschein and other Zodiacal Phenomena. By Arthur Searle. Id. 
cix. 257. 

The Zodiacal Light. By Arthur Searle. Proc. Am. Acad, of Arts and 
Sciences, xix. 146. 

Researches upon the Photography of Planetary and Stellar Spectra. By 
the late Henry Draper. Results of Measurements by E. C. Pickering. Id. 
xix. 231. 

Sir William Herschers Observations of Variable Stars. By Edward C. 
Pickering. Id. xix. 269. The Observatory, vii. 256. 

Recent Observations of Variable Stars. By Edward C. Pickering. Proc. 
Am. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, xix. 296. 

The Phases of the Moon. By Arthur Searle. Id. xix. 310. 

Report of the Committee on Standard Time (Wolcott Gibbs, Francis A. 
Walker, and J. Rayner Edmands). Id. xix. 473. 

Photometric Observations of Neptune at the Harvard College Observa- | 
tory. By Edward C. Pickering. The Observatory, vii. 134. 

Light of Comparison Stars for Vesta. By Edward C. Pickering. Am. 
Journal of Science, exxviii. 17. 

Second Report of the Committee on Standards of Stellar Magnitudes. 
Edward C. Pickering, Chairman. Proc. Am. Assoc, for the Advancement 
of Science, 1883, p. 1. 

On the Regraduation of the Harvard College Meridian Circle in situ. 
By William A. Rogers. Sidereal Messenger for December, 1884. 

On a Practical Solution of the Perfect Screw Problem. By William A. 
Rogers. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
Vol. V. 

On some Suspected Variable Stars. By S. C. Chandler, Jr. Science 
Observer, IV. 60. 

Elements and Ephemeris of Comet 1884 II. (Barnard). By S. C. Chand- 
ler, Jr. Science Observer, IV. 80. 

EDWARD C. PICKERING, Director. 



To the President of the University : 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the con- 
dition and progress of the Arnold Arboretum during the year ending 
August 31, 1883: — 

Construction upon the roadways under direction of the Park De- 
partment of the City of Boston has been steadily continued during the 



PLANTATIONS AND NUSERIES WOODS. 155 

year (see Appendix C. joined to the Report of the Director of the 
Arnold Arboretum for 1882-83). The portion of the main driveway 
which is to connect the entrances to the Arboretum from Centre and 
South Streets is nearty completed, and will be opened to the public 
early next year. The progress made, however, in the construction of 
the road-bed and the grading of slopes has not justified the beginning, 
even, of any of the Arboretum plantations in connection with this 
drive. 

Plantations and Nurseries. 



i 



Permanent boundary plantations, varying in width from 25 to 90 
feet, and with a total length of 2,397 feet, have been made during the 
year. The ground occupied by these plantations, which are intended 
to protect the borders of the Arboretum, and cut off the view from the 
inside of buildings and other inharmonious objects, has been prepared 
In the most thorough and careful manner. Nearly 3,000 trees sup- 
plied from the nurseries were used in these plantations. In spite of 
this draft, however, the rapid accumulation of plants has made it 
necessary to still further increase the area of nursery ground during 
the year. Nursery plants have generally been transplanted again ; 
and all the collections are in a satisfactory condition. The card- 
catalogue of this collection now contains 3,425 entries, an increase 
during the year of 883 entries. 

The collection of shrubs is especially large and rich, containing 
many rare species here cultivated for the first time. It is proposed 
for the sake of convenience of management and comparison to arrange 
this collection during the coming year in systematic order, and in such 
a way as to allow its increase and the development of individuals until 
the completion of the roads by the city' on the east side of the grounds 
make it possible to permanently group the different shrubs upon a 
more picturesque and natural plan than can now be adopted. Two 
acres of ground have been drained, enriched, and prepared to receive 
this collection, which will be planted next spring in wide parallel 
beds. 

In connection with the construction of roads 328J squares of ex- 
cellent loam have been stacked at convenient points for future use in 
planting at a cost to the Arboretum of $498.08. 

Woods. 

A large part of the Arboretum woods is composed of old and nearly 
fully grown trees. They occupy the most rocky and less fertile por- 
tions of the ground, and begin everywhere to show the effects of early 
crowding and insufficient nourishment. Many of these trees are 



156 THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 

gradually dying at the top — a sure sign that they are in a precarious 
condition. 

It is desirable to keep permanently covered with natural woods all 
the rocky and sterile parts of the Arboretum unfit for collections, and 
a large portion of these old trees must be retained until a new growth 
is ready to replace them. A system of pruning the old trees in these 
permanent woods has been commenced during the year. This is slow j 
and expensive work which will occupy, for the whole Arboretum, 
several years and which can only be performed by skilled labor un- 
der careful direction. It is expected, however, that trees thus pruned 
will regain considerable vigor and insure by the seeds they will shed 
and the protection they will afford the ground and young trees al- 
ready growing among them the permanence of these woods. 

Interchange of Plants and Seeds. 

The interchange of plants and seeds with other botanical and hor- 
ticultural establishments has been continued during the year. There 
have been 4,518 plants (including cuttings and grafts) and 57 packets | 
of seeds distributed as follows : To all parts of the United States 
4,151 plants and 57 packets of seeds ; to Great Britain, 2 plants ; to 
Germany, 315 plants; to Chili, 50 plants. 

There have been received during the year 6,525 plants (including 
cuttings and grafts) and 139 packets of seeds from 37 donors. 

Herbarium and Museum. 

Routine work in the Herbarium and Museum has been continued 
during the year under the immediate direction of Mr. Faxon, who has 
also made satisfactor}- progress upon the series of botanical drawings 
intended to illustrate the new Sylva of North America. 

There have been added to the Herbarium 798 sheets of dried plants ; 
the Museum has been enriched with important collections of woods, 
cones, and other fruits, photographs of trees, &c. 

The Director, as President of a Commission appointed by the Comp- 
troller of the State of New York to examine its forests and recom- 
mend a scheme of legislation for their preservation and management, 
has inaugurated during the past summer a preliminary survey of the 
forests of the Adirondack region with reference to their industrial and 
commercial relations to the rest of the State and their influence upon 
the flow of streams and water supply. 

C. S. SARGENT, Director. 



THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 157 

To the President and Fellows of Harvard College : — 

Dining the past year we have had the advantage of occupying onr 
new quarters, and it is with no little satisfaction that I am able to 
report the complete success of the new organization. Our present 
facilities for the instruction of undergraduates, of advanced students, 
and of specialists, enable us to accomplish all that we expected. The 
additional room now at our command for our Librarj T has greatly 
facilitated its care and final arrangement ; the reading room is far in 
advance of our wants. The Museum is now so fully equipped that 
its business of caring for the collections and giving instruction in 
Natural History can be carried on to great advantage. With ordi- 
nary foresight, we shall never hereafter fall back into the confusion 
which was almost a necessary preliminary to the present order. The 
orderly condition of the different departments now depends entirety 
upon the heads of the various branches and upon-the instructors. 

The old roof has been changed to correspond to that of the later 
additions, and the rooms thus obtained will be used for the storage 
of the Vertebrate Fossils, the dry Mollusca, and the Crustacea. This 
arrangement will give excellent working-rooms for these three depart- 
ments, and bring the collection of Vertebrate Fossils into close con- 
nection with that of Vertebrate Skeletons, which is stored in the 
adjoining rooms. 

The following annual courses of instruction have been given at the 
Museum : — 

A course in Biology, by Professors Farlow and Faxon. 

A course in Cryptogamic Botany, by Professor Farlow. 

An advanced course in Zoology, by Professor Faxon. 

General Lectures were given by Dr. Mark, who also took charge of 
the new Embiyological Laboratory, while Professor Faxon took charge 
of the general Biological Laboratory, assisted by Mr. J. H. Perkins. 

Professor Shaler and Mr. Davis gave the usual courses in Geology, 
Palaeontology, and Plrysical Geography. 

Professor J. D. Whitney gave, as heretofore, a course in Economic 
Geology, Mr. Wadsworth assisting in a part of the course. 

The publications embodying original work carried on in the differ- 
ent departments, or based upon Museum materials, will be found 
enumerated in the special Reports which are printed in a separate 
pamphlet. 

During the past summer the following persons pursued their studies 
at my Newport Laboratory : — 

Mr. Fewkes, one of the Museum Assistants, devoted his time prin- 
cipally to the Embiyology of Siphonophores. 

Mrs. Whitman made good progress with her studies of the early 
stages of the Crab. 



158 



THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



Professor C. 0. Whitman assisted me in the continuation of n 
investigation upon the early stages of Fishes, commenced the pre\] 
ous year. A perliminary notice of this work has been published 
"On the Development of some Pelagic Fish Eggs, by Alexandr 
Agassiz and C. O. Whitman." (Proc. Am. Acad., XX., pp. 5:1 
1 pi., August, 1884.) 

The Museum publications issued during the last Academic yei| 
consist of seven numbers of the Bulletin, and two numbers and 
volumes of the Memoirs ; the two complete volumes, on the Wat 
Birds of North America, are in continuation of the publications (i 
the California Geological Survey, in connection with Prof. J. I 
Whitney. 

About six hundred volumes have been added to the Library of 
Museum during the past year. 

Small collections, of Vertebrate Fossils have been received froi 
Wyoming and Kansas, but they have not yet been examined carefull 
enough to enable me to report upon their value. 

A collection of alcoholic Invertebrates, destined for the Atlant 
Exhibition Rooms, has been purchased from the Naples Zoologi< 
Station. It is in a remarkably perfect state of preservation. 

We have also received from Professor Lesquereux the collection 
fossil plants collected bj^ Professor Lakes, principally in Coloradc 
which had been sent to him for study. 

Among other notewortlry acquisitions, I may mention a fine Pterc 
dactyle from Solenhofen. 

The collection of North American Coleoptera bequeathed to tl 
Museum hy the late Dr. John L. Le Conte, has been sent to us 
Mrs. Le Conte. Dr. George H. Horn, the life-long friend of Dr. 
Conte, was kind enough to superintend the packing and forwardh 
of this invaluable addition to our Entomological Department, 
himself accompanied the collection to Cambridge, and we owe to 
interest the excellent condition in which it has reached us. 

The Europeo-Siberian Room is nearly ready for exhibition, ai 
during the coming year the greater part of the faunal collection 
the African Room will probably be sent to the Museum by Pre 
H. A. Ward. The exhibition cases of the Atlantic Room have mac 
good progress during the past 3^ear. It will be impossible to do any- 
thing towards the arrangement of the Palseontological Exhibition 
Rooms until the whole of our Palseontological collections have been 
unpacked and passed through a preliminary examination. 

The Museum collections have, during the past year, supplied ma- 
terials to several specialists. A large part of the Blake collections 
are still in the hands of the naturalists, who have kindly undertaken 



THE MUSEUM OE COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 159 

the preparation of the Zoological Reports. As fast as the collections 
are returned, the t y have been distributed to those museums in this 
country and in Europe which give special attention to the study of 
Marine Faunae. The Echini and Ophiurans, and a part of the Crus- 
tacea, have been thus distributed. 

In the light of past experience, I look with no small concern to the 
future growth of the Museum. As collections accumulate, additional 
room will be required for their storage, and new assistants for their 
care. The resources of the institution will surely soon be entirely 
inadequate for the maintenance of the Museum on the scale of its 
present growth, if the policy thus far pursued is continued. The 
future welfare of the establishment is secured by its permanent con- 
nection with the University. But its funds naturally share the cau- 
tious management of the College, and the present Director has seen 
the income of the Museum gradually diminish from $35,000 a } T ear to 
about $25,000. Meanwhile the salaries of the assistants and other 
employees have, with the greatest difficulty, been kept at about the 
same total as when our income was nearly one third larger. It is 
not to be expected that the public will take more than a very limited 
interest in the Museum, especially as in this vicinity there are no less 
than three Natural History establishments, all having very similar 
aims. With the present tendency to specialization, it seems im- 
practicable to carry on an immense Natural History collection with- 
out a staff of specialists far greater in number than any institution 
not backed by government or by an immense endowment can ever 
hope to support. The present organization of the Museum is based 
upon the assumption that its resources will keep pace with the in- 
creased specialization of its different branches, and the attempt has 
been made to combine the work of assistants and that of original 
investigation. That officers' positions cannot be maintained except 
in connection with the permanently endowed Professorships of the 
University, is becoming self-evident. No University, even if it be a 
great centre for Natural History, can maintain more than a limited 
number of endowed chairs ; and if the professional duties of their 
incumbents be not too arduous, a good amount of original work may 
be expected of them. Still, with the present tendency of science, 
original work cannot be based mainly upon the collections of a great 
museum. The geologist and the zoologist must both supplement 
their work in the field. With the requirements of to-day, collections 
can only supply materials for investigations of limited scope ; and 
while undoubtedly many most interesting problems require large col- 
lections for their solution, the more important biological problems of 
the day require materials prepared for special purposes in the labora- 



160 



THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



tories of the Universities. It is there that the influence of the teach- 
ers will be felt in the direction given to the work of their moreil 
advanced students, and it should be the province of a University to! 
foster this work by granting special facilities for it, as well as for the] 
publication of these investigations. This the Museum is now pre- 
pared to do. 

Laboratories for Biology and Geologjr — in their most extended 
sense — have been erected for the University. They have now been! 
occupied for a year, and their capacity for work depends entirely 
upon the means for their equipment placed at the disposal of the 
various Professors connected with the Natural History departments, 
and upon the time they may have left from their professional duties 
for original research. There is no department of the University 
which depends so little for its success upon the resources of the Col- 
lege, as the Natural History Department connected with the Museum. 
Beyond the salaries of the Professors and Instructors, there is practi- 
cally nothing which is not provided for by the Museum in the way of 
work-rooms and laboratories. Their care, their heating, and the sup- 
ply of the materials for the students, do not fall upon the University ; 
by far the greater part of the current publications in Natural History 
have for some time past been purchased by the Museum, and the 
publications issued under the auspices of the Museum provide the 
means for making known any investigation carried on in its 
laboratories. 

The museum assistant in charge of a special department must natu- 
rally, if the purpose for which large collections are brought together 
is carried out, spend the greater part of his time in preparing them 
for the specialist who is at some future time to avail himself of the 
treasures brought together for his benefit. There is, therefore, the 
same danger that an eminent specialist, after his appointment to 
the curatorship of a department of a great museum, will find his 
museum duties so arduous as to prevent him, as his colleague in the 
professorial chair has been prevented, by official work, from doing 
any original work. 

The main point for us and other directors of museums connected 
with educational institutions is to settle upon a policy which will in 
the end best promote the growth of a school of Natural History, 
while fostering original research in the occupants of the professorial 
chairs and in the assistants of the various departments. 

Since the foundation of this Museum the conditions for scientific 
research in this country have greatly changed. The general govern- 
ment has now undertaken, in connection with the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Surve}^, with the Geological Survey, with the 



THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 161 

National Museum, and with the United States Fish Commission, 
an amount of scientific investigation in various directions which 
makes it a mere waste of time for those not officially connected 
with these government establishments to undertake certain lines 
of work. Recognizing this, it becomes at once apparent that it 
is a mere waste of time and money for us to continue accumula- 
tions of collections which will most certainly be duplicated at Wash- 
ington or New York ; and that, be}^ond a very limited appeal to the 
public in the collections placed on exhibition, we should expend our 
resources only in the direction of fostering such original work as may 
most efficiently be conducted by the Professors holding endowed 
(.•hairs in our University. This can be best accomplished by a com- 
paratively small museum staff, provided the assistants necessary for 
laboratory instruction are supplied to the teachers, and they find time 
from their teaching to use the materials of this institution as far as it 
is available. The function of a museum is without doubt to use its 
resources in the purchase and care of special collections, made by 
their owners at the cost of a great expenditure of time and money. 
Some of these collections, illustrating the past history of a district, 
frequently represent the work of a whole lifetime devoted by some 
specialist to a limited field, in which his collections have been brought 
to a great state of perfection ; and in such collections the Museum is 
very rich in certain directions. I would name only the Dyer, Taylor, 
Gebhard, Day, and Walcott collections, among the American ; and 
the Bronn, Shary, Konick, and Schultz, for the other side. The 
owners of such collections are anxious that all their work should not 
be scattered to the winds, and that the materials they have brought 
together should be kept as historical documents. 

In the care of geological and palseontological collections the diffi- 
culties of preserving them are inconsiderable, the cost is not exces- 
sive, and there are not many troublesome questions likely to arise 
bej-ond that of space. When, however, we come to zoological mate- 
rials, the difficulties are great. As far as the collections placed on 
exhibition are concerned, their deterioration is a mere question of 
time. The director of any museum must constantly replace his Birds 
and Mammals, renew the alcohol of his Fishes, Reptiles, and alco- 
holic Invertebrates, and renew all his Insects after a while. If the 
number of rooms devoted to the public is not too large, the expense 
seems warranted, if we are to judge of the interest taken as shown 
by the constantly increasing number of visitors on week-days as well 
as Sundays. It is when we come to the collections of a perishable 
nature stored in the work-rooms devoted to special investigations 
that the cost of maintaining them may stagger the most enthusiastic 
collector. 



162 THE MUSEUM OF COMPATATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

Do the results justify such large expenditures? While we rec< 
nize the importance of keeping intact the historical collections, i 
take it for granted -that this function is totally distinct from I 
other function, which museums are supposed to perform, of supply 
special investigators materials for their study, it seems to me, no^ 
daj-s, unreasonable to expect this of any museum. No natura 
who wishes to stud}' fishes, except as regards their synonymy, ^ 
expect to find in any establishment, no matter what its resources n 
be, the necessary materials. He will be compelled to travel, to c 
lect in the various fish-markets of the world, and to study his ma 
rial on the spot. With the present facilities and the cost of tra\ 
it would be far cheaper for an institution to supply the specia".< 
with the necessary funds for such an investigation, if it be one 
value and interest, than to go on for 3^ears spending in salaries 
assistants, care of collections, interest on the cost of buildings, a 
so forth, sums of mone}' which, if distributed to their ultimate < 
ject, would astonish the least prudent manager. Such accumu 
tions of historical material are far too costly. The same sums sp(; 
in a different direction, in promoting original investigations in 1| 
field or in the laboratory, and in providing means for the publicati 
of such original research, would do far more towards the promoti 
of natural history than our past methods of expending our resource 

There are stored in the cellars of the Museum immense collectic 
of Fishes and Reptiles which have never been of use to any one i 
cept the assistants in charge of them. A very large part of I 
material, collected and maintained at great expense, ceases aftei 
time to be of value for scientific purposes, and eveiy }'ear we i 
obliged to throw away as absolutely worthless a large number 
specimens which cannot even be used up as students' material. 
of the rooms in the cellar is filled with alcoholic Birds and Mamma 
and with Vertebrate embryos, material which has .become in a gn 
degree useless for the purpose for which it was collected. The sa^ 
may be said of the large alcoholic collections of Mollusks and I 
Crustacea. The latter, however, while perhaps not available ll 
stucty, can hardly be kept in~a condition fit for examination in a 
other waj*. A large part of the collection of Radiates is likewise us 
less for any nice systematic work. The expense and care required 1 
the maintenance of a large collection of Insects is well known ; t 
incessant care of Dr. Hagen and his Assistant has alone kept oi 
from going to ruin, as so many other entomological collections ha 
done, from their mere size. But its increase involves now an e 
pencliture the Museum can ill afford . Of course, with ample fun 
and a large number of aids, there is no limit to the growth of 






THE MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 163 

entomological department. Our ornithological collection and that of 

mammal skins can be kept within a reasonable expenditure from the 

method of storage adopted. The osteological collection, also, when 

once properly prepared, need not be a constant source of expense. 

The cost of maintaining such a collection as is now stored in the 

Museum has been for the past eight years at the rate of $24,000 a 

'—year, of which nearly $18,000 is for salaries. This is merely for the 

^ care and maintenance of the collection, and does not include the cost 

placing any part of it on exhibition, or the cost of keeping those 

ins open to the public. 

For these reasons I have gone somewhat into detail to point out 

Wl what seems to me to be the true policy of the institution for the 

* future, — to reduce its expenditures and staff to the strict minimum 

npatible with the care of collections, and to expend its resources 

supplying the material, books, and specimens needed for original 

I estimation by the Professors and students of Natural History in 

Universitj', to whom the Museum should furnish in addition, in 

: t or in whole, the means of publication in its Bulletins and Me- 

>irs. While we have no cause to regret the publications which have 

fii issued in connection with the Museum, yet they do not repre- 

it sufficiently the original work done by the teaching staff of the 

to University and their students. In addition, it should grant other 

cialists, properly qualified, all the facilities they may desire for the 

111 study of the Museum collections, consistent with their safety. 

1 That this prospective analysis is not out of place will appear from 

• fact that, whenever the original plan of the Museum building is car- 

m tied out, it does not provide for more room than is likely to be needed 

ita by the various laboratories of the special departments of Natural 

1 History established hereafter, together with such collections as, even 

n with the most rigorous sifting, each will accumulate. The natural 

>wth of comparative anatomy, ethnology, and archaeology, and of 

geological, geographical, and other biological departments, which 

d will naturally centre in the Natural History square of the University, 

will tax its capacity to the utmost, if they have in the future a growth 

til commensurate with that of these departments up to the present 

i iime. 

ALEXANDER AGASSIZ. 

u: Cambridge, October 1, 1884. 



APPENDIX. 



RESIGNATIONS. 

James Bradley Thayer, Royall Professor of Law, October 8, 1883. 
John Chipman Gray, Story Professor of Law, November 12, 1883. 
Francis H. Williams, Instructor in Ophthalmology, November 26, 1883. 
Edward Cornelius Briggs, Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 

November 26, 1883. 
Joseph Henry Thayer, Fellow of the Corporation, May 21, 1883. 
Herbert Morison Clarke, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Louis May Greeley, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Edward South worth Hawes, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Julian Clifford Jaynes, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Charles Austin Hobbs, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Joseph Henry Beale, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
John Downer Pennock, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Daniel Appleton White, Proctor, August 31, 1884. 
Sereno Watson, Instructor in Phytography, September 23, 1884. 



II. 

APPOINTMENTS. 
[UNLIMITED, OR FOR TERMS LONGER THAN ONE YEAR.] 

William Crowninshield Endicott, to be Fellow of the Corporation, May 28, 

1884. 



James Bradley Thayer, to be Professor of Law, October 8, 1883. 

John Chipman Gray, to be Royall Professor of Law, November 12, 1883. 

Edward Laurens Mark, to be Assistant Professor of Zoology for five years 
from September 1, 1883, November 12, 1883. 

William Fiske Whitney, to be Secretary of the Medical Faculty, Novem- 
ber 26, 1883. 

John Williams White, to be Professor of Greek, February 11, 1884. 

William Barker Hills, to be Assistant Professor of Chemistry for five years 
from September 1, 1884, February 11, 1884. 

Edward Stevens Sheldon, to be Assistant Professor of Romance Philology 
for five years from September 1, 1884, April 14, 1884. 

Joseph Henry Thayer, to be Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism 
and Interpretation, April 28, 1884. 



166 APPENDIX. 



Dudley Allen Sargent, to be Assistant Professor of Physical Training am 

Director of the Hemenway Gymnasium for five years from September 1 

1884, April 28, 1884. 
Robert Thaxter Edes, to be Jackson Professor of Clinical Medicine, April 28 

1884. 
Joseph Lovering, to be Director of the Jefferson Physical Laboratory, May 5 

1884. 
Edward Newton Whittier, to be Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine fo 

five years from September 1, 1884, May 21, 1884. 
Frank Winthrop Draper, to be Assistant Professor of Legal Medicine for fiv< 

years from September 1, 1884, May 21, 1884. 
Henry Barker Hill, to be Professor of Chemistry, September 23, 1884. 



Henry Preble to be Tutor in Greek and Latin for three years from Septem 
ber 1, 1884, September 23, 1884. 



Edward Cornelius Briggs, to be Instructor in Dental Materia Medica for 
three years from September 1, 1884, April 28, 1884. 

Charles Wilson, to be Instructor in Orthodontia for three years from Septem- 
ber 1, 1884, April 28, 1884. 

George Eranklin Grant, to be Instructor in Treatment for Cleft Palate and 
Cognate Diseases for three years from September 1, 1884, April 28, 1884. 



Andrew Woods, to be Proctor, October 8, 1883. 
Louis May Greeley, to be Proctor, October, 8, 1883. 
Daniel Appleton White, to be Proctor, October 8, 1883. 
Charles Armstrong Snow, to be Proctor, October 31, 1883. 
Joseph Henry Beale, to be Proctor, October 31, 1883. 
Arthur Prescott Lothrop, to be Proctor, February 11, 1884. 
Luther Atwood, to be Proctor, April 14, 1884. 
Jacob Cansler Patton, to be Proctor, September 23, 1884. 

[FOR ONE YEAR OR LESS.] 
For 1S83-84. 

Guillaume Alexandre Louis Scribner, to be Instructor in French, Octo- 
ber 8, 1883. 

Henry Parker Quixcy, to be Instructor in Histology, October 8, 1883. 

Charles Sedgwick Minot, to be Instructor in Histology and Embryology, 
October 8, 1883. 

William Branford Shubrick Clymer, to be Instructor in English and Presi- 
dent's Secretary, November 12, 1883. 

Samuel Holmes Durgin, to be Instructor on Hygiene, November 12, 1883. 

Francis Hlnry Williams, to be Instructor in Ophthalmology, November 12, 
18S3. 



APPENDIX. 167 

Edward Cornelius Briggs, to be Instructor in Materia Medica, November 12, 
1883. 

Eui:\ Francis Whitman, to be Clinical Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 
November 12, 1883. 

Charles Joseph Hubbard, to be Secretary, November 12, 1883. 

Clarence Alonzo Cheever, to be Demonstrator of Anatomy, November 26, 
1883. 

Charles Herbert Williams, to be Instructor in Ophthalmology, Novem- 
ber 2G, 1883. 

Henry Barton Jacobs, to be Assistant in Botany, October 8, 1883. 
James Newton Garratt, to be Assistant in Organic Chemistry, October 31, 1883. 
Maurice Howe Richardson, to be Assistant in Surgery, December 10, 1883. 
Charles Montraville Green, to be Assistant in Obstetrics, January 14, 1884. 

For 1884-85. ' 

Josiah Royce, to be Instructor in Philosophy and Forensics, March 31, 1884. 

Adolphe Cohn, to be Instructor in French, March 31, 1884. 

Harold Whiting, to be Instructor in Physics, March 31, 1884. 
I Frank William Taussig, to be Instructor in Political Economy, March 31, 1884. 

Albert Bushnell Hart, to be Instructor in American History, March 31, 1884. 
j Henry Dixon Jones, to be Instructor in Elocution, March 31, 1884. . 
; Edward Channing, to be Instructor in History, March 31, 1884. 

Kuno Francke, to be Instructor in German, April 14, 1884. 

Arthur Richmond Marsh, to be Lecturer on Ancient Art, April 14, 1884. 
j Oliver Whipple Huntington, to be Instructor in Mineralogy, April 14, 1884. 

Henry Edwards Scott, to be Instructor in History, June 9, 1884. 
(Charles Joseph Hubbard, to be Secretary, September 23, 1884. 
I Robert E. Thompson, to be Lecturer on Protective Tariffs, September 23, 1884. 

Edwin L. Godkin, to be Lecturer on Free Trade, September 23, 1884. 



Lewis Edwards Gates, to be Assistant in Forensics, May 5, 1884. 
Henry Barton Jacobs, to be Assistant in Botany, May 5, 1884. 
Robert Tracy Jackson, to be Assistant in Geology, May 5, 1884. 
William Whiting Nolen, to be Assistant in Biology, May 5, 1884. 
Samuel Van Eps Young, to be Assistant in Chemistry, June 16, 1884. 



Joseph Weatherhead Warren, to be Instructor in Oral Pathology and 

Anatomy, April 28, 1884. 
John Homans, to be Clinical Instructor in Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian 

Tumors, June 16, 1884. 
Francis Boott Greenough, to be Clinical Instructor in Syphilis, June 16, 

1884. 
Oliver Fairfield Wadsworth, to be Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmoscopy, 

June 16, 1884. 
Samuel Gilbert Webber, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of the Nervous 

System, June 16, 1884. 
Clarence John Blake, to be Clinical Instructor in Otology, June 16, 1884. 



168 APPENDIX. 

John Orne Green, to be Clinical Instructor in Otology, June 16, 1884. 
James Read Chadwick, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Women. 

June 16, 1884. 
Abner Post, to be Clinical Instructor in Syphilis, June 16, 1884. 
James Jackson Putnam, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of the Nervous! 

System, June 16, 1884. 
Joseph Pearson Oliver, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Children.: 

June 16, 1884. 
Thomas Morgan Rotch, to be Clinical Instructor in Diseases of Children. 

June 16, 1884. 
Theodore Willis Fisher, to be Clinical Instructor in Mental Diseases. 

June 16, 1884. 
Elbridge Gerry Cutler, to be Clinical Instructor in Auscultation, June 16. 

1884. 
William Whitworth Gannet, to be Clinical Instructor in Auscultation, 

June 16, 1884. • 
Samuel Holmes Durgin, to be Lecturer on Hygiene, June 16, 1884. 
Charles Sedgwick Minot, to be Instructor in Histology and Embryology, 

June 16, 1884. 
Henry Parker Quincy, to be Instructor in Histology, June 16, 1884. 
Frederick Cheever Shattuck, to be Instructor in the Theory and Practice of 

Physic, June 16, 1884. 
Francis. Henry Williams, to be Instructor in Materia Medica, June 23, 1884. 
Joseph Weatherhead Warren, to be Instructor in Experimental Thera- 
peutics, June 23, 1884. 
Franklin Dexter, to be Instructor in Histology, June 23, 1884. 



Joseph Ellsworth Waitt, to be Demonstrator in Mechanical and Operative 

Dentistry, April 28, 1884. 
Horatio Cook Merriam, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, May 21, 

1884. 
Eben Francis Whitman, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 21, 1884. 
Allston Gray Bouve, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, May 21, 

1884. 
Frank Perrin, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, May 21, 1884. 
Daniel Frank Whitten, to be Clinical Instructor in the Dental School, 

May 21, 1884. 






Edward Hickling Bradford, to be Assistant in Clinical Surgery, June 16, 

1884. 
Charles Montraville Green, to be Assistant in Obstetrics, June 16, 1884. 
Francis Henry Davenport, to be Assistant in Gynaecology, June 16, 1884. 
George Minot Garland, to be Assistant in Clinical Medicine, June 16, 1884. 
William Whitworth Gannett, to be Assistant in Pathological Anatomy, 

June 16, 1884. 
William Carroll Emerson, to be Assistant in Chemistry, June 16, 1884. 
Samuel Jason Mixter, to be Assistant in Anatomy, June 16, 1884. 
Charles Harrington, to be Assistant in Chemistry, June 16, 1884. 



APPENDIX. 169 

'rancis Augustine Harris, to be Demonstrator of Medico-Legal Examina- 
tions. June 16, 1884. 
orge Webb West, to be Demonstrator of Bandaging and Apparatus, June 16, 
1884. 

k>SEPH Weatheriiead Warren, to be Assistant in Physiology, June 23, 1884. 

W alter Joseph Otis, to be Assistant in Operative Surgery, June 23, 1884. 

vvmuel Jason Mixter, to be Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, June 23, 1884. 



Howard Hale, to be Proctor of Divinity Hall, June 16, 1884. 

Horace Leslie Wheeler, to be Librarian of the Divinity School, June 16, 1884. 



Ienry J. Bigelow, 

n ^ . to be Trustees of the Museum of Pine Arts, Novem- 

1 HOMAS G. APPLETON, 



ber 12, 1883. 
\\ illiam Gray, j ' 

Henry Lee, to be Trustee of the Museum of Fine Arts, June 9, 1884. 

Gustavus Hay, Robert T. Edes, Samuel G. Webber, Henry P. Bow- 
ditch, J. Collins Warren, Edward S. Wood, Francis W. Draper, 
William F. Whitney, Francis H. Williams, to be members of the 
Committee on the Boylston Medical Prizes, November 12, 1883. 



III. 

March 27, 1850. 
To the President and Faculty of Harvard College : 

I earnestly protest against the adoption of the measures proposed at the Faculty 
meeting of the 25th inst. by the joint Committee of the Corporation and the 
Faculty, because I regard them as equivalent to a total rejection of the elective 
system. 

I believe that the abandonment of the elective system will be a deplorable 
event in the history of the College, as it will be lamentable to the cause of sound 
education. I believe that this step is wholly adverse to the liberal spirit of the 
age and country, and that it will contract the system of College education more 
closely than it is restricted in any other country. 

By this step the students will be excluded from all opportunity of developing 
those peculiarities and diversities of talent which have been bestowed upon j them 
by the highest wisdom, and which are necessary to the perfect organization of 
society. 

And, finally, by this step the College will be drained of a principle of life, 
which has for several years been flowing through its system, and has imparted 
an active spirit and a healthy enthusiasm to the labors both of the pupil and the 
teacher. 

Very Respectfully, 

[signed] BENJAMIN PEIRCE. 



170 



APPENDIX. 



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ArrENDix, 



171 



NUMBER OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN THE DIVINITY 

SCHOOL, 1855-1885. 



Year. 


«5 

u 


in 

co 




A 


to 
n * 

©i 

CO 

M 


£ 

a 
•v 


Year. 


S 



to 

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p 

& 


§ 2 

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A 


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Si 

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a 

M 


50 

o> 


1S55-56 


2 






14 


1870-71 


3 


2 




37 


1856-57 


2 






22 


1871-72 


3 


1 


2 


30 


1857-58 


2 


2 




17 


1872-73 • 


4 




2 


20 


1858-59 


2 


2 




23 


1873-74 


4 




2 * 


22 


1859-GO 


2 


2 




21 


1874-75 


4 




1* 


20 


1860-61 


2 


2 




23 


1875-76 


4 




2f 


19 


1861-62 


2 


2 




18 


1876-77 


3| 




5* 


23 


1862-63 


2 






17 


1877-78 


4 




3 


21 


1863-64 


2 


1 




20 


1878-79 


3 




2 


23 


1861-65 


2 


1 




17 


1879-80 


3 




3 


23 


1865-66 


2 


1 




14 


1880-81 


3 




3 


23 


1866-67 


2 


1 




15 


1881-82 


4 




2 


29 


1867-68 


2 


2 




23 


1882-83 


6 




1 


27 


1868-69 


1 


2 




19 


1883-84 


6 






21 


1869-70 


3 


2 




36 


1884-85 


6 




1 


26 



* One College professor who gave part of his time to the Divinity School is here counted as 
istructor. 

f Two College professors who gave part of their time to the Divinity School. 
X One of the four professors was absent. 



VI. 



UNENDOWED PROFESSORSHIPS, 1885. 



V professorship of English. 

" the History of Art. 
•' " political economy. 

" modern languages. 

" history, 
'wo professorships of mathematics, 
'he Librarianship. 
'wo professorships of Latin. 
^ professorship of Italian and Spanish. 

•• music. 



A professorship of botany. 

" " " palaeontology. 

" " " classical philology. 

" " " philosophy. 

" " " physics. 

" " " cryptogamic botany. 

Two professorships of chemistry. 

A professorship of Greek. 

" " " Sanscrit. 



172 



APPENDIX. 



VII. 

SUMMARY OF STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY AT THE 
BEGINNING OF THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1883-1884. 

College « 

Seniors 209 

Juniors 195 

Sophomores 248 

Freshmen 253 

Special Students 67 

972 

Divinity School 21 

Law School 146 

Lawrence Scientific School 26 

Medical School 243 

Dental School 30 

Bussey Institution 3 

School of Veterinary Medicine . . . • 9 

Candidates for Higher Degrees 

Holders of Fellowships 

Resident Graduates not Candidates for a Degree 

1526 
Persons who attended the Summer Courses in Science in 1884. 

Chemistry 25 

Botany 3 

28 

Number of Certificates issued to Women in 1884. 

Final Examination 6 



VIII. 



ACADEMIC HONORS FOR THE YEAR 1883-1884. 
Commencement, June 20, 1884. 



Orations. 



Lewis Edward Gates, 
James Richard Jewett, 
George Andrew Stewart, 
William Whiting Nolen, 
Frederick Story Bunker, 
Walter Perry Johnson, 
Authur Gillespie Hatch, 
Josiah Bridge, 
Harry Hubbard, 
John Ulric Nef, 
Hollis Webster, 
William Amory Gardner, 



Ernest Lee Conant, 
William Wallace. Fenn, 
Theodore Longfellow Frothingham. 
Charles Francis Aiken, 
Richard Alexander Fullerton Pen- 
rose, 
Charles Robert Saunders, 
Clift Rogers Clapp, 
George William Sawin, 
Joseph Arthur Willis Goodspeed, 
Edward Staples Drown. 



APPENDIX. 



173 



Dissertations. 



Gilbert Norris Jones, 

John Prentiss, 

Henry Conrad Bierwirth, 

oorrea moylan walsh, 

Allen Curtis, 

Frank Abram Harrington, 

George William Brown, 

Edward Haskell Lounsbury, 

Thomas Aloysius Mullen, 

Eugene Hamlin Hatch, 

Albert Sanborn Perkins, . 

Hartley Frederick Atwood, 

Edwin Martin Pickop, 

Romeo Green Brown, 

Edward Andress Hibbard, 

Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, 

Henry Trail, 

John Wells Morss, 

William Codman Sturgis, 

Edwin Upshur Berryman, 

William Logan Rodman Gifford, 

Joseph Ambrose Cogan, 



Benjamin Edward Bates, 

Frederick Homer Darling, 

Edward Wheeler Frost, 

Bertram Ellis, 

Thomas Stanley Simonds, 

James Henry McIntosh, 

Hardy Phippen, 

Wallace Irving Keep, 

Walter Brackett Lancaster, 

Henry Julius Williams, 

John Andrew Noonan, 

Philip Henry Goepp, 

Charles Bridge Davis, 

Gerrit Elias Hambleton Weaver, 

George Herbert Perkins, 

Thaddeus William Harris, 

Charles Calvin Ziegler, 

Frederick Augustus Whitney, 

Roger Faxton Sturgis, 

William Orison Underwood, 

Charles Eugene Hamlin. 



Disquisitions. 



John Thomas Nichols, 

Horatio Nelson Glover, 

Jesse Lowman, 

William Franklin Dana, 

George Dunning Moore, 

Edward Lawrence Peirson, 

Francis James Riley, 

James Lee Mitchell, 

William Woolsey Mumford, 

Edward Ellis Allen, 

Charles Theodore Greve, 

John Worthington Dickinson, 

Orrin Ford Hibbard, 

Edward Arthur Stanley Clarke. 

Lawrence Eugene Sexton, 

William Tufts Crocker, 

Simeon Mills Hayes, 

Gordon Abbott, 

Francis William Holmes, 

Edwin Everett Jack, 

Augustus Thorndike, 

jonh mcduffie, 

Frank Gustine Pratt, 

Greenough White, 

Marcus White Frederick, 

Henry Archibald Buerk, 

Frazer Livingstone Montague, 



William Allen Hayes, 
Charles Merritt Field, 
Addison Hamlin, 
Paul Thorndike, 
Silas Haynes Elliot, 
William Dunlap Smith, 
Samuel Atkins Eliot, 
John Parker Holmes, 
Henry Munson Spelman, 
Thomas Mott Osborne, 
Edward Appleton Bangs, 
Robert Heberton Terrel, 
James Macmaster Codman, 
Charles William Baker, 
Conrad John Rueter, 
James Graham Gardiner, 
Myron Preston Denton, 
Loren Erskine Griswold, 
Walter Currier Rose, 
Thomas Rodman Plummer, 
George Uriel Crocker, 
Arthur Meeks Hawkins, 
Brainard Alger Andrews, 
Oscar Jonas Lowman, 
William Sohier Bryant, 
Henry Warren Bliss. 



174 



APPENDIX. 



HONORS AT GRADUATION. 



In Semitic Languages. 
James Richard Jewett, 

In Classics, 
Josiah Bridge, 
William Wallace Fenn, 
William Amory Gardner, 
George Andrew Stewart, 
George William Brown, 
Thomas Aloysius Mullen, 
Albert Sanborn Perkins, 
Edwin Martin Pickop, 
Thomas Stanley Simonds, 

CORREA MOYLAN WALSH, 

In Philosophy. 
Edward Staples Drown, 
Lewis Edwards Gates, 

In Political Science. 
Clift Rogers Clapp, 
Harry Hubbard, 
Hartley Frederic Atwood, 
Theodore Longfellow Frothingham, 
John Wells Morss, 
John Prentiss, 

In History. 

Charles Robertson Saunders, 
Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, 
Roger Faxton Sturgis, 
Gerrit Elias Hambleton Weaver, a.b. 

In Music. 
Philip Henry Goepp, 
Charles Eugene Hamlin, 

In Mathematics. 
George William Sawin, 
George Herbert Perkins, 

In Physics. 
Joseph Arthur Willis Goodspeed, 

In Chemistry . 
John Ulric Nef, 

Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, 
Frederick Augustus Whitney, 

In Natural History. 
Thaddeus William Harris, 
Walter* Brackett Lancaster, 
William Codman Sturgis, 
William Orison Underwood, 
Charles Calvin Ziegler, ph.b. 



Highest Honors. 

Highest Honors'. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Honors. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Highest Honors. 
Do. 



Highest Honors. 
Do. 
Honors. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Highest Honors. 

Honors. 

Do. 

Do. 

Honors. 
Do. 



Highest Honors. 
Honors. ■ 



Highest Honors. 

Highest Honors. 

Do. 

Honors. 

Honors. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



APPENDIX. 175 



HONORABLE MENTION AT GRADUATION. 

Gordon Abbott. Political Economy. 

Charles Francis Aiken. Latin; French. 

Edward Ellis Allen. Natural History. 

Bbainard Alger Andrews. Philosophy. 

Qabtley Frederic Atwood. English Composition; Political Economy; 
History. 

Chables William Baker. Political Economy. 

Edward Appleton Bangs. Natural History. 

Henry Elbert Barnes. Greek. 

mix Edward Bates. Political Economy ; Natural History. 

Edwin Upshur Berryman. German. 

Hsinrich Conrad Bierwirth. English; English Composition ; Philosophy. 

Hbnrt Warren Bliss. Natural History. 

i Bridge. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 

George William Brown. Greek; Latin; English Composition; Political 
Economy. 

» Green Brown. English Composition ; Philosophy ; Llistory. 
William Sohier Bryant. Natural Llistory. 
Harry Archibald Buerk. Philosophy. 
Frederic Story Bunker. Natural History. 

Clift Rogers Clapp. English Composition; Political Economy ; LListory. 

James Macmaster Codman. Political Economy ; LListory. 

Joseph Ambrose Cogan. Natural History. 

Erxest Lee Conant. English Composition ; History. 

Thomas Jefferson Coolidge. History. 

George Uriel Crocker. Philosophy. 

Allen Curtis. English Composition ; German; History. 

William Franklin Dana. English Composition ; Political Economy ; History. 

Frederick Homer Darling. English Composition ; History. 

Charles Bridge Davis. Chemistry. 

Myron Preston Denton. Natural History. 

John Worthixgtox Dickixson. Political Economy. 

Edward Staples Drown. English Composition ; Philosophy. 

Samuel Atkins Eliot. English Composition ; History. 

Silas Haynes Elliot. Chemistry ; Natural LListory. 

Bertram Ellis. English Composition ; LListory. 

William Wallace Fenn. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 

Charles Merritt Field. Chemistry. 

Marcus White Fredrick. English Composition. 

Edward Wheeler Frost. English Composition ; German; History. 

Theodore Longfellow Frothingham. English Composition; Political 

Economy; History. 
James Grahame Gardiner. Llistory. 

William Amory Gardner. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 
Lewis Edwards Gates. English; English Composition ; Philosophy. 
William Logan Rodman Gifford. Political Economy ; History. 
Horatio Nelson Glover. Political Economy ; LListory. 
Philip Henry Goepp. Music. 



176 



APPENDIX. 






Joseph Arthur Willis Goodspeed. Mathematics; Physics. 

Charles Theodore Greve. Latin. 

Loren Erskine Griswold. English Composition ; History. 

Addison Hamlin. Chemistry. 

Charles Eugene Hamlin. Music. 

Frank Abram Harrington. Chemistry ; Natural History. 

Thaddeus William Harris. English Composition; Natural History. 

Arthur Gillespie Hatch. English; English Composition. 

Eugene Hamlin Hatch. English Composition ; Philosophy. 

Arthur Meeks Hawkins. English Composition ; Philosophy; History. 

Simeon Mills Hayes. English Composition; Philosophy. 

William Allen Hayes. English Composition; History. 

Edward Andress Hibbard. English Composition ; Political Economy ; Histc 

Omri Ford Hibbard. History. 

Frank William Holmes. Semitic Languages. 

John Parker Holmes. Natural History. 

Harry Hubbard. English Composition ; Political Economy ; History. 

James Richard Jewett. Semitic Languages. 

Walter Perry Johnson. English Composition ; Political Economy ; Histc 

Natural History. 
Gilbert Norris Jones. English Composition ; Natural History. 
Walter Brackett Lancaster. Natural History. 
Edward Haskell Lounsbury. English Composition. 
Jesse Lowman. Philosophy ; Political Economy ; History. 
Oscar Jonas Lowman. German; Chemistry. 
John McDuffie. English Composition ; Political Economy. 
James Henry McIntosh. English Composition ; Political Economy ; Histc 
William Lenhart McPherson. Philosophy. 
Robert Shaw Minturn. English Composition. 
James Lee Mitchell. Mathematics. 

Frazer Livingston Montague. English Composition; Fine Arts. 
George Dunning Moore. Chemistry. 

John Wells Morss. English Composition; Political Economy ; History. 
Thomas Aloysius Mullen. Greek; Latin. 
John Ulric Nef. English Composition; Chemistry. 
John Thomas Nichols. Philosophy. 

William Whiting Nolen. English Composition ; Natural History. 
John Andrew Noonan. Political Economy. 
Thomas Mott Osborne. History , Music. 

Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose. Chemistry ; Natural History. 
Albert Sanborn Perkins. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 
George Herbert Perkins. Mathematics. 

Edwin Martin Pickop. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 
Thomas Rodman Plummer. Fine Arts. 
Frank Gustine Pratt. Physics. 
John Prentiss. Political Economy ; History. 
Walter Currier Rose. Greek. 
Conrad John Rueter. English Composition. 
Charles Robertson Saunders. English Composition; Political Economy 

History. 



APPENDIX. 177 

}borge William Sawin. English Composition ; Mathematics. 
Lywkknce Eugene Sexton. English Composition. 
Thomas Stanley Simonds. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 
William Dunlap Smith. Philosophy. 
Hi:nky Munson Spelman. Natural History. 

\ George Andrew Stewart. Greek; Latin; English Composition ; Mathematics. 
William Codman Sturgis. English Composition; Natural History. 
Roger Faxton Sturgis. History. 
Robert Heberton Terrell. Greek. 

i us Thorndike. Natural History. 
Paul Thorndike. Natural History. 
Henry Traill. Chemistry. 

William Orison Underwood. Natural History. 
John Baldwin Walker. Natural History. 

Cobrea Moylan Walsh. Greek; Latin; English Composition. 
Gerrit Elias Hambleton Weaver. History. 
Hollis Webster. English Composition ; Natural History. 
Gkeenough White. English. 
Frederick Augustus Whitney. Chemistry. 
Henry Jules Williams. English Composition ; Chemistry. 
Charles Calvin Ziegler. English Composition ; Natural History. 



SECOND-YEAR HONORS. 

In Classics. 
Sophomores : 

George Rice Carpenter, Highest Honors. 

George Edwin Howes, Do. 

William Fogg Osgood, Do. 

Joseph Newell Palmer, Do. 

Edmund Nathaniel Snyder, Do. 

Frederick Learned Torrey, Do. 

Walter Thomas Clark, Honors. 

William Morton Fullerton, Do. 

Henry Arnold Henshaw, Do. 

Alfred Henry Lloyd, Do. 

Herbert Lyman, Do. 

Eben Richards, Do. 

George Blanchard Stevens, Do. 



In Mathematics. 




Juniors : 




Edward Irving Smith, 


Highest Honors. 


Sophomores : 




Selwyn Lewis Harding, 


Highest Honors. 


Herbert Bacon Hutchins, 


Honors. 


Robert Fletcher Rogers, 


Do. 


William Abbott Stone, 


Do. 



178 APPENDIX. 

IX. 
PRIZES. 
DETURS. 

The following students received books, called " Deturs," from the foundation 
of Edward Hopkins, for excellence in scholarship : — 

Freshmen of 1882-83. 
Daniel William Shea, Charles Ruel Fletcher. 

Freshmen of 1883-84. 

George Pope Furber, Theodore Cramer Von Storh, 

Stephen Berxieu Stanton, Walter Samuel Pinkham, 

Homer Worthington Brainerd, Robert Warner Frost, 

Edgar Buckingham, Henry Schofield, 

Joseph Eugene Walker, Augustus Story Haskell, 

Charles Francis Adams Currier, Frederick Harold Bailey, 

Joseph Brown Thomas Tuthill, Roger Wolcott Keep, 

Albertus True Dudley, Frank Henry Stanyan, 

William Collins Herron, Livingston Boyd Stedman, 

Timothy Currier Craig, William Jackson Bowen, 

Frank Chester Southworth, Royal Robbins, 

Edgar Judson Rich, Myron Augustus Lochman, 

Frederic Hubbell Marvin, John Newmarch Cushing, 

Linn Luce, Harry Ernest Peabody. 

BOWDOIN PRIZES. 

I. 

John Farwell Moors, a.m. 1884. 
Herbert Morison Clarke, ph.d. 1884. 
James Newton Garratt, a.m. 1884. 

II. 

Edward Wheeler Frost, of the Class of 1884. 
Harry Hubbard, of the Class of 1884. 
Lewis Edwards Gates, of the Class of 1884. 

III. a. 
Charles Bertie Gleason, of the Class of 1885. 

III. b. 
Correa Moylan Walsh, of the Class of 1884. 

IV. 

Hugh Henry Brogan, of the Class of 1885. 

Charles Alexander Whittemore, of the Class of 1885. 



APPENDIX. 



179 



BOYLSTON PPJZES FOR ELOCUTION. 

First Prizes. 

Samuel Atkins Eliot, of the Class of 1884. 
John Parker Holmes, of the Class of 1884.- 

Second Prizes. 

Henry Elbert Barnes, of the Class of 1884. 
Barton Bee Ramage, of the Class of 1884. 
Irvah Lester Winter, of the Class of 1885. 



X. 



DEGREES. 

Bachelors of Arts of the Class of 1884 195 

Bachelor of Arts of former Class 1 

Bachelors of Divinity 3 

Bachelors of Law 24 

Doctors of Medicine 57 

Doctors of Dental Medicine 10 

Bachelor of Science 1 

Civil Engineer 1 

Doctors of Philosophy 5 

Doctor of Science 1 

Masters of Arts 24 



HONORARY DEGREES. 

Doctors of Laws. 

Francis James Child, 
James Russell Lowell, 
Richard Claverhouse Jebb, 
Simon Newcomb. 

Doctor of Divinity. 

John Ear well Moors, 
Joseph Henry Thayer. 



Master of Arts. 
William Greene Binney. 



180 



APPENDIX. 



XI. 



COMMITTEES OF THE OVERSEERS FOR 1884. 
To visit the University. 



President of the Board of Over- 
seers. 

His Excellency the Governor. 

His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor. 

The President of the Senate. 

The Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 



The Secretary of the Board op 
Education. 

The Secretary of the Board op 
Overseers. 

The Chairman of each of the Vis- 
iting Committees. 



Charles R. Codman, 
Andrew P. Peabody, 
E. E. Hale, 
Leverett Saltonstall, 
J. T. G. Nichols, 
Le Baron Russell, 
John Fiske, 
Samuel A. Green, 



To visit the College. — On Government. 

Richard M. Hodges, 



John T. Morse, Jr., 
Edwin P. Seaver, 
Theodore Lyman, 
John Noble, 
Waldo Higginson, 
Moorfield Storey, 
Solomon Lincoln. 



To visit the College. — On Languages. 



Le Baron Russell, 
William J. Rolfe, 
Robert E. Babson, 
Carl Wolff, 
0. B. Frothingham, 
Francis A. Waterhouse, 
John Holmes, 
Henry W. Haynes, 
Robert D. Smith, 
Joaquin M. Torrijo, 



John Noble, 
Robert Shaw Sturgis, 
Charles P. Curtis, 
Francis Boott, 
Lucius H. Buckingham, 
Thomas Cushing, 
Horatio G. Curtis, 
Francis Peabody, Jr., 
William T. Harris. 



To visit the College. — On Rhetoric and English Literature. 

Moorfield Storey, Charles R. Codman, 

George B. Chase, Roger Wolcott, 

Henry W. Foote, Charles P. Curtis. 
Josiah Quincy, Jr., 

To visit the College. — On History and Political Science. 



John Fiske, 
Alexander McKenzie, 
Henry C. Lodge, 
John O. Means, 
Russell Gray, 
Brooks Adams, 



John T. Morse, Jr., 
William P. Atkinson, 
Edward G. Porter, 
James H. Means, 
Abbott Lawrence. 



APPENDIX. 



181 



To visit the College. — On Philosophy. 



Andrew P. Peabody, 
William C. Endicott, 
John 0. Means, 



Alexander McKenzie, 
Joseph B. Warner, 
John Fiske. i 



To visit the College. — On Mathematics, Physics, and Chemisi v \j . 



Edwin P. Seaver, 

William Watson, 

J. D. Rtjnkle, 

E. D. Leavitt, Jr., 

Oliver F. Wadsworth, 

Robert Amort, 



Daniel B. Hagar, 
George V. Leverett, 
Channing Whitaker, 
Francis Blake, Jr., 
Walter C. Cabot, 
George R. Briggs. 



To visit the College. — On Natural History. 



Samuel A. Green, 
Theodore Lyman, 
R. Pumpelly, 



Alpheus Packard, 
W. F. Whitney, 
William H. Niles. 



Jb. 



To visit the College. — On Fine Arts and Music. 



Leverett Saltonstall, 
S- L. Thorndike, 
William F. Apthorp, 
Charles A. Cummings, 
W. P. P. Longfellow, 
Charles C. Perkins, 



John S. Dwight, 
Charles G. Loring, 
J. Francis Tuckerman, 
Robert A. Boit, 
Arthur Rotch, 
Frederick Crowninshield. 



To visit the Divinity School. 



E. E. Hale, 
Phillips Brooks, 
Edward H. Hall, 
Lysander Dickerman, 
Francis B. Hornbrooke, 
Franklin Johnson, 
Henry W. Foote, 
Thomas Hill, 



F. W. Holland, 
James F. Clarke, 
Alexander McKenzie, 
Artemas B. Muzzey, 
Waldo Higginson, 
Charles F. Dole, 
Arthur Brooks. 



To visit the Law School. 



William G. Russell, 
Leverett Saltonstall, 
Darwin E. Ware, 
Robert D. Smith, 
Solomon Lincoln, 
Francis C. Barlow, 
Charles C. Beaman, Jr., 



John Lowell, 
George 0. Shattuck, 
William C. Endicott, 
Francis E. Parker, 
Robert M. Morse, Jr. 
Peter B. Olney, 
Edmund Wetmore. 



182 



APPENDIX. 



To visit the Scientific School, the Bussey Institution, the Peabody Museum 



American 
Zoology. 



, 



Archceology and Ethnology, and the Museum of Comparative 



Morrill Wyman, 
E. M. Hodges, 
John 0. Sargent, 
Eobert W. Hooper, 
Francis M. Weld, 
Charles O. Thompson, 
Alphonse Fteley, 
Ernest W. Bowditch, 



Thomas C. Clark, 
Theodore Lyman, 
Henry P. Kidder, 
Abbott Lawrence, 
Channing Whitaker, 
t. j. coolidge, 
Clemens Herschel, 
S. M. Felton. 






To visit the Medical and Dental Schools. 



Le Baron Eussell, 
Eichard M. Hodges, 
Alfred Hosmer, 
George C. Shattuck, 
Samuel L. Abbott, 
Algernon Coolidge, 
W. W. Wellington, 



Morrill Wyman, 
Samuel A. Green, 
Frederic Winsor, 
Hall Curtis, 
Francis M. Weld, 
John C. Dalton. 



To visit the Observatory. 



James F. Clarke, 
William Amory, 
J. Ingersoll Bowditch, 
George I. Alden, 
Eobert C. Winthrop, 
Alvan Clark, 
Augustus Lowell, 
Simon Newcomb, 
Charles E. Codman, 



Amos A. Lawrence, 
John C. Palfrey, 
Eobert T. Paine, 
T. J. Coolidge, 
Charles F. Choate, 
Frederick 0. Prince, 
J. Montgomery Sears, 
F. H. Peabody. 



To visit the Library. 



Phillips Brooks, 
Samuel A. Green, 
John Fiske, 
John 0. Sargent, 
Charles A. Cutter, 
Charles C. Smith, 
Stephen Salisbury, Jr., 
Francis V. Balch, 
Charles Deane, 
Mellen Chamberlain, 
Samuel S. Green, 



John M. Brown, 
John T. Morse, Jr., 
William W. Greenough, 
George W. Wales, 
Samuel Eliot, 
Henry G. Denny, 
Henry F. Jenks, 
Eobert Grant, 
George Dexter, 
Charles F. Adams, Jr. 



ArPENDIX. 



183 



To visit the Botanic Garden and Herbarium. 



Henry Lee, 
William Boott, 
William Gray, Jr., 

H. H. HuNNEWELL, 

Francis A. Osborne, 
Henry P. Wolcott, 
Henry C. Lodge, 



Thomas Meehan, 
Frederick L. Ames, 
John Cdmmings, 
Augustus Lowell, 
J. Warren Merrill, 
John C. Phillips, 
J. Pierpont Morgan. 



On 
Henry P. Kidder, 
Charles H. Parker, 
George B. Chase, 



Treasurer's Accounts. 

Amos A. Lawrence, 
Israel M. Spelman, 
Solomon Lincoln. 



On Flections. 



Charles R. Codman, 
John Lowell, 
Leverett Saltonstall, 



Moorfield Storey, 
William G. Russell. 



On Reports and Resolutions. 

Robert D. Smith, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., 

Solomon Lincoln, Robert M. I^orse, Jr., 

Francis E. Parker, Henry Lee. 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Appointments 165-169 

D Arboretum, report on 154-156 

" development of 38, 155 

Athletics .32 

Botanic Garden, report on 137-141 

" ■ changes in . 138 

'*' new greenhouse 139 

Bussey Institution, report on . 120-122 

" condition of the farm 37, 123 

Chemical Laboratory, report on 141-144 

" instruction in 141, 142 

" summer course in 144 

" condition of Boy lston Hall „ . . . . 42 

College, report on 49-87 

" instruction in 59-87 

" statistics of admission to 52-57 

" discipline of 49-52 

Committees of the Overseers 180, 181 

Deaths 3-5 

Degrees conferred 179 

Dental School, report on 118, 119 

" pecuniary needs 119 

" new quarters of 37, 118 

Divinity School, report on 91-100 

development of 93-94, 171 

" denominational relations of 33,94-96 

" instruction in 98-100 

" library of 97 

Elective system, extension of • 5-24 

Endowment of professorships ; 45, 171 

Gifts and bequests 45 

Graduate Department, report on 87-91 

Gore Hall, reconstruction of 41 

Gymnasium, use of 31 

Herbarium, report on 136 

Higher degrees conferred 88-89 

Honorable mention at graduation 175-177 

Honorary degrees conferred 179 

Honors at graduation 172-175 

11 sicond year 177 

Jefferson Physical Laboratory 43 



186 



INDEX, 



Law School, report on 100-10ij 

" " results of admission examinations 35, 10] II 

" ■' results of extension of the course 102, 10c 

" " instruction in 104-10(1 

" " Harvard graduates in . . . .' 10'J 

Lawrence Scientific School, report on 119, 12(. 

Library, report on 124—136 ' 

" accessions to 12( 

" collections of maps in 12H 

" use of 127-12U 

" catalogue department of 40, 130, 131 

" ordering department of 132-134 

Medical School, report on 107-118] 

" " new building of 30, 1( 

" " instruction in 109-118' 

Morgan Fellowships 91 

Museum or Comparative Zoology, report on .' ". . 157-163 ■! 

" " " instruction at 17 

" " " future development of . . .44, 159-163; 

Observatory, report on 144-154 

gifts to 145 

" employment of instruments 148-151 i 

" time signals 152 

" publications 153, 154 

Prizes 178 

Professor Peirce's letter on elective system 169 

Kesignations 5, 165 

Salaries 46 

Special students 25-30, 54, 170 

Summary of students 172 

Veterinary School, report on 122-124 

new building of 29,123 

" " finances of 39, 124 




TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 




1884. 



TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 



-*♦+- 



To the Board of Overseers of Harvard College:— 

The Treasurer of the College submits the Annual State- 
ment of the financial affairs of the University, for the year 
ending August 31, 1884, in the usual form. 

The Funds separately invested, with the income thereof, 
are as follows : — 

Principal. Income. 

UNIVERSITY. 

George B. Dorr Fund (part of) , 

50 " Pittsb'g, Ft. Wayne & Chic. R. R. Co., ( sold during \ $87.50 
100 " New York & Harlem R. R. Co., . . I the year i 
187 " Pennsylvania Coal Co. , $25,525.50 1,870.00 

COLLEGE. 

Stoughton Scholarship (part of) , 

Real Estate in Dorchester, 1,294.30 none 

Pennoyer Scholarships (part of), 

Ppnnoyer Annuity in England, 4,444.44 277.50 

Rumford Professorship (part of), 

French Rentes, 10,000.00 581.07 

Jonathan Phillips Fund, 

Mortgage, • 10,000.00 500.00 

Daniel H. Peirce Fund (part of), 

Mortgage, 12,894.89 641.54 

Samuel Ward's Gift, 

Ward's (Bumkin) Island, Boston Harbor, . . . 1,200.00 50.00 

LIBRARY. 

Charles Minot Fund (part of), 

'00, Buffalo, Bradford, & Pittsb. R. R. Bonds, 00,000.00 4,200.00 
Ichabod Tucker Fund (part of), 

Policy of Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., . . 5,000.00 200.00 

SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL. 

John B. Barringer Fund (part of), 

40 shares Schenectady Bank Stock, ..... 2,200.00 200.00 

Amounts carried forward, $132,559.13 $8,607.61 



Amounts brought forward, $132,559.13 $8,607.61 
MEDICAL SCHOOL. 
Edward M. Barringer Fund (part of), 

10 shares Schenectady Bank Stock, G00.00 50.00 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 
Agassiz Memorial Fund (part of), 

Personal notes (endorsed), 34,074.18 1,039.02 

OBSERVATORY. 

Anonymous gift (now used to pay annuity), 

$1,000, Michigan South'n & No. Indiana R.R. Bond, 1,000.00 70.00 

$2,000, Cincinnati Municipal Bonds, 2,000.00 140.00 

$2,000 Minneapolis Municipal Bonds, 2)000.00 1G0.00 

50 shares Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, & Chicago, R. R. 

Stock, 5,000.00 350.00 

SPECIAL FUNDS. 
Bussey Trust, 

Real Estate, 413,092.80 17,576.98 

Robert Troup Paine Fund (accumulating), 

$24,500 Mass. 5% Bonds, '. . 28,107.50 1,196.39 

New Law School Professorship (part of), 

Personal note, 70,000.00 4,500.00 

Henry Harris Fund (part of) , 

Real Estate (sold during the year), 190.42 

Mortgages, 14,400.00 462.74 

$702,833.61 $34,343.16 

The other Funds of the College are invested as a whole. 
The general investments, with the income thereof, are as 
follows : — 

Principal, Principal, 

Investments. September 1, 1883. August 31, 1884. Income. 

Notes, Mortgages, &c, $902,294.26 $558,230.11 $37,767.70 

Railroad Bonds and Premiums, . . 1,063,636.42 1,545,277.66 67,633.70 

Railroad Stock, 106,811.93 110,811.08 8,423.00 

New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bonds, 9,000.00 9,000.00 350.00 

Bank Stock, 63,964.00 63,964.00 4,519.76 

Manufacturing Stock, 103,658.29 103,658.29 5,444.00 

Real Estate, 1,408,192.42 1,418,017.42 78,009.11 

Unoccupied Lands, 74,487.79 74,487.79 

Brattle Street Reversion, 1,000.00 1,000.00 

Advances to Scientific School, . . . 4,055.30 3,704.76 243.30 

" " Dental School, .... 13,659.36 14,854.36 819.54 

" " Bussey Trust, 40,266.13 40,266.13 2,013.30 

" " Dining Hall Association, 34,732.16 33,232.16 2,083.93 
" " Scudder's Catalogue, . 190.58 

" Athletic Association, . . 1,000.00 

" " Observatory, 876.07 __ 

Amounts carried forward, $3,825,948.64 $3,978,379.83 $207,337.34 



5,813.21 




15.88 


7.431.07 




128.94 


2,273.41 






773.41 






84,041.23 






2,G23.1G 






13,961.49 






5,807.94 






4,101,104.75 


207 


,482.16 


702,833.61 


34,343.16 


$4,803,938.36 


$241 


,825.32 



Amounts brought forward, $3,825,948.64 $3,978,379.83 $207,337.34 
Advances to School of Veterinary 

Medicine, 

" Law School Building Fund, 

" Bussey Institution, . . . 

Baring Brothers & Company, . . . 
Term Bills due Oct., 1884, . .... 75,397.36 

Term Bills overdue, 2,697.77 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, . 7,195.40 
Cash in hands of Bursar, . . . . 1,855.66 
Totals of general investments, 3,913,094.83 
Totals of special investments, 710,800.74 
Amounts, . . . $4,623,895.57 

During the year about $500,000 has been invested in rail- 
road bonds, the money having come chiefly from mortgages 
and notes which were paid off and from new gifts. The ac- 
count of* " railroad bond premiums" has been charged with 
ST."), 2 12. 50 for the premiums paid on $376,000 of seven per 
cent and ten per cent bonds bought, and it has been credited 
with $5710 which was taken from the income of $571,000 of 
seven per cent bonds which were held during the whole year. 
This account is also charged temporarily with $1373.74 
for the difference between accrued interest advanced and that 
repaid during the year. A piece of vacant land on Town- 
send Street, Roxbury, taxed for 1884 on a valuation of 
$13,100, has been taken in settlement of a mortgage debt 
of $10,000 and accrued interest. All other changes in the 
investments of the University are sufficiently accounted for 
by the receipts and payments hereinafter stated in detail. 
The advances which have been made from the ' ' general 
investments " to different departments of the University are 
considered to be secured by the Insurance and Guaranty 
Fund. 

The net income of the general investments ($207,482.16) 
has been divided at the rate of S^fo per cent among the 
Funds to which they belong, after allowing to the Physical 
Laboratory Building Fund a special rate of four per cent 
on its balance during the period of construction. The bal- 
ance of $167.84 has been placed to the credit of the Uni- 
versity account. 

The rate of income compared with that for 1882-83 shows 



a falling off of -£fo of one per cent. A considerable falling 
off was expected, but it would not have been so large if the 
changes of investment during the year had not caused a tem- 
porary loss of income. Larger payments for insurance and: 
repairs also caused a net loss of income from the productive 
real estate, in spite of an increased gross rent. If the prop- 
erty held for the " general investments" was not worth, as 
a whole, something more than its book valuation, the average 
rate of income could hardly be above five per cent at this 
time. 

The following table shows the income available for the 
departments dependent upon the College proper, and the 
expenditures in those departments : — 

Interest on funds for 

University Salaries and Expenses, $27, 793. 0? 

College Expenses, 2,922.08 

Library, . 5,961.40 

College Salaries, 27,726.24 

Gymnasium, and repairs on College buildings, . . none. 

College Term bills, 178,927.38 

Sundry cash receipts, 17,727.33 

261,060.50 

Expended for 

University Salaries and Expenses, $34,366.09 

College Expenses, 42,623.60 

Library Salaries and Expenses (not books), 24,941.96 

College Salaries, 143,761.85 

Gymnasium Expenses, 7,982.45 

Repairs and insurance on College Buildings not valued 

on Treasurer's books, 7,655.72 

261,331.67 

Balance, showing the deficit for the year, which has 

been charged to Stock Account, $271.17 

An increase in the number of undergraduates and the re- 
ceipt during the year of income from new Funds, with more 
than a year's income from the new " Eben Wright Fund,'' 
have allowed a current expenditure for the University, Col- 
lege, and Library considerably greater than that of the pre- 
vious year, in spite of the reduced rate of income from 
investments. A small deficit of $271.17 from these depart- 
ments has been charged to the " Stock Account." For 
1882-83 a surplus of $2713.27 was credited to the same 
account. 






For the Divinity School the falling off of income from in- 
vestments and increased outlays, chiefly for repairs and 
improvements, have caused a deficit of $1352.22, in spite of 
Mr. Hale's gift for books, of which only a part has yet been 
spont, For 1882-83 there was a surplus of $1322.59. 

For the Law School largely increased current expenses, 
occasioned by the use of the new Austin Hall, have caused a 
deficit of $412.86, in spite of an increase in the number of 
students and in the amount of available income for the new 
professorship. For 1882-83 there was a deficit of $1674.46. 
The account for the building of Austin Hall could not be 
closed during the year, and the sum of $7431.07 was tempo- 
rarily advanced from the ' ' general investments " for the 
finishing and furnishing of the new building. 

The income of the Medical School has been sufficient to 
| provide for largely increased current expenses, which were 
I chiefly due to the size and added accommodations of its new 
I building. The cost of finishing and furnishing the building, 
I in excess of the gifts therefor, has however caused a deficit 
! of $17,934.63, which has been charged against the surplus 
I of the School from previous years. For 1882-83 there was 
i a surplus of $3562.20. 

A large increase of outlays for the Dental School, chiefly 

| for fitting up its new quarters in the old building of the 

i Medical School and for salaries, has caused a deficit of 

$1195, in spite of an increase in the number of students. 

For 1882-83 there was a surplus of $829.01. 

The Lawrence Scientific School has a surplus for the year of 
I $350.54, which has been used to reduce the debt of the School. 
For 1882-83 the surplus was $651.97. 

For the Museum of Comparative Zoology the balance of 
1 $1641.08 from the income of the Agassiz Memorial Fund has 
been used to repay in part the notes given by Mr. Agassiz to 
! the Memorial Fund for advances on account of the extension 
of the Museum building. The private outlays of Mr. Agas- 
siz for the benefit of the Museum have been very large for 
i many years, amounting, with his public gifts to the Museum 
Funds and to other departments of the University, to more 
than half a million dollars during the past thirteen years. 



For the Observatory, the income from the new endow- 
ment has been much less than the amount of the annual sub- 
scriptions for current use which were received for several 
years before. No reduction having been made during the 
year in the total current expenditure, there is a deficit of 
$3948.59, which has consumed the balance from the old sub- 
scriptions and made it necessary to borrow $876.07. This 
sum has been advanced from the " general investments." 
For 1882-83 there was a deficit of $2409.46, which was pro- 
vided for out of the annual subscriptions paid in advance 
several years before. The subscriptions towards the new 
endowment now amount to $50,000, of which a small part is 
payable in instalments hereafter. 

A falling off in the number of students at the Bussey 
Institution and largely increased expenses, chiefly in con- 
nection with farming operations and the care of animals, 
have caused a deficit of $2323.91, in spite of a somewhat 
larger income from the Bussey Trust, and considerable re*- 
ceipts for the care of animals. The deficit has used up the 
small balance from last year's account and made it necessary 
to borrow temporarily from the * ' general investments I 
$2273.41. For 1882-83 there was a deficit of $755.05, 
which was provided for out of the surplus of the previous 
year. 

The Veterinary School has consumed all its cash receipts 
during the year and its balance from the previous year, in- 
cluding the gifts of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting 
Agriculture and of Mr. Higginson, and it has borrowed from 
the "general investments" $5813.21, chiefly on account of 
its new building in Boston. A considerable sum is still due 
to the School for services rendered at its Hospital. As the 
School cannot continue to borrow for its current expenditure, 
its collections must hereafter be more promptly made. 

The Bussey stores have yielded during the year a larger 
gross return than during the year before, but nearly all the 
gain has been used up by large payments for insurance. 
For 1884-85 a change of tenants will cause temporarily a 
heavy loss of rent, which is not likely to be made up by any 
lessening of expenses. 



Gifts have been received during the year as follows: — 

TO FORM NEW FUNDS OR INCREASE OLD ONES. 

From Edward Russell, $200, to increase the scholarship 
founded by him. 

From an anonymous friend, $750, for the general fund of 
the Divinity School. 

From the daughters of the late Seth Turner, $5000, for 
the interest of the College under his will, the income to be 
used for the general purposes of the University. 

From the executors of Henry T. Morgan, of New York, 
180,556.72, on account of his unrestricted bequest to the 
University. 

From Mrs. C. M. Barnard, $600, as the first yearly pay- 
ment for the support of two scholarships to be known as the 
Warren H. Cud worth Scholarships, for poor and meritorious 
students in Harvard College, whether candidates for a degree 
or not, suitable candidates from Lowell or East Boston to 
have the preference. 

From Dr. Francis Minot, Secretary of the Class of 1841, 
$200, to increase the Class of 1841 Scholarship Fund. 

Through Professor William E. Byerly, $500, "as the 
beginning of a fund to be known as the Chauncey Wright 
Fund, the income of which shall be devoted to the encour- 
agement of the study of Mathematics in the University." 

From Joseph H. Choate, $6000, to found a scholarship to 
be known as the " Rulufl* Sterling Choate Scholarship." 

From the executors of Thomas G. Appleton, $5000, for 
his bequest to the Astronomical Observatory. 

From William Minot as executor of the will of Henry 
Harris, certain mortgages, undivided interests in real estate 
and cash, amounting to $29,939.33, one half of the income 
of which is to be credited to the Medical School for general 
purposes, and the other half to be credited to the University 
account. 

The sum of $100,000 from the estate of the late Eben 
Wright was received during the year, for the foundation oi 
the Eben Wright Fund, with accrued interest thereon amount- 
ing to $6888.89. For this gift the College is indebted to the 



I 



good-will of Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge, who wisely exer- 
cised his right to designate the use of the fund by providing 
that its income should be applied towards the cost of ad- 
ministration and service in the College Library. 

From Alexander Agassiz, $1000, for the final instalment 
of his subscription for the increase of the Botanic Depart- 
ment Fund. 

Subscriptions for the further endowment of the Divinity 
School, paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 

Rev. J. H. Allen $40 Henry Lee $300 

Rev. H. W. Brown . . ... 100 Henry Lippitt 100 

$540 

Subscriptions to be applied towards a fund for the endow- 
ment of the Dental School, paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 



Dr. George H. Ames . . 


. $20 


Dr. A. B. Jewell . . . 


$20. 


Dr. C. A. Brackett . . . 


20 


Dr. H. C. Meriam . . 


20. 


Dr. E. P. Bradbury . . . 


20 


Dr. F. A. Merrill . . 


60. 


Dr. E. C. Briggs .... 


20 


Dr. L. D. Shepard . . 


20. 


Dr. D. M. Clapp .... 


20 


Dr. S. S. Silva . . . 


20. 


Dr. T. H. Chandler . . . 


60 


Dr. E. H. Smith . . . 


20. 


Dr. E. E. Frost .... 


20 


Dr. R. T. Stack . . . . 


50.66 


Dr. Thomas Fillebrown . 


20 


Dr. J. G. W. Werner . 


20. 



$430.66 
Subscriptions to be applied towards a fund for the endow- 
ment of the Observatory, paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 



T. W. Backhouse . 


. $122.19 


George Higginson . . 


$1000. 


Francis Blake . . . 


. 500. 


H. H. Hunnewell . . . 


1000. 


J. I. Bowditch . 


. 1000. 


Amos A. Lawrence . . 


500.^ 


Martin Brimmer . . 


. 500. 


W. P. Mason .... 


200. 


Shepherd Brooks . . 


. 500. 


F. H. Peabody . . . 


100. • 


T. Q. Browne . . . 


. 100. 


O. W. Peabody ... 


250. 


John A. Burnham 


. 1000. 


Prof. E. C. Pickering . 


200. 


Charles F. Choate . 


. 500. 


Henry B. Rogers . . . 


1000. 


Alexander Cochrane . 


. 200. 


Stephen Salisbury . . 


2000. 


Chas. P. Curtis . . 


. 500. 


Nathaniel Thayer . . 


5000. 


Wm. Endicott, Jr. . 


. 2000. 


Miss Anne Wigglesworth 


200. 


J. M. Forbes . . . 


. 1000. 


R. C. Winthrop . . . 


250. 


R. C Greenleaf . . 


. 500. 
. 2000. 


R. C. Winthrop, Jr. . . 


100. 


Mrs. M. Hemenway . 


$ 


22,222.19 



In order to increase the salary of the President of Harvard 
College subscriptions towards a fund have been paid to 
Sept. 1, 1884, from 

James C. Carter $500 William Endicott, Jr. . . $5000 

$5500 



GIFTS FOR IMMEDIATE USE, 



From T. Jefferson Coolidge, $65,000, being the balance 
of his gift of $115,000 for the construction of the Jefferson 
Physical Laboratory. 

From George W. Wales, $200, for books for the Library, 
in continuance of former gifts for the same purpose. 

Subscriptions towards the purchase of a collection of 
meteorites, paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 

J. P. Cooke $2000 Henry P. Kidder .... $1000 

Alexander Agassiz .... 1000 G. H. Norman 500 

Miss Anne Wigglesworth . 1000 From Prof. Cooke's annual 

H. H. HunneAvell .... 1000 appropriation 500 

Martin Brimmer .... 1000 

The money value of the meteorites was considered to be 
$10,000, and Professor J. Lawrence Smith is to be counted 
as a contributor of $2000 towards the purchase, but no cash 
was actually received from him. 

From the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agricul- 
ture, $2000, to be used towards the establishment of the 
Veterinary Hospital. 

From George S. Hale, $450, for books for the Divinity 
School. 

From Robert N. Toppan, $150, to be used as a prize 
on Political Science in the graduate department of the 
University. 

From an anonymous friend, $500, to increase the salary 
of the Professor of Entomology. 

From H. H. Hunnewell, $500, and from F. L. Ames, 
$500, on account of their gifts for a new greenhouse at the 
Botanic Garden. 

From Henry Lee, $1500, for the salary of an Instructor 
in Political Economy. 

Subscriptions to aid in publishing the University Bulletin, 
paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 

A. Agassiz $50 C. S. Sargent $50 

Charles P. Curtis .... 200 W. B. Weeden 100 

Henry Lee 50 

J $450 



10 

Subscriptions towards the fund for the new building for 
the Medical School, paid to Sept. 1, 1884, from 

Stanton Blake $500 S. K. Payson $500 

T. O. H. P. Burnham . . 1000 

$2000 

From the Dante Society, $50, for the purchase of books 
on Dante. 

Through Professor Bocher, for the purchase of books for 
the French department, $43.32. 

Through Professor Child, on account of the " Subscription 
of 1880," for the purchase of books, $2.97. 

The total amount of these gifts for immediate use is 
$81,346.29, as is also stated on page 14 of this report. 

OTHER GIFTS. 

From Francis Brooks, a collection of reproductions of 
bony growths, for the Museum of the Veterinary School. 

From Dr. J. Collins Warren, the anatomical collection of 
his father, to be known as the J. Mason Warren collection, 
and to be placed in the Warren Museum. 

From Mrs. George L. Stearns, a portrait of Dr. Hedge, 
painted by Miss Cranch, to be hung in Divinity Hall. 

From William Everett, a portrait of Samuel Eogers, 
painted by Chester Harding. 

From the executors of Joseph J. Cooke, books to the 
value of $5000, for the College Library. 

From Dr. Coll, of Barcelona, Spain, through Joaquim M. 
Torroja, five anatomical plaster casts, for the Medical School. 

From the children of Mrs. William D wight, a portrait of 
Lieut. Col. Wilder Dwight, painted by Eastman Johnson, 
for Memorial Hall. 

From the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, 
through Professor William Watson, a collection of plates of 
engineering works, for the Scientific School. 

From Miss Eliza A. Haven, books for the College Library. 

From the executors of Thomas G. Appleton, a portrait of 
Samuel Appleton, painted by Gilbert Stuart Newton. 

EDWARD W. HOOPER, 

, Treasurer, 

Boston, Dec. 31, 1884. 



^coothstts 



12 



General Statement of Receipts and Disbursement 

for the year endin 
INCOME. 

Interest on notes, mortgages, and advances, $50,215.89 



= 



Massachusetts 5% Bonds, 

Policy Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., 

New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bonds, 

Kailroad Bonds (after deductions for sinking premiums). 



1,196.39 
200.00 
350.00 



Uni 



6%, 



Atchison, Topeka & St. Fe, 7%, . . 
Buffalo, Bradford & Pittsburg, . . . 
Burlington & Mo. Paver in Nebraska, 

Atchison & Nebraska, 7%, 

Marion & McPherson 1st Mortg., 7%, 
Ionia & Lansing, 1st Mortg., 8%, .... 

Marq., Hough. & Onton., 6%, 

Kan. City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs, 7%, 
Kansas City, Topeka & Western, 7%, . . 
Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana, 
Fort Scott, So. E. & Memphis, 7%, . . . 

Kansas City & Cameron, 10%, 

Lincoln & No. Western, 7%, 

Municipal Bonds. 

Cincinnati, 

Minneapolis, 



11,100.00 
4,200.00 

15,781.91 
3,340.27 
9,000.00 

11,712.91 
1,140.00 
3,000.00 
6,480.00 
70.00 
544.44 
1,754.17 
3,780.00 



Dividends on Stocks. 

Charles Eiver National Bank, 

First (Cambridge) " " 

Fitchburg " " 

Massachusetts " " 

Merchants " " 

New England " " 

Old Boston " " . . . . 

Schenectady " " (N. Y.), 

Bank taxes refunded, 



Amoskeag Manufacturing Co. 

Amory " " 

Massachusetts " " 

Merrimack " " 

Nashua " " 
Stark Mills 

Wamsutta " " 

Pacific Mills, 



140.00 
160.00 



480.00 
400.00 
144.00 
120.00 

1,584.00 
222.00 
550.00 
250.00 

1,049.76 

1,440.00 
108.00 
280.00 

1,020.00 
540.00 
480.00 
576.00 

1,000.00 



71,903.70 



300.00 



4,799.76 



5,444.00 



Chicago, Burlington & Quincy E. R., . . 8,008.00 
Pittsfield & North Adams R. R., .... 315.00 

Quincy Railroad Bridge Company, . . . 100.00 

Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago R. R., . 437.50 

8,860.50 

Pennsylvania Coal Co., 1,870.00 

Amount carried forward, $145,140.24 



13 

by the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
August 81, 1884. 

EXPENSES. 
Paid to account of Expenses in the 

University, as per Table I. (page 30), $40,679.03 

College, " " II. (page 32). 

Salaries for instruction, $143,761.85 

Repairs, 6,662.39 

Insurance on College Edifices, not valued on 

Treasurer's books, 993.33 

General Expenses, 42,623.60 

Scholarships, 25,765.00 

Beneficiaries, 2,112.75 

Prizes for Reading, &c, 1,525.71 

Botanic Garden, 6,866.10 

Herbarium, 2,071.87 

Gymnasium, 7,982.45 

J. Lawrence Smith Collection of Meteorites, 8,000.00 

248,365.05 

Library, as per Table III. (page 37). 

Books, 18,981.83 

Salaries and other expenses, 24,941.96 

43,923.79 

Divinity School, as per Table IV. (page 38 ) . 

Salaries and other expenses, 23,818.94 

Scholarships and Beneficiaries, 1,945.00 

25,763.94 

Law School, as per Table V. (page 40), 66,1.79.66 

Medical School, as per Table VI. (page 41), 97,978.44 

Dental School, as per Table VII. (page 42), 7,524.91 

Lawrence Scientific School, as per Table VIII. (page 43). 

Salaries and other expenses, 13,802.27 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, .... 23,071.48 
• 41,873.75 

Observatory, as per Table IX. (page 44), 19,446.25 



Bussey Institution, ( ] 10,074.1 

School of Veter'y Medicine, j as , pe a r T ***? X * [ 16,575. : 



.83 

,12 

Arnold Arboretum, *> vr " """ J 9,129.89 

— 35,779.84 



Amount carried forward $627,514.66 



14 

General Statement of Receipts and Disbursements 

for the year ending 
INCOME. 

Amount brought forward, . . $145,140.24 
Real Estate, from rents, &c. (gross receipts). 

Cambridge (Houses and Lands), $34,937.59 

Boston (general investments), 79,693.94 

Bussey stores, 34,998.08 

Sundry estates, 6,869.39 

156,499.00 

Term Bills. 

College, as per Table II., 178,927.38 

Divinity School, as per Table IV., 3,060.00 

Law School, as per Table V., 20,700.00 

Medical School, as per Table VI., 51,551.59 

Dental School, as per Table VII. 4,960.00 

Lawrence Scientific School, as per Table VIII., . 3,970.00 
School of Veterinary Medicine, as per Table X., . 970.00 

Bussey Institution, as per Table X., 450.00 

264,588.97 

Sundries. 

From Wm. Pennoyer Annuity, 277.50 

Trustees of Thayer Scholarships, 3,500.00 

" Count Rumford's Legacy, . . . 581.07 

" Edward Hopkins, 228.26 

For use of Library by resident graduates and others, 175.00 

Degrees of Ph.D. and S.D., 360.00 

Degree of Bachelor of Arts out of course, and Ex- 
amination fees, 796.50 

Fees in Infirmary and Laboratory, Dental School, . 1,109.06 
Printing by College Press for other Departments, . 1,985.73 

Sales of grass, wood, and old material, 600.97 

Sales of old examination papers, 80.38 

Sale of time signals from Observatory, 2,895.83 

Sale of tickets to Commencement Dinner of 1884, . 511.00 
Sale of books, pamphlets, catalogues, &c, .... 1,257.43 

Subscriptions to Veterinary Hospital, 1,300.00 

Board of horses, cattle, &c. at Bussey Institution, . 1,367.46 
Fees from Veterinary Hospital and Forge, .... 5,967.79 

Use of lockers at Gymnasium, 1,894.25 

Fees for use of Gymnasium, 20.00 

Repayment of sundry advances, 98.57 • 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office repaid by 

other Departments, 375.45 

Proportion of expenses of Gymnasium repaid by other 

Departments, 1,005.31 

26,387.56 

Income received with Eben Wright Fund, 6,888.89 

Sundry gifts for immediate use, see page 9, . . • . . 81,346.29 

88,235.18 

Total amount of income, carried forward, . . . $680,850.95 



15 

by the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
August SI, 188 Jf. 

EXPENSES. 

Amount brought forward, $627,514.60 

Real Estate, expenses. 
Insurance. 

Cambridge, $937.80 

Boston, 1,620.00 

Bussey stores, 1,659.00 

4,216.80 

Taxes. 

Cambridge, 2,034.12 

Boston, 12,249.60 

Bussey stores, &c, 7,572.55 

21,856.27 

Interest. 

Bussey stores (on advances), 2,013.30 

Repairs, improvements, care, cleaning and sundries. 

Cambridge, 10,120.05 

Boston, 9,660.85 

Bussey stores, 2,991.01 

22,771.91 

Heating and hoisting for Bussey stores, 
including repairs and renewal of ap- 
paratus, 5,556.49 

Less for sales of heat and power, . 2,371.25 

3,185.24 

54,043.52 

Annuities. 

Bussey, 6,300.00 

Gore, 842.45 

Lucy Osgood, 420.00 

Class of 1802, 120.00 

Anonymous, 720.00 

Bemis, 2,797.50 

11,199.95 

Sundry payments from income. 

To the Treasurer of the Museum of Fine Arts, 

from Gray Fund for Engravings, 500.00 

Balance of account for special purchase of engrav- 
ings in 1881, from the Gray Fund, 8.22 

The income of the Daniel Williams Fund for the 

benefit of the Herring Pond and Mashpee Indians, 896.68 

The income of the Sarah Winslow Fund, to the 
Minister and Teacher at Tyngsboro', Mass., . 262.64 

Jefferson Physical Laboratory, spent on building, . . 73,468.59 

75,136.13 

Amount carried forward, $767,894.26 



16 



General Statement of Receipts and Disbursements 

for the year ending 

Total amount of income, brought forward, . . $680,850.95 
RECEIPTS EXCLUSIVE OF INCOME. 



$200.00 

200.00 

6,000.00 

600.00 

80,556.72 

29,939.33 

100,000.00 

5,000.00 

5,000.00 

500.00 

750.00 

5,500.00 

1,000.00 

540.00 

430.66 

22,222.19 



Edward Russell Scholarship (additional), 

Class of 1841 " " 

RulufF Sterling Choate Scholarship, 

Warren H. Cudworth Scholarships, 

Henry T. Morgan Fund, 

Henry Harris " 

Eben Wright " 

Thomas G. Appleton " 

Seth Turner " 

Chauncey Wright " 

Anonymous, for general fund of Divinity School, . . 
Subscriptions to President's Fund, 

" for endowment of Botanic Garden, . . . 

" " " " Divinity School, . . . 

" " " " Dental School, . . . 

" " " " Observatory, .... 

SALES. 

$13,000 Burl. & Mo. R. (Neb.) R.R. 6%c. bds, paid off, 
100 shares N. Y. & Harlem R. R. stock (Dorr Fund), 
50 " Pittsb.,Ft.W. & Chic. R.R. stock " 
Sale of Real Estate received with Harris Fund, . . 

On account of sale of Holmes House, 

Sale of 1 right to take new stock in Chic, B. & Qu. R. R 

SUNDRIES. 

From Dining Hall Association, to reduce debt, . . . 1,500.00 

Advances to premiums, on $571,000 7%R. R. bds., repaid, 5,710.00 

" " accrued interest on bonds repaid, .... 6,028.24 

Notes and Mortgages paid off (including $10,000 

converted irito real estate), 1,150,641.08 

Less invested in Notes and Mortgages, .... 814,334.80 



258,438.90 



13,000.00 
9,693.75 
6,543.75 

15,000.00 
175.00 



44,413.35 



13,238.24 



336,306.28 



Balance, September 1, 1883. 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, $7,195.40 

Cash in hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 1,855.66 

Term Bills due October, 1883, 75,397.36 

" " oferdue 2,697.77 



87,146.19 



$1,420,393.91 



17 

by the Treasurer of Harvard College, 
August 81, 1884. 

EXPENSES. 
Total of expenses brought forward, $767,894.26 

INVESTMENTS AND SUNDRY PAYMENTS. 

Atchison & Nebraska R. R. 7% bonds, $135,000 cost, $162,335.00 
Burl. & Mo. R. in Neb. " 6% " 36,000 " 37,730.00 

Ionia & Lansing " 8% " 9,000 " ' 10,035.00 

Kansas City & Cameron " 10% " 141,000 " 179,377.50 
Ft. Scott, So.E.&Memph." 7% " 100,000 " 109,500.00 
Mass. 5% bond, 1894 (Paine Fund), 1,000 " 1,150.00 

Estate on Townsend St., Roxbury (taken for a debt)," 10,000.00 
On acct. of 100 sh. new stock Chic, Burl. & Qu. R. R., 4,000.00 

514,127.50 

Paid for accrued interest on above bonds, 7,401.98 

Interest in certain Real Estate received as a portion of 

the Henry Harris Fund, 15,000.00 

Paid Baring Brothers & Company in account, .... 22,843.58 

Less drafts on Baring Brothers & Company, . . 15,948.31 

6,895.27 

Paid on account of Mr. Agassiz's note from income of 

Memorial Fund, 1,641.08 

Advanced to the Athletic Association (to be repaid with interest), 1,000.00 



Balance, August 31, 1884. 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, $13,961.49 

Cash in hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 5,807.94 

Term Bills due October, 1884, 84,041.23 

11 " overdue, 2,623.16 



— 106,433.82 
$1,420,393.91 






18 



The following Account exhibits the State of the Property ', as 
embraced in the Treasurer's Boohs, August 31, lS8Jf. 

Notes and Mortgages. 

Mortgages, $235,525.00 

Long Wharf Co.'s Notes, 55,000.00 

Manufacturing Co.'s Notes, 305,000.00 

Personal Notes for Agassiz Memorial Fund, . 34,074.18 
Personal Note for new professorship in Law 

School, 70,000.00 

$699,599.18 

Massachusetts 5% Bonds, . . . . $24,500 valued at 28,107.50 

New Boston Coal Mining Co. Bonds, 10,000 " " 9,000.00 

Municipal Bonds. 

Cincinnati, 2,000.00 valued at 2,000.00 

Minneapolis, 2,000.00 " " 2,000.00 

4,000.00 

Railroad Bonds. 

Burl.&Mo.R.inNebr. nonex.6%, 273,000 val'd at 279,903.50 
Kan.City,St.Jos.&C.B.,lstM., 7%, 50,000 " " 50,000.00 
Lincoln & No. West., 1st M., 7%, 63,000 " " 63,000.00 
Kan. City &Camer., 1st M., 10%, 141,000 " "141,000.00 
Atchison & Nebraska, 1st M., 7%, 150,000 " "150,000.00 
Atch.,Top. & St. Fe, 1st M., 7%, 185,000 " "185,000.00 
Kan. City, Top. &West., 1st M., 7%, 108,000 " " 108,000.00 
Marion &McPherson, 1st M., 7%, 150,000 " "150,000.00 
Ionia & Lansing, 1st Mortg., 8%, 150,000 " "149,901.25 
Marqu., Hough. & Onton., 6%, 19,000 " " 19,942.50 
Ft.Scott,So.E.&Mem.,lstM., 7%, 100,000 " " 100,000.00 
Buffalo, Bradford &Pittsb., 7%, 60,000 " " 60,000.00 
Michigan So. & No. Indiana, 7%, 1,000 " " 1,000.00 

Railroad Bond Premiums, 148,530.41 

1,606,277.66 

Railroad Stock. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 1,001 shares, 99,261.08 
Chic, Burl. & Quin., paid on acc't of 100 new sh. 4,000.00 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, 50 shares, 5,000.00 
Pittsfield & North Adams, .... 63 " 6,300.00 

Quincy R. R. Bridge Co., . ... 10 " 1,250.00 

115,811.08 

Manufacturing Stock. 

Amory, 36 shares, 3,600.00 

Amoskeag, 12 " 10,800.00 

Massachusetts Mills, 7 " 6,600.00 

Merrimack, 17 " 17,000.00 

Nashua, 36 " 25,560.00 

NewBedford Copper Co., .... 5 " 250.00 

Pacific Mills, 20 " 17,468.29 

Stark Mills, 12 " 11,900.00 

Wamsutta Mills, 96 " 10,480.00 

103,658.29 

Amount carried forward, .... $2,566,453.71 



19 

Amount brought forward, . . . .$2,566,453.71 

Bank Stock. 

Charles River, 60 shares, 6,000.00 

First Cambridge, 50 " 5,000.00 

Fitchburg, 24 " 2,403.00 

Massachusetts, 12 " 3,000.00 

Merchants, . . 264 " 34,732.00 

New England, 37 " 3,896.00 

Old Boston, 200 " 8,933.00 

Schenectady (N.Y.), ...... 50 " 2,800.00 

• 66,764.00 

Real Estate. 

Houses and Lands in Cambridge yielding income, 356,988.83 

Unimproved Lands in Cambridge, 74,487.79 

. Bussey Real Estate in Boston and Dedham, . . 413,092.80 
Amory Estate, Franklin Street, Boston, . . . 165,615.81 
Webb Estate, Washington Street, Boston, . . 164,604.79 
Andrews Estate, Washington Street, Boston, . 165,562.00 
Gray Estate, Washington Street, Boston, . . .487,119.12 

Estate on Hawley Street, Boston, 38,650.78 

Estate on Hawkins Street, Boston, 29,476.09 

Ward's (Bumkin) Island, Boston Harbor, . . 1,200.00 
Reversion of Buildings on Brattle Street, Boston, 1,000.00 

Land in Dorchester, 1,294.30 

Estate on Townsend Street, 10,000.00 

Sundries. 

In hands of Count Rumford's Trustees in Paris, 10,000.00 
Annuity of William Pennoyer, valued at . . . 4,444.44 
Policy of the Mass. Hospital Life Insurance Co., 5,000.00 

Pennsylvania Coal Co., 187 shares, 25,525.50 

Due from Dining Hall Association, 33,232.16 

" " Lawrence Scientific School, .... 3,704.76 

11 " Bussey Trust, 40,266.13 

" " Dental School, 14,854.36 

" Observatory, . . . 876.07 

" " School of Veterinary Medicine, . . . 5,813.21 
" Law School Building Fund, .... 7,431.07 

" " Bussey Institution, 2,273.41 

Advances to Athletic Association, 1,000.00 

Baring Brothers & Co., 773.41 

Term bills due October, 1884, 84,041.23 

" overdue, 2,623.16 

241,858.91 

Cash in Suffolk National Bank, 13,961.49 

" " hands of Allen Danforth, Bursar, .... 5,807.94 19,769.43 

Total $4,803,938.36 



1,909,092.31 



20 



The foregoing Property represents the following Funds and 
J3alances, and is answerable for the same. 

UNIVERSITY FUNDS. 

Principal, ' 

Sept. 1, 1883. Principal, Aug. 31, 1884. 

$87,675.52 Stock Account (so called), .... $87,404.35 

141,638.74 Insurance and Guaranty Fund (so called), 141,638.74 

5,250.00 Samuel D. Bradford Fund, .... 5,250.00 

15,750.00 Israel Munson Fund, 15,750.00 

16,871.63 Leonard Jarvis Fund, 16,871.03 

1,283.64 Peter C. Brooks Fund for building a 

President's House, ...... 1,117.32 

155.66 Thomas Cotton Fund, 155.07 

57,221.28 John Parker Fellowships, .... 56,979.61 

10,578.54 Harris Fellowships, 10,820.23 

12,176.35 John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, 11,680.85 

10,636.21 James "Walker Fellowship, .... 10,686.09 

29,576.47 Rogers Scholarship, 30,305.55 

1,782.41 Sumner Prize Fund, ...... 1,874.54 

150.00 Robert N. Toppan Prizes .... 150.00 

9,000.00 Sever Fund (unrestricted) 9,000.00 

25,890.35 Retiring Allowance Fund, 27,228.86 

25,000.00 John C. Gray Fund, 25,000.00 

.57,125.18 President's Fund, 61,784.85 

110,792.79 George B. Dorr Fund, 110,155.29 

Seth Turner Fund, 5,000.00 

Henry T. Morgan Fund, .... 80,556.72 

709,409.70 

COLLEGE FUNDS. 

27,748.64 Alford Professorship, 27,748.64 

28,337.40 Boylston " 28,337.40 

21,619.50 Eliot « 21,619.50 

10,000.00 " " (Jon. Phillips's gift), 10,000.00 

3,500.01 Erving " 3,500.01 

35,990.99 Fisher " 35,990.99 

20,217.08 Hersey " 20,217.08 

19,610.46 " " (Thomas Lee's gift), 20,624.30 

3,747.33 Hollis " (Mathematics), . . 3,747 33 

34,560.38 Hollis " (Divinity), . . . 34,447.13 

43,062.93 McLean " 43,062.93 

21,000.00 Perkins " 21,000.00 

25,020.19 Plummer " 25,020.19 

52,500.00 Pope " 52,500.00 

52.996.37 Rumford " 52,996.37 

23,139.83 Smith " 23,139.83 

16.240.38 Fund for Permanent Tutors, .... 16,240.38 
125,000.00 Class Subscription Fund, .... 125,000.00 

12,830.74 Daniel H. Peirce " .... 12,894.89 

2,144.94 Paul Dudley Fund for Lectures, . . 2,255.84 

31,500.00 Jonathan Phillips Fund (unrestricted) 31,500.00 

$1,229,321.94 Amounts carried forward, $611,842.81 709,409.70 



21 

Principal, 

Sept. 1, 1883. Principal, Aug. 31, 1884. 

|1,229,321.94 . . . . Amounts brought forward, .$611,842.81 709,409.70 

1,050.00 John A. Blanchard Fd. (unrestricted), 1,050.00 

3,606.67 John W. P. Abbot « » 3,793.15 

5,600.00 Daniel Austin " " 5,600.00 

345.99 Henry Flynt's Bequest, 344.68 

2,542.09 Abbot Scholarship, 2,523.51 

800.06 Alford " 801.42 

5,173.31 Bartlett " 5,190.75 

5.452.41 Bassett " 5,459.28 

11,660.91 Bigelow " 11,513.78 

107,255.46 Bowditch " 107,800.54 

587.67 Bright " (balance), . . . 230.17 

2,745.89 Browne " 2,737.86 

Warren H. Cudworth 600.00 

7.174.42 Class of 1802 Scholarship, . . . . 7,175.32 
3,071.98 " 1814 " .... 3,030.80 
5,039.12 " 1815 u (Kirkland), 5,049.64 
3,757.08 " 1817 " 3,751.32 

1.351.04 " 1828 " 1,420.89 

2,630.83 " 1835 " 2,616.85 

3.773.26 " 1841 " 3,995.96 

3,164.82 " 1852 " (Dana), . 3,328.45 

7,034.56 Crowninshield " ...... 7,398.27 

RuluffS. Choate " 6,064.63 

5,238.64 Derby " (George & Martha), 5,259.50 

5,349.77 W. S. Eliot " 5,326.37 

5,969.28 Farrar " 5,927.88 

2.480.49 Greene " 2,488.71 

6.750.52 Hodges " 7,099.55 

5,389.72 LevinaHoar " 5,468.38 

4,883.54 Hollis " 4,886.04 

735.14 Matthews " (balance), . 980.77 

7.612.27 Morey > " 7,505.81 

6.611.43 Pennoyer " ..... 6,620.96 
609.75 Rodger " 641.29 

3.180.50 Henry B. Rogers 3,194.96 

843.40 Edward Russell " 1,097.32 

4.077.05 Saltonstall " (Mary&Leverett), 4,28J.83 
673.46 " " (Dorothy), . . 708.25 

5.420.50 Slade " 5,450.77 

3,177.89 Sever " 3,167.19 

9,444.54 Sewall " 9,432.85 

44,356.74 Shattuck " 44,750.00 

2.762.51 Story " 2,755.36 

2,131.50 Stoughton " 2,174.77 

4.128.19 GorhamThomas " 4,091.61 

6,628.61 Toppan " 6,671.33 

24,940.58 Townsend " 24,730.03 

3.958.53 Walcott <f 3,963.21 

9.134.20 Whiting » 9,606.43 

9,569.98 Exhibitions, 9,462.00 

1,782.35 Palfrey Exhibition, ...... 1,784.48 

1,200.00 Samuel Ward Fund, 1,200.00 

il, 002,180.59 . . . Amounts carried forward, . . $994,053.73 709.409.70 



Principal, 

Sept. 1, 1883. 

$1,602,180.59 
1,122.01 
2,394.03 

10,923.88 
5,252.01 

10,213.19 

15,676.68 
4,324.57 

11,889.40 
1,016.38 

41,399.03 
52,882.31 
18,258.59 
125.00 
44,805.04 



11,006.36 
2,089.48 
2,494.20 
5,264.49 
5,298.62 
3,642.05 
5,712.17 
2,479.84 
2,072.02 
5,417.55 

20,897.96 

62,227.38 
6,962.64 
7,081.82 
5,075.97 

20,412.60 
4,315.60 

37,277.74 

5,014.07 

5,041.82 

130.80 

16,351.42 
59.03 



6,751.89 
15,750.00 
23,979.82 

8,340.81 
92,962.50 
32,021.25 
25,653.33 

70,875.13 

19,192.65 

17,129.20 

$2,371,444.92 



22 



. . . Amounts brought forward, . $994,053.73 

John Glover Fund, 1,180.02 

Rebecca A. Perkins Fund, . . . 2,517.80 

Q,uincy Tufts Fund, 10,888.65 

Day " 5,288.54 

Munroe " ...... 10,206.20 

Lee Fund for Reading, 15,742.18 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, . . 4,293.17 

Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, . 11,704.06 

Hopkins Gift for " Deturs," . . . 1,071.46 

Chauncey Wright Fund, .... 505.37 

Botanic Department Fund, .... 42,418.01 

Lowell Fund for a Botanic Garden, . 52,882.31 

Herbarium Fund, 17,130.71 

Salary account (unexpended balance), 125.00 

Physical Laboratory Endowment, . . 47,121.46 

LIBRARY FUNDS. 

Eben Wright Fund, 100,000.00 

Subscription for Library, .... 10,764.62 

Bowditch Fund, 2,105.47 

. . 647.61 

. . 5,264.95 

. . 5,316.10 

. . 3,693.57 

. . 5,557.32 

. . 2,512.03 

. . 2,103.58 

. . 5,338.96 

. . 20,863.89 

. . 60,193.79 

. . 7,164.86 

. . 7,201.74 

. . 5,251.09 

. . 20,109.93 

. . 4,162.51 

. . 37,364.73 

. . 5,070.30 

. . 5,251.35 

. . .28 

. . 16,142.97 



Principal, Aug. 31, 1884. 
^09,409.71 



1,217,128.67 



(Mary), 
(Lucy), 



Bright 

Denny 

Farrar 

Haven 

Hayward 

Hollis 

Homer 

Lane 

Lowell 

Minot 

Osgood 

Osgood 

Salisbury 

Sever 

Shapleigh 

Sumner 

Tucker 

Ward 

Wales 

Walker 

Sundry gifts, etc. (unexpended balances), 71.40 332, 153.05 

LAW SCHOOL FUNDS. 

Law School (balance), 6,339.03 

Dane Professorship, . . . . . 15,750,00 

Bussey " 23,979.82 

Royall " 8,340.81 

New " 93,201.87 

Law School Book Fund, .... 32,021.25 

" Building Fund, . . . 179,632.78 

MEDICAL SCHOOL FUNDS. 
Medical School (balance), .... 52,940.50 

Jackson Medical Fund, 19,192.65 

Geo. C. Shattuck Fund, .... 17,129.20 

Amounts carried forward, $89, 262.35$2,438, 324.20 



23 

Principal. • 

Sept. 1, r883. Principal, Aug. 31, 1884. 

£,371,444.92 Amounts brought forward, $89, 262.35$ 2,438,324.20 

12.243.37 Warren Fund for Anatom'l Museum, 12,219.44 
3,74S.64 Boylston Fund for Medical Prizes, 3,886.46 

2.407.42 " " " " Books, 2,531.86 
2,767.06 Medical Library Fund, 3,002.69 

17,671.59 Medical School Building Fund, . , 

2,000.00 Quincy Tufts Medical Fund, . . 2,000.00 

25,512.68 Edward M. Barringer Fund, . . 25,512.68 138,415. 4S 

DIVINITY SCHOOL FUNDS. 

24,8^)8.76 General Fund, .24,206.54 

37,583.74 Bussey Professorship, 37,583.74 

16,015.81 Parkman " 16,015.81 

6.008.43 Hancock " 6,008.43 

44,845.78 Winn Prof, of Ecclesiastical History, 45,345.73 

20.280.38 Dexter Lectureship, 20,280.38 

9,184.69 Henry Lienow Fund, 9,184.69 

5,250.00 Mary P. Townsend Fund, . . . 5,250.00 

2,100.00 Winthrop Ward Fund, .... 2,100.00 

1,050.00 Samuel Hoar " 1,050.00 

1,050.00 Abraham W. Fuller Fund, . . . 1,050.00 

1,050.00 Caroline Merriam " ... 1,050.00 

13,096.95 Jackson Foundation, 13,134.06 

2.177.95 Joshua Clapp Fund, 2,177.95 

1,050.00 William Pomeroy Fund, . . . 1,050.00 

525.00 Hannah C. Andrews Fund, . . 525.00 

3.511.96 J. Henry Kendall Scholarship, . . 3,693.53 
3,059.84 Nancy Kendall " ... 3,078.04 

911.34 Lewis Gould Fund, 911.34 

833.54 Adams Ayer " 876.66 

7,875.00 Joseph Baker " 7,875.00 

5,194.69 Thomas Cary Scholarships, . . . 5,113.27 

2,309.19 George Chapman Scholarship, . 2,288.57 

3,337.37 Joshua Clapp " . . 3,384.89 

1,769.15 Beneficiary money returned, . . . 1,860.61 

40,000.00 Th. Tileston of New York Endowm't, 40,000.00 

10,000.00 Henry P. Kidder Fund, . . '. . 10,000.00 

1,000.00 Abby Crocker Richmond Fund, . 1,000.00 

69,667.02 New Endowment, 70,207.02 

17,000.00 Oliver Ames Fund, 17,000.00 

800.00 Daniel Austin Fund, 800.00 

11,530.95 Abner W. Buttrick Fund, . . . 11,577.10 365,678.36 

LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, AND MUSEUM 
OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY FUNDS. 



38,807.17 

2,860.50 

61,536.43 

50,375.00 

30,686.85 

100,170.00 

50,000.00 

297,933.10 

7,594.01 

117,469.34 

7 ,740.66 765,173.06 
83,568,246.23 Amounts carried forward, $3,707,591.10 



38,807.17 Professorship of Engineering, 

2,860.50 Professorship of Chemistry, . . 

61,536,43 Abbott Lawrence Fund, . s . 

50,375.00 James Lawrence " ... 

30,686.85 John B. Barringer "... 

100,570.00 Sturgis Hooper " . . . 

50,000.00 Gray Fund for Zoological Museum 

297,933.10 Ag-assiz Memorial Fund, \ . 

7,594.01 Teachers' and Pupils' Fund, i 

117,469.34 Permanent Fund, 

7,740.66 Humboldt Fund, 



24 



Principal, 
Sept. 1, 1883. 

$3,568,246.23 



110,293.88 
21,000.00 
23,065.18 
12,411.37 
2,000.00 

10,000.00 

3,072.52 
17,384.38 



Principal, Aug. 31, 1884. 



Amounts brought forward, $3,707,591.10 

OBSERVATORY FUNDS. 



Edward B. Phillips Fund, 
James Hay ward " 

David Sears " 

Josiah Ctuincy " 

Charlotte Harris " 

Thomas G. Appleton " 
Anonymous Observatory Fund (at 
present charged with an Annuity), 
Observatory Subscriptions (balance), 
Observatory Endowment, . 



110,293.88 

21,000.00 

23,661.41 

10,941.75 

2,000.00 

5,000.00 

10,000.00 



. 39,606.57 



OTHER FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. 



413,092.80 



50,000.00 

27,079.85 

50.50 

955.00 

2,882.43 

152,095.73 

12,596.18 

42,000.00 

16,146.08 

20,805.88 

5,955.79 

51,113.31 

2,669.84 

3,171.50 



6,121.86 
340.78 

28,458.78 



Bussey Trust (income thereof, £ to 
Bussey Institution, £ to Law School, 
and £ to Divinity School), . . .413,092.80 

Bright Legacy, 50,000.00 

Robert Troup Paine Fund, . . . 28,276.24 

Bussey Institution, 

Dental Subscription Fund, . . . 1,385.66 
Bussey Building Fund, .... 2,882.43 

James Arnold " 152,488.90 

Arnold Arboretum " 12,002.69 

James Savage Fund, ..... 42,000.00 
Gray Fund for Engravings, . . . 16,521.61 

Gore Annuity Fund, 21,039.10 

Lucy Osgood Annuity Fund, . . 5,843.72 

Bemis Annuity Fund, 50,900.81 

Gospel Church Fund, .... 2,807.88 
John Foster Fund (income to Di- 
vinity School, Law School, and Medi- 
cal School, in turn), 3,171.50 

Henry Harris Fund, . , . . . 29,939.33 
Baring Bros. &Co. (balance due them), 
School of Veterinary Medicine, . . 
Physical Laboratory Building Fund, 20,691.57 



222,503,61 



853,044.24 



FUNDS IN TRUST FOR PURPOSES NOT 
CONNECTED 'WITH THE COLLEGE. 

16,051.31 Daniel Williams Fund for the con- 
version of the Indians, .... 15,984.47 
4,834.39 Sarah Winslow Fund, for the Minister 

and Teacher at Tyngsborough, Mass., 4,814.94 



14,623,895.57 



20,799.41 
$4,803,938.36 



25 



Changes in the Funds during the year ending August 31, 1881/.. 

Total amount of Funds, August 31, 1884, as before 

stated, $4,803,938.36 

Total amount of Funds, September 1, 1883, as before 

stated, 4,623,895.57 

Showing a total increase during the year of . . . $180,042.79 

Which is made up as follows : — 

Gifts forming new Funds or increasing old ones, . . 258,438.90 

Increase of Funds established during the year, . . . 70.00 

258,508.90 

Deduct from this amount for 

Decrease of specially invested Funds by loss from change 

of investment, 637.50 

Decrease of Stock Account, by excess of expenditure 
over income, in College, Library, and University 
accounts, • 271.17 

Other decrease more than increase of Funds and bal- 
ances, which appear both at the beginning and end 
of the year, 24,646.86 

Building Funds and other balances used up, .... 52,910.58 

78,466.11 

$180,042.79 



Net decrease of Funds and balances as above stated, 78,466.11 

Less increase, other than gifts for capital account, as above 

stated, 70.00 



Leaving amount of the net decrease of the Funds and bal- 
ances, excluding gifts for capital account, as is also 
shown in the following table, $78,396.11 



26 



Statement showing Changes in the Different 

Increase of Funds which appear both at the beginning and the end of the 
year, being the excess of income (including gifts for immediate use) over 
payments towards the special objects of those Funds. 

Harris Fellowship, $241 

James Walker Fellowship, 49, 

Rogers Scholarship, 729 M 

Sumner Prize Fund, 92.1; 

Retiring Allowance Fund, 1,338.5 

Hersey Professorship (Thomas Lee's -gift), 1,013.84 

Daniel H. Peirce Fund, 64. L 

Paul Dudley Fund for Lectures, 110.9< 

John W. P. Abbott Fund, 186.4! 

Alford Scholarship, 1. 

Bartlett " 17.4< 

Bassett " 6 

Bowditch " 545 

Class of 1802 Scholarship, .90 

1815 " (Kirkland), 10.52- 

1828 " 69.85 

1841 " . . . . , 22.70 

1852 " (Dana), 163.G3 

Crowninshield " 363.71 

Derby " (George & Martha), . . . 20.86 

Greene " 8.22 

Hodges " 349.03] 

Levina Hoar " 78. G6 

Hollis " 2.50 

Matthews " (balance), 245.63 

Pennoyer " 9.53 

Rodger " 31.54 

Henry B. Rogers " 14.46 

Edward Russell " 53.92 

Saltonstall " (Mary & Leverett), . . . 210.78 

(Dorothy), 34.79 

Slade " 30.27 

Shattuck " 393.26 1 

Stoughton " 43.27 

Toppan " 42.72 

Walcott " 4.68 

Whiting « 472.23 

Palfrey Exhibition, 2.13 

John Glover Fund, 58.01 

Rebecca A. Perkins Fund, 123.77 

Day Fund, 36.53 

Lee Fund for Reading, 65.50 

Hopkins Gift for "Deturs," 55.08 

Amount carried forward, $7,416.09 






27 



Funds during the year ending August 31, 188 If. 

Decrease of Funds, which appear botli at the beginning and the end of the 
year, being the excess of payments over income received (including gifts 
for immediate use) for the special objects of those Funds. 



Peter C. Brooks Fund, . $166.32 

Thomas Cotton Fund, .59 

John Parker Fellowships, 241.67 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, . . v 495.50 

President's Fund, ■ 840.33 

Hollis Professorship (Divinity), . 113.25 

Henry Flynt's Bequest, 1.31 

Abbot Scholarship, 18.58 

Bigelow " 147.13 

Bright " 357.50 

Browne " 8.03 

Class of 1814 Scholarship, 41.18 

1817 " 5.76 

1835 " 13.98 

W. S. Eliot " 23.40 

Farrar " 41.40 

Morey " 106.46 

Sever " 10.70 

Sewall ". 11.69 

Story " . . . 7.15 

Gorham Thomas " 36.58 

Townsend " 210.55 

Exhibitions, . ' 107.98 

Quincy Tufts Fund (College), 35.23 

Munroe Fund, 0.99 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, 31.40 

Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, 185.34 

Herbarium Fund, 1,127.88 

Subscription for Library, 241.74 

Bright Book Fund, 1,846.59 

Hayward " " 154.85 

Lane " " . .♦ 78.59 

Lowell " " 34.07 

Minot " " 2,033.59 

Sever " " 302.67 

Shapleigh " " 153.09 

Wales " " 130.52 

Walker " " 208.45 

Law School (balance), 412.86 

Medical School (balance), 17,934.63 

Warren Fund for Anatomical Museum, .... 23.93 

Divinity School (general fund), 1,352.22 

Thomas Cary Scholarships, 81.42 



Amount carried forward, $29,383.10 



1 



28 



Statement showing Changes in the Different 

Amount brought forward, . $7 ; 416.09 

Botanic Department Fund, 18.98 

Physical Laboratory Endowment, 2,316.42 

Bowditch Book Fund, 15.99 

Denny " " ... .46 

Farrar " " 17.48 

Haven " " 51.52 

Hollis " " 32.19 

Homer " " 31.56 

Osgood " " (Mary) 202.22 

(Lucy) 119.92 

Salisbury " " 175.12 

Sumner " " 86.99 

Tucker " " 56.23 

Ward " " 209.53 

Sundry gifts for Books (unexpended balances), 12.37 

New Professorship of Law, 239.37 

Boylston Fund for Medical Prizes, 137.82 

Boylston Fund for Medical Books, 124.44 

Medical Library Fund, 235.63 

Winn Professorship of Ecclesiastical History, . 500.00 

Jackson Foundation, 37.11 

J. H. Kendall Scholarship, 181.57 

Nancy " " 18.20 

Adams Ay er Fund, 43.12 

Joshua Clapp Scholarship, 47.52 

Divinity School Beneficiary money returned, . 91.46 

Abner W. Buttrick Fund, 46.15 

David Sears " 596.23 

Robert Troup Paine " 1,196.39 

James Arnold " 393.17 

Gray Fund for Engravings, 375.53 

Gore Annuity Fund, 233.22 

Gospel Church Fund, 138.04 

15,398.04 

Increase of Funds established during the vear. 

Ruluff Sterling Choate Seholarfhip, . . . 64.63 

Chauncey Wright Fund, 5.37 

70.00 

15,468.04 
Balance, which is the net decrease of the Funds for the year 

ending August 31, 1884, apart from gifts for capital account, 78,396.11 

Total, $93,864.15 



29 



Funds during the year ending August 31, 1884 [Continued.) 

Amount brought forward, . . . $29,383.10 

George Chapman Scholarships, 20.62 

Sturgis Hooper Fund, 400.00 

Josiah Quincy " 1,469.62 

Arnold Arboretum " . 593.49 

Lucy Osgood Annuity Fund, 112.07 

Bemis " " 212.50 

Physical Laboratory Building Fund, 7,707.21 

Daniel Williams Fund, ' 66.84 

Sarah Winslow Fund, 19.45 

40,044.90 

Decrease of George B. Dorr Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 637.50 

Law School Building Fund, balance of account spent, 25,653.33 
Medical School Building Fund," " " " 17,671.59 

Observatory Subscriptions, " " " •« 3,072.52 

Bussey Institution, " v " " " 50.50 

School of Veterinary Medicine, '' ' ; " 340.78 

46,788.72 

Baring Bros. & Co., balance paid off, 6,121.86 



Decrease of Stock Account, by excess of expenditure over income, 

in College, Library, and University accounts, 271.17 

Total, $93,864.15 



30 

The following tables are not found, in their present form, in the Treas- 
urer's books. They are intended to exhibit with some detail the resources ! 
and the expenditures of each department of the University. The income 
of every fund held by the University is given in these tables, and also the sum 
paid out for the specific object of each and every fund, in case that sum be i 
either less or more than the actual income of the fund. If the object to which ] 
the income of a fund is to be applied be a general one, — like salaries, for j 
example, — no separate mention is made in these tables of that appropriation. 
That particular payment is merged with others of the same kind under the 
general heading. A balanced summary of these tables will be found on page 49. I 

Table No. I. 
THE UNIVERSITY. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of the unappropriated fund heretofore called the 

Stock Account, $4,532.85 

Income of the following funds :' — 

Insurance and Guaranty, ....'. 7,322.74 

Israel Munson, 814.28 

Leonard Jarvis, 872.28 

Samuel D. Bradford, 271.43 

Sever, 465.30 

John C. Gray, .". 1,292.50 

George B. Dorr, 6,269.69 

Peter C. Brooks, 66.38 

Thomas Cotton, 7.60 

President's, . .' 2,934.85 

Parker Fellowship, 2,958.33 

John Thornton Kirkland Fellowship, . . . 629.50 

Harris Fellowship, 546.93 

James Walker Fellowship, 549.88 

Rogers Scholarship, . 1,529.08 

Sumner Prize, 92.13 

Retiring Allowance, 1,338.51 

Seth Turner, 204.63 

Henry T. Morgan 1,165.63 

Henry Harris, h of income, 623.80 



34,488.32 



For the degrees of Ph.D. and S.D., 360.00 

For care of the Sarah Winslow Fund, 6.73 

Sale of Quinquennial Catalogues, 38.00 

From other Departments for proportion of expenses 

of Bursar's office, 375.45 

Balance remaining after dividing the net income among 

the Funds, 167.84 

From Robert N. Toppan, additional gift for prize on 

Political Science, 150.00 



1,098.02 
$35,586.34 



31 



Table I., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Overseers' Expenses. 

Advertising, $200.35 

Printing President's Annual Report, 526.17 

Printing Treasurer's " " 122.14 

Printing other reports, auditing Treasurer's ac- 
counts, &c, 127.75 976.41 

Office Expenses. 

President's • 150.53 

Treasurer's . . 348.73 

Bursar's 632.40 

Supt. of Buildings, 15.01 

Corporation Rooms (fuel, rent, &c), 1,715.53 2,862.20 

Salaries. 

President, 8,783.37 

Treasurer, . . 4,000.00 

Secretary of the Board of Overseers, 100.00 

Bursar, 3,000.00 

Bursar's Assistant, 900.00 

Secretary at Cambridge,* 600.00 

Eor keeping Treasurer's books and copying 

records and other papers, 3,000.00 

Superintendent of Buildings, ' 1,500.00 21,883.37 

Fellowships. 

John Parker, 3,200.00 

Harris, 305.24 

John Thornton Kirkland, 1,125.00 

Rogers Scholarship, 800.00 

James Walker, 500.00 5,930.24 

Prizes. 

Robert N". Toppan, in Political Science, . . 150.00 

Memorial Hall and Sanders Theatre. 

Repairs, fuel, gas, &c, . . . 2,614.76 

Insurance, 695.00 3,309.76 

Sundries. 

Advertising, 57.65 

Labor, &c. on grounds outside of College Yard, 1,295.48 

Repairs and improvements on the President's house, 232. 70 

" " " to Herbarium, . . . 333.72 

" Boat-house, . . . 950.00 

Subscription to Mercantile Agency, • 200.00 

Watering streets, 209.00 

Watchmen, 1,003.40 

Fire Apparatus, 54.00 

Freight, diplomas, &c, 49.05 

Printing, . 382.05 

Prof. Norton's expenses to England, . . . . \ 300.00 

University Lectures, 500.00 5,567.05 

$40,679.03 



32 



Table No. II. 
THE COLLEGE. 

RECEIPTS. 
From Term Bills. 

Instruction, $144,151. 

Rents available for general expenses, 34,770. 

Income of Scholarship Funds. 

Abbot, 



Alford, . 
Bartlett, 
Bassett, . 
Bigelow, 
Bowditch, 



131. 

41. 

267. 

281. 

602. 

5,545. 



Bright, £ income of Bright Legacy, 1,292, 

Browne, 

Ruluff Sterling Choate, .' . 

Class of 1802, 

1814, 

1815 (Kirkland), 

" 1817, 

" 1828 (accumulating), 

" 1835, 

1841, * . . . 

" 1852 (Dana) (accumulating), . . 

Crowninshield (accumulating), 

George and Martha Derby, 

Wm. Samuel Eliot, 

Farrar, 

Greene, 

Levina Hoar (Town of Lincoln), 

Hodges (accumulating), 

Hollis, 



141. 
64. 

370. 

158. 

260. 

194. 
69. 

136. 

197. 

163 

363. 

270. 

276. 

308. 

128 

278, 

349 

252 

Matthews (£ of net rents of Hall), 4,995, 

Morey, 393 

Pennoyer. Interest, $112.03 

Annuity, 277.50 389 

Rodger (accumulating), 31 

Henry Bromfield Rogers 164 

Edward Russell (accumulating) , 53 

Mary and Leverett Saltonstall, 210, 

Dorothy Saltonstall (accumulating) , .... 34 

Savage, • 300 

Sever, 164 

Sewall, 488 

Shattuck, 2,293 

280 

142 
43 

213 

342 
. 1,289 

204 
. " 472 



Slade, 

Story, 

Stoughton (accumulating), .... 

Gorham Thomas, 

Toppan, 

Townsend, 

Walcott, 

Whiting (accumulating), 

Amount carried forward, 



178,927.3. 



24,657.95 



$203,585.33 



33 



Table II., continued. 






RECEIPTS. 






Amount brought forward, . . . 


.... $203,585.33 


deceived from the Trustee of the Thayer Scholarships, 


.... 


3,500.00 


)ther Benefioiary Funds, income of. 






n,.l "Exhibitions," 


.494.77 




Palfrey "Exhibition," 


92.13 




Samuel Ward. From special investment, . . 


50.00 




John Glover (accumulating), 


58.01 




Rebecca A. Perkins " 


■ 123.77 




Quincy Tufts, 


564.77 




Moses Day, 


271.53 




Munroe, 


528.01 




*»»*•»"■ »wj 

Prize Funds, income of. 


2,182.99 




Thomas Lee Prizes for Reading, 


810.50 




Ward Nicholas Boylston Prizes for Elocution, 


223.60 




James Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations, . . . 


614.66 






280.79 




Chauncey Wright 


5.37 




Funds for Instruction. 


1,934.92 




Income of the Alford Professorship, 


1,434.62 




Boylston " 


1,465.02 




Eliot " 


1,117.75 




J. Phillips's addition to Eliot Prof., 


500.00 




Erving Professorship, 


180.95 




Fisher " 


1,860.73 




Hersey " 


594.78 




Hollis " (Mathematics), . . 


193.72 




McLean " 


2,226.36 




Perkins " 


1,085.70 




Plummer " 


1,293.53 




Pope " 


2,714.25 




Pvumford " 


2,803.96 




Smith " 


1,196.34 




Fund for Permanent Tutors, . . . 


839.61 




Thos. Lee Fund for the Hersey Prof. 


1,013.84 




Class Subscription, 


6,462.50 




Henrv Plvnt 


16.96 




Hollis Professorship of Divinity, . 


1,786.75 




Paul Dudley Fund (accumulating), 


110.90 




Gifts for salaries, 


2,000.00 




Botanic Garden. 





30,898.27 


Income of Fund, 


2,151.08 




" " the Lowell Fund, 


2,734.00 




Estimated value of use of house by Prof. Gray, 


1,000.00 




On account of gifts for new greenhouse, . . . 


1,000.00 


6,885.08 


Herbarium. Income of Fund, 




943.99 


Amount carried forward, . 


.... $249,930.58 



34 



Table II., continued. 
RECEIPTS. 

Amount brought forward, $249,930. 

Income of Jonathan Phillips's unrestricted Fund, $1,628.55 

" " John A. Blanchard's " " 54.29 

" " Daniel H. Pierce Fund, ..'...... G41.54 

" " J. W. P. Abbot " (accumulating), 18G.48 

" " Fund for Physical Laboratory, 2,310.42 4,827.28 

Sundries. 

For the Degree of Bachelor of Arts out of course, 

and examination fees, 796.50 

Sales of grass and old material, 55.00 

Sale of old examination papers, 80.38 

For Printing by College Press for other departm'ts, 1,985.73 

For use of rooms by College officers, 150.00 

Sale of tickets to Commencement Dinner of 1884, 511.00 

For use of lockers at Gymnasium, 1,894.25 

Fees for use of Gymnasium, 20.00 

For use of Gymnasium by other Departments, . 1,005.31 

From Prof. BOcher, for books for French Dpt, 43.32 
Subscription to purchase the J. Lawrence Smith 

Collection of Meteorites, 8,000.00 

Sale of Catalogues and Directories, 784.50 15,325.99 

Total receipts, $270,083.85 

PAYMENTS. 

Paid the incumbents of the following Scholarships. 

Abbot, $150.00 

Alford, 40.00 

Bartlett, 250.00 

Basset, 275.00 

Bigelow, 750.00 

Bowditch, 5,000.00 

Bright, 1,650.00 

Browne, . . 150.00 

Class of 1802, 250.00 

" 1814, 200.00 

1815 (Kirkland), 250.00 

1817, . . . . \ 200.00 

1835, 150.00 

" 1841, 175.00 

George and Martha Derby, 250.00 

Wm. Samuel Eliot, 300.00 

Farrar, 350.00 

Greene, . . . 120.00 

Levina Hoar, 200.00 

Hollis, 250.00 

Amount carried forward, $10,960.00 



35 

Table II., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 
Amount brought forward, $10,960.00 

Matthews, 4,750.00 

Morey, 500.00 

Pennoyer, , 380.00 

Henry Bromfield Rogers, 150.00 

Savage, 300.00 

Sever, 175.00 

Sewall, : 500.00 

Shattuck, • 1,900.00 

Slade, 250.00 

Story, 150.00 

Thayer, 3,500.00 

Gorham Thomas, 250.00 

Toppan, 300.00 

Townsend, 1,500.00 

Walcott, 200.00 

25,765.00 

Paid other Beneficiaries. 

Exhibitions, 602.75 

Palfrey Exhibition, 90.00 

Samuel Ward Income, 50.00 

CLuincy Tufts " (part of), 600.00 

DayEund " " " 235.00 

Munroe Fund " " " 535.00 

2,112.75 

Prizes, Lee Prizes for Reading, 245.00 

Boylston Prizes for Elocution, 255.00 

Bowdoin Prizes for Dissertations 800.00 

" Deturs " from Hopkins Fund 225.71 

1,525.71 

Salaries for instruction, 143,761.85 

Repairs and improvements on College Edifices not valued 

on Treasurer's books, 6,662.39 

Insurance on College Edifices, etc. not valued on Treas- 
urer's books, 993.33 

Botanic Garden, for labor, repairs, and materials, . . . 5,866.10 
paid on account of new greenhouse, . . 1,000.00 

6,866.10 

Herbarium, for labor, repairs, and materials, 2,071.87 

Gymnasium, Locker money, paid Director, 1,151.25 

Salaries and wages, 2,550.00 

Janitors and cleaning, 873.74 

Gas, water, and sundries, 850.85 

Fuel, 606.10 

Apparatus and fittings, 1,365.51 

Insurance, 585.00 " 

7,982.45 

Paid for the J. Lawrence Smith Collection of Meteorites, . . . 8,000.00 

Amount carried forward, $205,741.45 



36 



Table II., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, $205,741.45 

General Expenses. 

Appropriations for collections and laboratories. 
Physical Apparatus (Prof. Lovering), . $600.00 
Mineral and Chemical (Prof. Cooke), . . 800.00 

Kumford (Prof. Gibbs), 300.00 

Botanical (Prof. Farlow), 350.00 

Biological (Prof. Farlow), 35.00 

Geological (Prof. Shaler), 200.00 

Zoological (Asst. Profs. Faxon and Mark), 220.00 

Fine Arts (Prof. Norton), 200.00 

Physical (Prof. Trowbridge), 300.00 

Drawing (Instructor Moore), 150.00 

Psychological (Asst. Prof. James) . . . 457.21 $3,612.21 
Appleton Chapel. 

Preaching and morning services, . . . 1,835.00 

Organist and Choir-master, 1,000.00 

Choir, ;' . . ; 800.00 

Books, hymnals, and music, 181.94 

Fuel, Gas, Repairs, &c, 771.42 

Blowing organ, 88.34 

Furniture, 291.08 4,967.78 

Admission examinations, 624.70 

Advertising, 42.00 

Books and binding, 121.82 

Cleaning and care of College buildings not valued 

on Treasurer's books, 8,500.84 

College Yard expenses, labor and material, &c, . 2,534.02 

Commencement Dinner 1884, 763.07 

Dean's and Registrar's Office, clerk, stationery, 

postage, copying, &c, 2,080.73 

# Fuel, 3,691.69 

Furniture, . . . 1,097.89 

Freight, diplomas, and sundries, 359.42 

Gas, 1,030.24 

Music, Class-Day, 1884, 125.00 

" Commencement, 1884, 185.00 

Pews hired in Cambridge churches, 1,032.00 

Printing office, expenses, 5,870.85 

Printing, 21.25 

Services of examiners and proctors, 3,142.88 

" ". undergraduates, 729.69 

Watchman, 124.00 

Water rates, 257.02 

Athletic Association expenses, 1,332.69 

Services in Chemical Laboratory, 354.81 

Instruments and apparatus, 22.00 

42,623.60 

Total payments, $248,365.05 



37 



Table No. III. 

THE LIBRARY. 

EECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Funds for the purchase of books. 

Subscription for Library, . ' $569.01 

Nathaniel I. Bowditch, 108.00 

Bright, h. income of the Bright Legacy, $1,292.50 

Interest on balance, 128.94 1,421.44 

Denny, 272.15 

Eliza Farrar, • 273.96 

Horace A. Haven, 188.29 

George Hayward, 295.31 

Thomas Hollis, 128.22 

Sidney Homer, 107.12 

Frederick A. Lane, 280.11 

Lowell, 1,080.43 

Charles Minot. Interest, $115.13 

From special investment, . . 4,200.00 4,315.13 

Lucy Osgood, . . . . 366.14 

Mary Osgood, 359.99 

Stephen Salisbury, 262.43 

Sever, 1,055.35 

Samuel Shapleigh, 223.14 

Charles Sumner, 1,927.27 

Ichabod Tucker. From special investment, . . 200.00 

Thomas W. Ward, 260.67 

George W. Wales. Gift, $200.00 

Interest on unexpended balance, 6.77 206.77 

James Walker, . . . . 845.35 

14,746.28 

Subscription of 1880 (on account of), 2.97 

Gift from Dante Society, 50.00 



52.97 



James Savage Fund for general expenses (h of income), 935.70 

Daniel Austin " " " « 289.52 

Eben Wright " " " " . .$4,739.18 

Accrued Income received with Fund, 6,888.89 11,628.07 

12,853.29 

Subscription to aid in publishing the Library Bulletin, 450.00 

Fees for use of Library, 175.00 

Sales of Bulletins and Calendars, 114.00 

Fines, 10.00 



- 299.00 
$28,401.54 



PAYMENTS. 

For Books from 

Subscription Fund, $810.75 

Bowditch " 92.01 

Amount carried forward, $902.76 



38 



Table III., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, . . . . $902.76 

Bright Fund, 3,268.03 

Denny " 271.69 

Farrar " 256.48 

Haven " 136.77 

Hayward " 450.16 

Hollis " 96.03 

Homer " 75.56 

Lane " 358.70 

Lowell " 1,114.50 

Minot " 6,348.72 

Lucy Osgood 246.22 

Mary Osgood 157.77 

Salisbury " 87.31 

Sever " 1,358.02 

Shapleigh " 376.23 

Sumner » 1,840.28 

Tucker " 143.77 

Ward " 51.14 

Wales " 337.29 

Walker " . . . 1,053.80 

Dante Society money, 47.12 

Duplicate " .51 

Subscription of 1880, 2.97 18,981.83 

Salaries and wages, 18,063.72 

Binding, 1,334.94 

Stationery and postage, 534.16 

Fuel, 907.90 

Repairs and improvements, 1,531.56 

Freight, water, and sundries, 252.66 

Janitors and cleaning, 382.56 

Furniture, 269.61 

Insurance on steam boiler, 15.00 

Bulletins, and other printing, 1,551.28 

Balance of cost of Scudder Catalogue charged off, . . . 98.57 24,941.96 



$43,923.79 



Table No. IV. 

DIVINITY SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Funds applicable to Salaries. 

General Fund, $1,316.54 

Benjamin Bussey Professorship, 1,943.09 

Parkman Professorship, 828.03 

Amount carried forward, .... $4,087.66 



39 

Table IV., continued. 

BECEIPTS. 
Amount brought forward, . . $4,087.66 

John Hancock Professorship, 310.61 

Winn Professorship of Ecclesiastical History, . 2,318.54 

Samuel Dexter, 1,048.48 

Henry Lienow, 474.86 

Mary P. Townsend, 271.43 

Winthrop Ward, 108.57 

Samuel Hoar, 54.29 • 

Abraham W. Fuller, 54.29 

Caroline Merriam, 54.29 

Joseph. Baker, 407. 14 

Thomas Tileston of New York Endowment, . 2,068.00 

Oliver Ames, 878.90 

Henry P. Kidder, 517.00 

Abby Crocker Richmond, 51.70 

New Subscription, 3,608.87 16,314.63 

Income of Scholarship Funds. 

Thomas Cary, 268.58 

George Chapman, 119.38 

Joshua Clapp, 172.52 

Jackson Foundation, 677.11 

J. Henry Kendall, 181.57 

Nancy Kendall, 158.20 1,577.36 

Income of other Funds. 

Joshua Clapp, 112.60 

William Pomeroy, 54.29 

Hannah C.Andrews, 27.14 

Lewis Gould, 47.10 

Daniel Austin, 41.36 

Abner W. Buttrick, 596.15 

Adams Ayer, 43.12 

Interest on Beneficiary money returned, .... 91.46 1,013.22 
Term Bills. 

For Instruction, 1,100.00 

For Rents, 1,960.00 

3,060.00 

GeorgeS. Hale, gift for purchase of books, 450.00 

Sale of books, &c, 40.35 

Benjamin Bussey Trust. One-fourth of net income for use 

of this School, 2,819.25 

$25,274.81 
PAYMENTS. ■ •■ 

For Salaries for Instruction, $18,626.68 

Services of students, 401.50 

Labor, repairs, and improvements, 2,631.81 

Cleaning and care of rooms, 735.10 

Amount carried forward, $22,395.09 



r\ 



40 

Table IV., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 
Amount brought forward, $22,395.09 

Books and binding, 31G.13 

Printing, 59.25 

Puel, 151.50 

Gas, 210.13 

Water rates, 25.01 

Stationery, postage, diplomas, and sundries, . . . 65.98 

Collation, 85.00 

Furniture, 248.10 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, 40.86 

" " " " Gymnasium, 109.39 

Insurance, 112.50 23,818.94 1 

Paid the incumbents of the following Scholarships. 

Jackson Foundation, $640.00 

Thomas Cary, 350.00 

George Chapman, ■. 140.00 

Joshua Clapp, 125.00 

Nancy Kendall, 140.00 1,395.00 

Paid beneficiaries from the A. W. Buttrick Fund, 550.00 

$25,763.94 



Table No. V. 

LAW SCHOOL. 

EECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Funds. 

Law School Balance, $349.08 

Nathan Dane, 814.28 

Benjamin Bussey Professorship, ....... 1,239.77 

Isaac Royall, 431.23 

New Professorship. 

From special investment, .... $4,500.00 

Interest, 239.37 4,739.37 

Law School Book Fund, . . 1,655.49 

John Foster, income for Law students every 

third year, 163.99 

Benjamin Bussey Trust (£ of net income for 

use of this School), 2,819.24 12,212.45 

Term Bills. 

For instruction, 20,700.00 

Sale of books, v 9.32 

$32,921.77 



41 

Table V., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

For Salaries for Instruction, $20,250.00 

Librarian and Assistants, 2,945.75 

Janitors, cleaning, &c, 1,078.99 

Books and binding, 2,825.39 

Fuel, 934.50 

Gas, 511.96 

Printing 335.00 

Scholarships, 1,200.00 

Labor, repairs, and improvements, 1,159.90 

Stationery and postage, 141.21 

Freight, diplomas, and sundries, 99.24 

Water rates, 53.92 

Furniture, 327.92 

Account of new building, 33,084,40 

Services of examiners and proctors, 72.00 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, .... 284.00 

" " " " Gymnasium, 760.48 

Insurance, 115.00 $66,179.66 



Table No. VI. 
MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of the following Funds. 

Medical School, balance, $3,664.24 

Jackson Medical, 992.28 

Warren, for Anatomical Museum, 632.96 

Ward Nicholas Boylston, for Medical Prizes, . 193.82 
Ward Nicholas Boylston, for Medical Books, 124.44 

George C. Shattuck, 885.57 

Hersey Professorship, two-fifths income of the 

fund, 450.44 

Medical Library Fund. Interest, $145.38 

Balance of fines and old deposits, 90.25 235.63 

Quiney Tufts, . . . 103.40 

Edward M. Barringer. Interest, $1,288.00 

From special investment, 50.00 1,338.00 
Henry Harris, £ of income, .... . . . . 623.81 

9,244.59 

From students for instruction, 48,287.00 

" for graduation fees, 1,650.00 

" in Chemical Laboratory, breakage and 

chemicals, 1,285.59 

" in Practical Anatomy, for material, . . . 329.00 

51,551.59 

Subscriptions to the Building Fund, 2,000.00 

Use of lecture room by Medical Society, 50.00 

$62,846.18 



42 



Table VI., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Boylston Medical Prizes. Advertising, $56.00 

Warren Anatomical Museum. 

Expenses, Insurance, and additions to collection, . 656.89 

Swett Laboratory, 69.87 

Chemical Laboratory, 1,976.26 

Physiological Laboratory, 400.00 

Practical Anatomy and Surgery, 1,870.11 

Pathological Anatomy, 20.05 

Descriptive " 32.65 

Obstetrics, 252.75 

Histology, 125.00 

Materia Medica, 212.33 

Bandaging, 67.90 

Salaries for instruction, 38,470.44 

Furniture and fittings, 3,448.70 

Scholarships, 1,300.00 

For account of new building, 35,969.07 

General Expenses. 

Advertising and catalogues, $987.38 

Alcohol, 202.40 

Celebration, 1,202.94 

Cleaning, 767.79 

Diplomas, 77.18 

Faculty meetings, 53.94 

Firemen's Relief Association, 100.00 

Fuel, 2.532.96 

Gas, • 933.48 

Insurance, 237.50 

Legal services, 249.26 

Moving furniture, &c, 99.75 

Printing, 681.88 

Rent of rooms (in part) for Pathological specimens, 150.00 

Services and wages, 4,045.54 

Stationery, postage, and sundries, 249.92 

Water rates, ' 478.50 13,050.42 



84,928.02 



$97,978.44 



Table No. VII. 

DENTAL SCHOOL. 

RECEIPTS. 

Income of Subscription Fund, $60.85 

From Students, 4,960.00 

Infirmary, 949.06 

Laboratory, 160.00 

Rent of a part of the School building, 200.00 



$6,329.91 



43 



Table VII., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Advertising and catalogues, $376.76 

Care of rooms and cleaning, 377.38 

Drugs, chemicals, and sundries, 108.80 

Diplomas, 11.95 

Fuel, 155.90 

76.68 

Gold foil and metals, 542.79 

Instruments and apparatus, 344.87 

Insurance, * 32.00 

Interest on debt, 819.54 

Moving furniture, &c, 24.00 

Printing, 72.45 

Repairs and improvements, 1,379.54 

Salaries for instruction, 2,981.00 

Stationery and postage, 55.15 

Taxes, 113.10 

Water rates, 53.00 



$7,524.91 



Table No. VIII. 

LAWRENCE SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL, AND MUSEUM OF 
COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 

RECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Eunds. 

Professorship of Engineering, $2,006.32 

Professorship of Chemistry, 147.91 

Abbott Lawrence, 3,181.41 

James Lawrence, 2,604.39 

John B. Barringer. Interest,. . . $1,472.78 

Erom special investment, 200.00 1,672.78 
Gray Eund for Zoological Museum, . . . . . . 2,585.00 

Sturgis Hooper, , 5,170.00 

Agassiz Memorial. Interest, . . . $14,222.57 

Erom special investment, 1,039.02 15,261.59 

Teachers and Pupils, . . . 392.61 

Humboldt, 400.21 

Permanent Eund for Museum of Zoologv, . . . 6,073.15 

39,495.37 

Term Bills, for Instruction, 3,970.00 

$43,465.37 
PAYMENTS. 

Paid on the order of the Eaculty of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, from the following Funds. 

Gray, $2,585.00 

Agassiz Memorial, 13,620.51 

Amount carried forward, $16,205.51 



44 



Table VIII., continued. 

PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, $16,205.51 

Teachers and Pupils, 392.61 

Humboldt, 400.21 

Permanent, 6,073.15 

Salaries for instruction, 15,781.41 

Expenses in Geology, 570.00 

Stationery and postage, 6.60 

Books, Engineering Department, 82.03 

Insurance, 90.00 

Fuel, 406.90 

Gas, freight, and sundries, 31.81 

Janitor and cleaning, 522.00 

Labor and repairs, 58.77 

Expenses Chemical Laboratory (part of), 324.97 

Scholarships, 450.00 

Interest on advances, 243.30 

Water rates, 48.45 

Proportion of expenses of Bursar's office, 50.59 

" " " " Gymnasium, 135.44 



23,071.4 



18,802.27 
$41,873.75 



Table No. IX. 

OBSERVATORY. 

RECEIPTS. 
Income of the following Eunds. 

Observatory, balance, $158.87 

Edward B. Phillips, 5,702.20 

James Hayward, 1,085.70 

David Sears, 1,192.46 

Josiah Q,uincy, 641.65 

James Savage (£ of net income), 935.70 

Charlotte Harris, 103.40 

Thomas G, Appleton, 32.31 

New Endowment, 1,811. It 

From sale of time signals, 2,895.83 

" " " Observatory Annals, 30.00 

" " " grass, 1 . . . . 35.00 

PAYMENTS. 

Salaries and wages, $13,680.80 

Cleaning and care of Observatory, 274.64 

Gas, 95.92 

Instruments and apparatus, including repairs on same, 1,331.05 

Amount carried forward, $15,382.41 



5 11,663.44 i 



2,960.83 



$14,624.27 



45 

Table IX., continued. 
PAYMENTS. 

Amount brought forward, $15,382.41 

Repairs and improvements on buildings and grounds, . 688.89 

Stationery, postage, and telegraphing, 452.19 

Fuel, 44.00 

Books and binding, ' 205.99 

Water rates, 46.67 

Printing, 2,180.52 

Freight, chemicals, and sundries, - 138.96 

Furniture. 101.12 

Advertising 12.00 

Insurance, 193.50 $19,446.2^ 

Table No. X. 

BUSSEY INSTITUTION. 

EECEIPTS. 

From Bussey Trust (h net income), $5,638.49 

From Bussey Building Fund, 149.00 

Fees for Instruction, 450.00 

Sale of coal to Arboretum, 82.00 

Sale of wood and sundries, 13.97 

From Arnold Arboretum for rent of greenhouses, . . 50.00 

Board of horses, cattle, &c, 1,367.46 $7,750.92 

PAYMENTS. 

For Salaries, $5,505.33 

Books, 23.48 

Stationery and postage, cleaning, gas, &c., 40.14 

Fuel for school building, 120.13 

Services and wages, 1,090.01 

Horticultural Department, expenses, 715.68 

Bepairs and improvements, 1,069.54 

Grain, 304.14 

Insurance, . . . . " 450.75 

Subscription to Veterinary Hospital, 2 years, 20.00 

Advertising, 95.95 

Printing, 15.50 

Borse shoeing, 62.75 

Seeds, 21.20 

Horse, 70.00 

Farming tools, 470.23 $10,074.83 



Bussey Building Fund. 
Receipts. 

Income of unexpended balance of Fund, $149.00 

Payments. 
Income carried to Bussey Institution, $149.00 






46 

Table X., continued. 

James Arnold Fund. 

Receipts. 
Income of Fund, $7,863.36 

Payments. 
19/20 of income carried to Arnold Arboretum, $7,470.19' 



Arnold Arboretum. 
Receipts. 

Income of unexpended balance of Fund, $651.21 

From James Arnold Fund, 7,470.19 

Sale of wood, grass, &c, 415.00 

$8,536.40 

Payments. 

Salary of Director and Assistant, .$3,000.00 

Expenses of Arboretum, 6,129.89 

$9,129.89 



School of Veterinary Medicine. 
Receipts. 

Gift from Mass. Society for Promoting Agriculture, . $2,000.00 

Term bills, for instruction, 970.00 

Subscriptions to Veterinary Hospital, . 1,300.00 

Fees from Hospital, 5,209.59 

" " Forge, 758.20 

Kent of " 183.34 

$10,421.13 

Payments. 

Salaries and wages, $5,001.40 

Apparatus, fixtures, &c, 634.86 

For account of new building, 5,640.63 

Rent, 1,226.05 

Hay, straw, and grain, 1,455.93 

Shoes, nails, iron, tools, &c, 292.90 

Printing and advertising, 203.96 

Postage, stationery, drugs, and sundries, 852.19 

Repairs, 108.18 

Subjects, 45.00 

Fuel, 160.97 

Water, 47.50 

Gas, 79.74 

Telephone, 120.34 

Taxes, 79.75 

Board of horses, &c. at Bussey Institution, 502.52 

Interest on advances, 123.20 

$16,575.12 



47 

Table No XL 

MISCELLANEOUS FUNDS. 

Bussey Trust. 

Receipts. 
Net income from Real Estate, $17,576.98 

Payments. 

Annuities, . $6,300.00 

One-half of the remaining income to Bussey Institution, 5,638.49 

One-quarter " " " Divinity School, ;' 2,819.25 

" " " " " Law School, . . . 2,819.24 

$17,576.98 

Gray Fund for Engravings. 

Receipts. 

Interest on Fund, $834.75 

From sale of catalogues, &c, . . . .' 49.00 



Payments. 
To the Treasurer of the Museum of Fine Arts, . . . $500.00 
Balance of account for purchase of engravings in 1881, 8.22 



75 



$508.22 



Annuity Funds. 

Receipts. 

Gore, interest, $1,075.67 

Lucy Osgood, interest, 307.93 

Anonymous Observatory, income from special investm't, 720.00 
Bemis, interest, 2,585.00 

$4,688.60 

Payments. 

Gore, annuities, $842.45 

Lucy Osgood, annuity, 420.00 

Anonymous Observatory, annuity, . 720.00 

Bemis, annuity, 2,797.50 

$4,779.95 

Daniel Williams Fund. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $829.84 

Payments. 

Treasurer of Herring Pond Indians, $298.89 

" " Mashpee Indians, 597.79 



Sarah. Winslow Fund. 



Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $249.92 

Payments. 

Minister at Tyngsborough, Mass., $131.32 

Teacher at " " 131.32 

Commission on income credited to University, 6.73 

$269.37 



48 

Table XL, continued. 

James Savage Fund. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $2,171. 

Payments. 

Scholarship, $300.00 

One-half the remaining income to Library, 935.70 

" " " Observatory, .... 935.70 

$2,171. 



Bright Legacy. 

Receipts. 
Interest on Fund, $2,585. 

Payments. 

One-half income to Bright Book Fund, $1,292.50 

One-half income to Scholarship Fund, 1,292.50 

■ $2,585.( 



Sundry Accounts. 

Receipts. 
From Thomas Jefferson Coolidge for the Jefferson 

Physical Laboratory, $65,000.00 

Interest on the same, 701.38 $65,701.38 

Gospel Church Fd. (accumulat'g). Interest on Fund, 138.04 
Robert Troup Paine Fd. " From special investm't, 1,196.39 
Advances to 

Dental School, from general investments, 1,195.00 

Observatory, " " " 876.07 

School of Veterinary Medicine, " " 5,813.21 

Law School Building Fund, " " 7,431.07 

Bussey Institution, " " 2,273.41 

Payments. 

Jefferson Physical Laboratory, spent on building, . $73,468.59 

Annuity for Class of 1802, 120.00 

George B. Dorr Fund, net loss from change of 

special investment, 637.50 

Advances repaid, to 

Agassiz Memorial Fund, 1,641.08 

Lawrence Scientific School, 350.54 

Baring Bros. & Co., balance paid off, 6,121.86 



$84,624.57 



$82,339.57 



7!5 



ANNUAL REPORTS 



OF THE 



RESIDENT AND TREASURES 



OF 



HARVARD COLLEGE 



1884-85. 




CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY. 

1886. 






PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR 1884-85. 



To the Board of Overseers : — 

The President of the University has the honor to submit the 
following Report for the academic year 1884-85 ; namely, from 
Sept. 25th, 1884, to Oct. 1st, 1885 : — 

Henry Lawrence Eustis, Professor of Engineering and Dean 
)f the Scientific Faculty, died Jan. 11th, 1885, in the sixty- 
?ixth year of his age, and the thirty-sixth of his service as 
professor in the University. Professor Eustis's gifts as a 
teacher were great ; and he has left behind among his pupils a 
keen sense of obligation for the intellectual benefits they re- 
ceived from him. He had an extraordinary power of clear, 
concise, logical statement, a quick appreciation of a pupil's dif- 
ficulties, and a steady purpose to be thorough himself and to 
make his pupils thorough. Though reserved by nature, to his 
pupils he was always accessible, frank and cordial. He is en- 
titled to be remembered as one of the founders of the Scientific 
School; for, as first Professor of Engineering, he planned, and 
for thirty-five years directed, the whole course of study in that 
important department of the School. 

Tables of the resignations and appointments of the year will 
be found in the Appendix (pp. 181-185). 

The President and Fellows very much regretted the with- 
drawal from their board at the beginning of the year of Alex- 
ander Agassiz, Esq., who had served as a Fellow since 1878 
to the great advantage of the University. The vote in which 
they expressed their regret and their gratitude will be found 
in the Appendix (p. 185). 

It is now sixty years since the Faculty of Harvard College 
began to elaborate (see the Report for 1883-84) a system of 
instruction and discipline for students in the liberal arts which 



i 



b THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. 

aids, works well in practice, it is of course to be preferrlto 
any method of selection for the individual by an authority n 
side himself. How such election of subjects of study w< k 
it is the object of the following pages to exhibit. 

The young men, whose choice of studies during three y Jrs, 
is exhibited in the tables which begin on p. 9, were orlkw 
average nineteen years old when they entered College (fo the 
details see Appendix, p. 188), and therefore twenty yearild 
when they made their first choice of studies at the beginnii 1 of 
the Sophomore Year. The schools from which they came rill 
be found under the years 1880 and 1881 in the table of sclbl 
from which boys entered the College in the years 1876 to '.Bo 
inclusive (see Appendix, pp. 189-193). Beside meeting me 
requirements of the admission examination,* these two chies 
had spent the Freshman year in the study (at that time de- 
scribed) of Greek, Latin, mathematics* physics, Frencljor 
German, and chemistry (lectures). 

The Dean's Report contains every year a complete lis lof 

* The manner in which they met the requirements as regards the elective |b- 
jects was thus exhibited in the Dean's Eeport : — It will be observed that mr 
fifths of them presented the maximum subjects in both Greek and Latin. 

1880. 1881. 

Whole number of candidates ..... 236 253 

Number offering elective 

per cent* per cei I 

Latin 222 94 239 94 

Greek 187 79 203 80 

Mathematics 46 19 46 18 

Physical Science 45 19 47 18 ' 

1880 1881 ! 

Number of candidates who offered elective 

Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Physical Science . . 2 4 

Latin, Greek, and Mathematics 15 14 

Latin, Greek, and Physical Science 7 5 

Latin, Mathematics, and Physical Science 2 1 

Greek, Mathematics, and Physical Science 1 

Latin and Greek 159 177 

Latin and Mathematics 17 13 

Latin and Physical Science ....#. 20 25 

Greek and Mathematics 2 

Greek and Physical Science 4 

Mathematics and Physical Science 10 11 

236 253 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 7 

e College courses of instruction for the year reported on, — 
r list which gives for each course the subject, the text-books 
any, the name of the instructor, the number of hours of 
4 ruction per week, the number of students attending it, and 
e classes or departments to which the students belonged. 
at.'ilogue also contains every year a list of the courses of 
-miction for the current year, with some descriptions and 
rections not found in the Dean's Report, but without the 
: imber of students attending each course. These sour.es of 
formation will be found useful by persons who wish to go 
yoncl the facts reported in the following tables. 



(only 
-lv WQ 

pee 

re i 

years 



came 
f sch 

Ho; 



ie Selection of Studies made during three consecutive years by 
every member of the college class of 1884, and by every member 
of the College Class of 1885, who was a member of the class 
DUBiNG the Sophomore, Junior, and Senior years. 



For these two classes all the studies of the Freshman year were required, as 
re also Rhetoric, and certain exercises in writing English in the later years of 
e course. In the following tables the figures in heavy type denote the relative 
nk of the student in the class, and are followed in the same horizontal line by 
s average mark, stated in percents, on all his courses for each year. Since only 
ose members of the two classes who chose their studies for three successive 
ars are included in the tables, only 350 individual cases are obtained from 
isses which together graduated 373 strong. The courses chosen by each stu- 
nt are tabulated in a form which exhibits at a glance the continuity or discon- 
ntinuity of his studies throughout the three years. The figure at the side of 
ch course is the number of the course, or of the equivalent course, in the list of 
term ?ctive studies for 1884-85 in the Dean's Report, below, pp. 74-94. In English, 
lilosophy, and Natural History, and also in certain single courses, the subject- 
atter of the course is given: e.g. " Eng. Comp. 5 " = Course 5 in English; 
Ethics 4 " = Course 4 in Philosophy ; " Drawing 1 " = Course 1 in Fine Arts : 
R. Phil. 11" = Course 11 in French; etc. Full courses are printed in Roman 
pe; half-courses in Italics, except in the Sophomore year of the class of 1884, 
len the discrimination of all courses into full or half-courses (according to 
e estimated amount of work in each) had not been introduced. In that year 
881-82) italics indicate courses which had less than three hours of recitation 
ekly. Eng. Comp. 5 is given in italics, when one half of the course is sub- 
ituted for Junior Themes ; and the following courses, which have three hours 
recitation weekly, have been sometimes taken as courses of two hours, and in 
eh cases are given in italics: Physics 1, Phys. Geo. 1, French 4, Geology 4, 
atin 1. The following courses can be taken more than once, since their topics are 
langed entirely from year to year : Greek 5, Greek 9, English 2, Eng. Comp. 5, 
rench 4. [ indicates an extra course : i. e. one which is not counted by the 
udent toward his degree. ( indicates a course in which the student failed to 
iss the examinations, so that he was obliged to take an additional course in a 
ibsequent year. 



O THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. 

A small letter above the line refers to a corresponding note in the list of : 
given below ; and in all such cases the figure at the side of the course I 
number of the course in the list of Courses of Instruction contained in the | 
logue for the year under which the course is mentioned. The foot-notes 01 1 
page indicate the courses taken by the student in his Freshman year, in pi j 
certain Freshman studies which he had anticipated. 

Notes. 
a Before 1884-85, English 1 was a combination of English 1 and 11 ['84- 
b Philosophy 2 ['82-83] and Philosophy 1 ['83-84] are each equivalent 

half-course Philosophy 2 ['84-'85] and the Logic of Philosophy 1 ['84-85], I 

these courses are elementary and differ only in details. 

c German 4 and 6 have no place in the Catalogue of 1884-85. 

d Before 1883-84, Geology 4 was a full course, but could be taken as two 1 

g Before 1883-84, English 7 was equivalent to a combination of English 7 j 

['84-'85]. 
h No exact equivalent in 1884-85. The subject-matter of this course ii 

year previous to 1884-85 can be found in the Catalogue for that year. 
k In 1881-82, History 1 and 2 together were equivalent to History 1 ['84 
m In 1881-82, Mathematics 3 and 4 together were equivalent to Mathema 

['84-'85]. 
n In 1882-83, Music 1 was equivalent to a combination of Music 1 and 4 ['84 



CLASS OF 1884. 






ELECTIVE STUDIES OF THE CLASS OF 1884. 



phomore 
Year. 

1881-82. 



99 
•hilos. 1 
rim 4 
reek l h 
ntrlish l a 
ngluh 2 



Junior 

Your. 
18S2-S3. 



18 M 

m 

miei 



erman 5 h 
erman 2 
i lerman 4 h 
rrce/t 5 
rench 2 
a*i'?i 2 h 
otany 3 



96 



heek 2 
rVeefc 3 
rata 2 h 

atin 3 
fa/A. 2 
fath. 4 m 
listory 2 



97 



'hem. 1 
otany 3 
/a//i. 2 
/ato. 3 m 
/atfi. 4 m 



87 



96 



oology 2 
'totany 3 
Geology 4 d 
'hysics 2 
ierman 2 



%t7os. 1 
Jotany 3 
/hem. 1 
rreefc 5 
■jatin 2 h 



92 



89 



! rench 2 
listory 2 k 
?reefc 2 
rrccA; 5 
.atin 1 



98 
Philos. 5 
Philos. 6 
Greek 8 
Eng.Comp.5 
French 8 



Senior 
Year. 

1883-84. 



Sanskrit 1 
Hebrew 1 
Arabic 7 
[Greek 2 
French 4 



97 



u 94 

Greek 9 
Latin 9 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 5 



97 
Chem. 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



Phys. Geo. 1 
Biology 5 
Geology 8 
Geology 16 



94 

Philos. 6 
Geology 4 d 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 4 



French 3 
History 11 
English 2 
Philos. 2 b 



95 



97 

Ethics 4 
Philos. 7 
History 10 
Fine Arts 3 



[Sanskrit 2 
Hebrew 2 
Aramaic 3 
Assyrian 4 

[Semitic 6 h 
Arabic 8 



95 



Greek 5 
Greek 8 
Latin 6 
Fine Arts 3 



97 
Zoology 6 
Geology 8 
Palaeont. 14 
Geology 18 



95 

Zoology 6 
Embryol. 9 
Palaeont. 14 
Chem. 2 



96 
Ethics 4 
Geology 8 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 13 



Italian 1 
English l a 
English 2 
Philos. 6 



98 



Sophomore 
Year. 

1881-82. 



8 2 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 3 
Latin 4 
Latin 5 
History 3 



94 



9 3 92 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 
History 2* 
German 2 
French 1 



Junior 
Year. 
1882-83. 



Greek 7 
Greek 9 
Latin 6 
History 4 



96 



94 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Rom. Law 1 
History 9 
History 13 



10 4 

Chem. 1 
Botany 3 
German 4 h 
German 5 h 
French 2 



89 



11 

Botany 3 
Greek 2 
Latin 1 
Math. 2 
German 2 



90 



12 5 

Greek l h 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
History 2 k 
English l a 



88 



13 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 



90 



14 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
English 1« 
Philos. 1 



93 



Chem. 3 
Chem. 4 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



95 



Senior 
Year. 
1883-84. 



Greek 6 
Greek 8 
Greek 12 
Latin 8 
[Sanskrit 1 



93 



95 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 7 
History 15 



Chem. 2 
Chem. 5 
Chem. 6 
History 1 



99 



97 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 
Chem. 1 ' 



Greek 9 
Latin 6 
Music l n 
History 11 



93 



94 

History 3 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 



93 

Greek 9 

Latin 6 
[Eng. Comp.5 
[English 7% 

Polit. Ec. 1 

Philos. 5 



9i 

Zoology 6 
Geology 8 
Palaeont. 14 
Geology 18 



Greek 8 
Latin 8 
Music 3 



93 



9i 
History 12 
Philos. l b 
Eng.Comp.5 
Fine Arts 3 



Greek 6 
Greek 8 
Latin 7 
Latin 8 



94 



I* Freshmax Year 
urn 5J>. 



- 1 Math. 1. — 2 Latin 1. — 3 Greek 5; Greek 3. — * French 1. — « Ger- 



10 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 


J unior 


Senior 


Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 


Senior 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


15 gi 


91 


91 


23 85 


93 


9' 


Philos. 1 


Ethics 4 


Polit. Ec. 2 


• Greek 2 


Greek 8 


Greek 9 


Greek 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 3 


Greek 5 


Latin 8 


Greek 13 


Greek 3 


History 9 


History 13 


Greek 3 


Zoology 2 


Semitic 1 


Latin 2 h 


History 11 


Rom. Law 1 


Latin 1 


Botany 3 


Philos. 6 


Latin 3 






Latin 3 


[English 3 




German 4 h 
French 2 






German 2 


[German 4 C 




24 6 88 


94 
Math. 1 


9: 

Math. 8 


16 go 


93 


95 


Math. 2 


[ Greek 5 


Greek 3 


Greek 7 


Math. 4 m 


Math. 5 


Math. 9 


Latin 1 


Latin 3 


Latin 8 


Physics l h 


Math. 6 


Math. 10 


French 1 


French 3 


French 4 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 3 


Polit. Ec. 1 


German 2 


[English 7s 


Zoology 2 


French 1 






Chem. 1 


Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 


[Geology 4 


25 7 gi 

Fine Arts 7 


Fine Arts 3 h 


1 
Music 3 


17 go 


94 


95 


History 2 


Fine Arts 3 


History 13 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 2 


Chem. 5 


History 7 h 


German 2 


German 3 


Math. 2 


Chem. 3 


Chem. 6 


Italian 1 


German 4 C 


German 6 C 


History l k 
German 2 
French 1 


Chem. 4 
Phys. Geo. 1 


Chem. 7 
Geology 8 


Phys. Geo. 1 




German 7 , 


26 8g 


94 


94 








Philos. 1 


Ethics 4 


Philos. 3 


18 87 


89 


96 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Philos. 5 


Philos. 7 


History 2 


History 9 


History 12 


French 1 


Philos. 6 


Philos. 8 h 


German 2 


History 13 


History 15 


German 2 


German 3 h 


History 2 


French 8 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


English 78 




History 12 


Philos. 2 


Ethics 4 


Eom. Law 1 


27 87 
Chem. 1 
Physics l h 






Physics 3 






9i 

Chem. 3 
Chem. 4 


93 

Chem. 2 
Chem. 5 


19 87 


92 


97 


Botany 3 


Zoology 2 


Phys. Geo. 1 


Biology 5 


Zoology 2 


Zoology 6 


Greek 5 


Geology 4 d 


Biology 5 


German 3 h 


Botany 7 


Botany 3 


German 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Geology 8 


French 1 






Chem. 1 

English 7s 


Philos. 1 


Chem. 3 


28 8g 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 


92 
Greek 9 
Latin 6 


89 

Greek 6 
Greek 8 


20 89 


go 

History 11 


89 

History 12 


History 2 


Latin 1 


Philos. 1 


Latin 8 


Jfatfi. 2 


History 13 


Polit. Ec. 2 


[Latin 2 h 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Latin 9 


Chem. 3 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Ljatin 3 




Polit. Ec. 2 


Biology 5 


Geology 4 d 


Eom. Law 1 


English l a 




[Polit. Ec. 5 


German 3 h 


[Surveying 




German 2 






21 gi 


89 


96 


29 84 


92 


96 


History 2 k 


History 9 


History 12 


Philos. 1 


Philos. 6 


Polit. Ec. 1 


History 2 


History 13 


History 14 


German 2 


French 2 


French 4 


French 1 


French 8 


History 15 


Latin 2 h 


Spanish 1 


Spanish 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 2 


Polit. Ec. 6 


Greek 2 


Eng.Comp.5 


History 13 


German 2 


Eng.Comp.5 


Polit. Ec. 7 


Chem. 1 






22 gi 


92 


go 


30 8g 


88 


88 


PM05. 1 


Ethics 4 


Philos. 8 h 


Philos. 1 


Ethics 4 


Philos. 3 


Greek l h 


Philos. 5 


English l a 


Greek 2 


Philos. 5 


Philos. 10 


Greek 2 


Philos. 6 


English 2 


Greek 3 


Philos. 6 


History 12 


6VeeA; 5 


Eng.Comp.b 


Zoology 2 


Latin 2 h 


History 1 


History 13 


Greek 3 


English 7% 




Latin 3 




Polit. Ec. 1 


ia<w 2 h 






German 2 






Latin 3 






English 7% 






In Freshman Year :— 6 Math. 3°>. — ? jFfoe ^ s 3h; F{ ne ^ r { S q. 



CLASS OF 1884. 



11 



Sophomore 
Yeur. 



31 

, Math. 2 
I Math, 3 m 

Math. 4 m 
| Math. 7 

Phvsics 2 



go 



32 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 

Latin 1 

Latin 3 

History 2 k 



84 



33 84 

Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 
German 2 
Jfato. 1 
Physics l h 



34 

Gn?e& 2 
[GVee& 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 
French 2 



86 



Junior 
Year. 



86 
Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Physics 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Greek 5 h 
Greek 7 
Lt»Lin 5 
Lacin 6 

Latin 7 



92 



86 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 13 
Rom. Law 1 
Philos. 2 b 



Senior 
Year. 



Math. 
Math. 10 
Physics 5 
Physics 6 



93 



Greek 6 
Greek 8 
Greek 9 
Latin 8 
Latin 9 



92 



35 88 

History 13 
German 2 
Math. 2 
jlfatfi. 3 m 
Math. 4 m 



36 88 

History 2 k 
History 2 
History 3 
GVeefc 2 
GVee& 5 

[GVee&3 
Latin 1 

[£afoVi 3 



37 77 

History 2 
History 4 
J/atfi. 2 
Physics l h 
Chem. 1 



38 8 

Chem. 1 
Philos. 1 
(History l k 
German G h 
GVee& 2 



75 



Greek 7 
Greek 9 
Latin 6 
Sanskrit 1 



92 



89 
History 11 
German 3 h 
Philos. 2»> 
Polit. Ec. 1 



88 
History 9 
History 13 
Rom. Law 1 
[Ethics 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 



85 
History 10 
History 11 
PhiJos. 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 



87 



Chem. 3 
Philos. 6 
Italian 1 
German 3 h 
Greek 5 



92 

Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. He. 6 
Polit. He. 7 
History 14 
Zoology 2 



Greek 6 
Greek 8 
Ljatin 7 
Latin 8 
Philos. 6 



9i 



75 
History 12 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 5 
Polit. Ec. 4 



90 
History 10 
History 12 
History 14 
History 15 
[Polit. He. 6 
[Polit. He. 7 



94 
History 12 
History 13 
History 15 
Polit. Ec. 1 



90 
Chem. 4 
Fine Arts 3 
Italian 2 



Sophomore 
Year. 



39 82 

History 2 
French 1 
German 3 h 
Physics 2 
Chem. 1 



40 83 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Chem. 2 
German 1 
Greek l h 



41 81 

German 1 
French 1 
Greek 5 
History l k 
Philos. 1 



Junior 
Year. 



88 
History 9 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 
Eng.Comp.5 



90 

Botany 3 
Geology 4 d 
Biology 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 



42 9 85 

German 3 
Italian 1 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Greek 10 



43 86 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Chem. 1 
German 2 
French 1 



4410 78 

Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 
Physics 2 
Math. 2 
Greek 2 

[Spanish 1 



45 76 

History 2 k 
History 2 
Latin 2 h 
( Greek 2 
German 2 
German 4 h 



46 ' 



90 



History 7 h 
German 5 h 
French 2 
Greek l h 
Greek 10 



92 
German 4 C 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



88 
German 3 h 
Italian 2 
History 11 
Polit. Ec. 2 



Senior 
Year. 



92 

History 13 
History 15 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
[Polit. He. 6 
[Polit. He. 7 



94 

Botany 7 

Palaeont. 14 
History 1 
Fine Arts 3 



German 6 C 
Chem. 3 
Biology 5 
History 13 



91 



History 12 
History 13 
History 15 
Polit. He. 5 
Polit. Ec. 7 



84 
Biology 5 
Chem. 3 
Polit Ec. 1 
Physics 3 
English 7& 



85 

Geology 8 
Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 13 



86 
History 9 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 2 b 
French 1 



92 

History 13 
German 3 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Zoology 6 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
History 4 

[History 10 
History 12 



85 



86 

Palaeont. 14 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 7 
History 12 



History 12 
History 14 
History 15 
Rom. Law 1 



87 

History 9 
Philos. 6 
Geology 4 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Eloc. 9 



In Freshman Year : — « German 1. — 9 Greek 5; Ethics 4. — " Chem. 1. — n French 1. 



12 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 



Junior 
Year. 



Senior 
Year. 



47 84 

History 2 k 
History 2 
History 3 
Greek 5 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 



48 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Gr«e* 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 



81 



49 80 

History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 1 
Physics l h 
Chem. 1 



85 
History 9 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 
Eng.Comp.5 



88 



Greek 5 h 
Greek 8 
Latin 5 
Latin 6 
Latin 7 



86 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Philos. 6 
Rom. Law 1 



Greek 6 
Greek 9 
Greek 13 
Latin 8 
Latin 9 



87 



50 

Chem. 1 
Physics 2 
German 1 
French 2 



77 



51 

Math. 1 
Math. 4 m 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
German 2 



81 



52 78 

P%5. £eo. 1 
German 1 
French 1 
History 2 k 
Math. 



53 80 

German 1 
Chem. 1 
Italian 1 
English 2 



54 

German 
Greek 2 
Greek 5 
GVeefc 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 



81 



82 

History 11 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Philos. 1 
Eng.Comp.5 



87 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 4 C 
Philos. 1 



80 
Math. 2 
History 1 
Philos. 1 
Fine Arts 6 



Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Geology 4 d 
Biology 5 



85 
German 3 h 
Chem. 3 
Chem. 4 
Zoology 2 



81 
German 3 h 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 2 b 



9i 
History 12 
History 13 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 
Elocution 9 



Sophomore 
Year. 



55 12 

Music 2 
Music 3 
Greek 2 
Greek 5 

[Greeks 
Latin 2 h 

[Latin 3 



86 



Junior 
Year. 



56 

Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Math. 2 
German 2 
French 1 



78 



85 



Botany 3 
Biology 5 
History 12 
Ethics 4 



87 

History 9 
History 12 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 



83 

Palaeont. 14 
Botany 7 
Geology 8 
Chem. 1 



83 



German 6 C 
Chem. 5 
Chem. 6 
Geology 4 
History 2 



84 
Spanish 1 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Ethics 4 



57 78 

History l k 
English l a 
Math. 1 
Botany 3 
German 1 



58 75 

History 2 k 
History 2 
French 2 
German 1 
Greek 5 



59 

Math. 2 
Math. 3 m 
Math. 4 m 
Physics 2 
German 2 



79 



76 

Music 5 
Italian 1 
Philos. 1 
Geology 4 d 



Chem. 2 
Chem. 3 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 



83 



Senior 
Year. 



Music 4 
[Music 5 
Music 6 
History 10 



Chem. 4 
Geology 4 
Geology 8 
Polit. Ec. 7 
Fine Arts 3 






84 
History 10 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Chem. 1 



85 
History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 4 C 



88 



60 

Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Botany 
Physics l h 
[Math. 2 
German 3 h 



83 



61 



78 



Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 k 
German 2 
French 1 



62 79 

History 2 k 
Latin 2 h 
Greek 2 
Spanish 1 
Chem. 1 



Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Chem. 1 
Philos. 1 



83 
Chem. 2 
Geology 4 d 
Biology 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 



84 

Philos. 6 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 11 
History 13 



81 

History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Eng.Comp.5 
French 8 



8s 
History 13 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 
Phys. Geo. 1 



90 
History 12 
History 15 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit., Ec. 7 



83 

Math. 8 
Math. 9 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Physics 5 



Chem. 3 
Zoology 6 
Botany 7 
Geology 8 



89 



86 
Philos. 3 
Philos. 5 
Polit. Ec. 7 
History 9 
History 12 



83 

History 12 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit, Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 7 



In Freshman Year : — 12 French 3 ; [Music 1. 



CLASS OF 1884. 



13 



Sophomore 



hrv v, 



63 

Chem. 1 
Physics 2 
History 2 
German 3 h 
French 1 



82 



78 



164 

Chem. 1 

I Physics 2 
French 1 
German 1 



65 

German 

(six hours) 
French 

(six hours) 



Junior 
Year. 



Chem. 2 
Chem. 3 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



89 



8i 

Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 11 
German 4 C 



66 

Chem. 1 

Chem. 2 
[Zoology 2 

Botany 3 
[Physics l h 

Physics 2 



83 



67 76 

German 1 
Chem. 1 
Botany 3 
English 2 



68 13 
Greek l h 
German 3 
Philos. 1 
French 8 
Latin 2 h 



81 



69 

Zoology 2 
Greek 2 
Greek 5 
[Greeks 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 
German 2 



70 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 3 
Latin 6 
German 
(Chem. 1 



68 



73 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Rom. Law 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 



81 
Chem. 4 
Chem. 5 
Geology 4 d 
Biology 5 



Senior 
Year. 



75 
Chem. 4 
Chem. 5 
Geology 18 
Music 3 



Botany 3 
Biology 5 
History 12 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



87 



88 
History 9 
History 10 
History 13 
Eng.Comp.5 



German 4 C 
Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 



79 



Greek 8 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 5 
Italian 1 



70 



85 
Botany 3 
Geology 4 d 
Biology 5 
French 2 



Latin 4 
Latin 8 
History 11 
History 13 



74 



85 
Chem. 6 
Chem. 9 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



Sophomore 
Year. 



71 77 

History 2 k 
German 1 
English 2 
Physics 2 
Greek 10 



T2 75 

History 2 k 
Jfatft. 2 
Chem. 1 
P/m7os. 1 
German 2 



73 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Greek 5 
Greek 8 
Latin 5 



Greek 9 
German 6 C 
Spanish 1 



85 



86 



Zoology 6 
Botany 7 
Chem. 1 
Spanish 1 



81 

Greek 5 
Greek 8 
Latin 12 
Philos. 3 
Fine Arts 3 



73 82 

History l k 
History 2 
English l a 
Greek l h 
Greek 2 
Latin 2 h 



74 u 78 

German 3 
Spanish 1 
French 4 
Physics 2 



Junior 
Year. 



71 
History 11 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Drawing 1 



77 
History 9 

History 13 

Polit. Ec. 1 

Rom. Law 1 



81 

History 13 
Fine Arts 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Ethics 4 



73 

Geology 4 d 
Spanish 2 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Senior 
Year. 



89 
History 13 
German 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Drawing 2 
Philos. 2 



80 

History 12 
History 14 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Ethics 4 



72 
History 10 
Fine Arts 7 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Music 3 



75 15 73 

History 2 k 
History 2 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 
French 4 
Drawing 1 



76 

Latin 2 h 
Greek l h 
German 1 
Philos. 1 
Chem. 1 



74 



77 79 

German 1 
Philos. 1 
History 2 k 
English 7% 
Greek l h 
Latin 2 h 



78 74 

History 2 
German 1 
French 2 
Chem. 1 
Greek 5 



72 
Historv 11 
Philos" 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Eng.Comp.5 



7i 
Fine Arts 6 
Geology 4 d 
English 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



75 
German 3 h 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 



80 

History 10 
History 13 
LFrench 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Latin 5 



German 6 h 
Italian 2 
Fine Arts 3 



80 

History 13 
Philos. 6 
Polit. Ec. 2 



86 
Fine Arts 7 
Botany 3 
German 4 C 
History 5 



86 

German 6 C 
Fine Arts 3 
History 10 
Eng.Comp.5 



78 
History 5 
History 9 
Fine Arts 7 
Polit. Ec. 3 



In Freshman Year : — 13 French 1. — " Ital. 1. — 15 Greek 5 ; Greek 3. 



14 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 



79 76 

German 1 
German 4 h 
Pkilos. 1 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 



Junior 
Year. 



Hebrew 1 
German 4 C 
Philos. 5 
English 2 



7 3 



80 

Chem. 1 
History 2 k 
History 2 
German 1 
Physics l h 



70 



81 16 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
French 4 
Music 1 
Physics 2 



73 



82 76 

German 1 
German 4 h 
French 1 
Latin 1 
History 2 



83 82 

Physics 2 
Chem. 3 
History 2 
Math. 2 
German 3 h 



76 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 
German 4 C 



Senior 
Year. 



88 



Hebrew 2 
Aramaic 3 
Ethics 4 
English 2 



Chem. 2 
Phys. Geo. 
Biology 5 
History 13 



79 



German 4 C 
French 2 
Philos. 2 b 
Drawing 1 



84 69 

English 7s 
German 1 
History 2 k 
French 2 
Physics 2 



85 68 

History 2 
History 3 
History 12 
Greek 5 
French 8 



86 

Chem. 1 
French 1 
German 1 
History 2 
English 7% 



70 



62 



Physics 4 
Physics 6 
Physics 7 
Math. 5 



81 



English l a 
German 4 C 
History 11 
French 3 



84 

History 4 
History 10 
History 11 
Polit. Ec. 1 



74 
Chem. 2 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 



85 

Zoology 2 
Geology 4 
Biology 5 
German 3 
Elocution 9 



Chem. 3 
Botany 3 
Botany 7 
Music 3 



82 



82 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
History 12 
Geology 4 



Sophomore 
Year. 



87 17 
Chem. 1 
Physics 2 
J/azft. 2 
English 2 
Philos. 1 



75 



Junior 
Year. 



Physics 
Physics 5 
Physics 7 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



74 



9i 



English 2 
German 6 C 
History 13 
Botany 3 



History 8 
History 9 
History 14 
Fine Arts 7 



83 

Chem. 4 
Geology 4 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
Mech. Draw. 



88 64 

P%s. Geo. 1 

Chem. 1 
Physics 2 
History 2 k 



72 



89 

Chem. 1 
P%s. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
German 1 
History 2 k 



90 

Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Greek 5 
Latin 1 
German 1 



74 



91 74 

Philos. 1 
itfatfi. 2 
Chem. 1 
French 1 
History 2 k 



79 
Chem. 3 
Chem. 4 
Phys. Geo. 1 
History 13 



83 

Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



72 



Chem. 3 
Music 3 
Philos. 1 
German 4 C 



Senior I 
Year. 



Chem. 2 ' 
Chem. 5 
Chem. 6 
Geology 4 
Elocution 



Botany 3 ' 
Geology 8 
Palaeont. \ 
Geology It 



83 
Chem. 3 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Botany 3 
Latin 5 



92 71 

History 2 
German 1 
English 7s 
Physics 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 



93 

Botany 3 
Chem. 1 
French 1 
Physics l h 



94 74 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
French 1 
German 1 
History 2 k 



95 69 

History 2 k 
History 2 
English 2 
Music 1 
Chem. 1 



82 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 
Geology 4 d 
Polit. Ec. 1 



78 
History 11 
History 13 
Fine Arts 6 
English 2 



73 
Biology 5 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 



72 
Botany 3 
Chem. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 

German 4 C 



86 
History 10 
Philos. 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Music 2 



Botany 3 
Geology 8 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Fine Arts ; 



Chem. 4 
Chem. 5 
Geology 8 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



Philos. 2 

Palaeont. 14' 
Geology 18 
French 8 
Fine Arts 3 



89 

History 12 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Fine Arts 7 
Music 3 



80 

Geology 4 
Zoology 6 
History 13 
Fine Arts 3 
Elocution 9 



78 

Geology 8 
Chen*. 3 
Polit. Ec 4 
Fine Arts 3 



88 
History 5 
History 9 
Fine Arts 7 
Music 3 



In Freshman Year : — 1G French 4. — " French 1. 



CLASS OF 1884. 



15 



I'ear, 



; aen,, 2 
1 Cben,. g 

: 

^"tany J ] 

Jflogyj 



Sophomore 

Year. 



96 69 

Zoology 2 
Botany 3 

Jfato. 1 
Math. 2 
German 4 h 



Junior 
Year. 



91 

£r«e£ 2 
Greek 5 
0r«& 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 



78 



98' 8 

French 1 
Physics l h 
(Latin 1 
(Chem. 1 



63 



99 78 

History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Greek 2 
Greek 5 
German 2 



100 

Latin 1 
French 2 
German 2 
Chem. 1 



74 



75 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Biology 5 
Physics l h 
Philos. 2 b 



Greek 9 
Latin 5 
Latin 6 
French 1 



77 



83 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 
Philos. 1 
Spanish 1 
German 3 
Fine Arts 4 h 



Senior 
Year. 



80 

Geology 4 
Botany 7 
Geology 8 
Philos. 10 
Fine Arts 3 



74 

Greek 5 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 4 C 



Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



68 



75 



History 9 
Geology 4 d 
Philos. 1 
English 2 



101 63 

Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 
Greek l h 
Latin 1 
Chem. 1 



102 

History 2 
Latin 1 
Greek 5 
German 1 
French 1 



103 19 71 

Fine Arts 7 
[Latin 5 
German 5 
French 3 
History 2 



70 
Latin 6 
French 3 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 



73 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 11 
History 13 
Philos. 2 b 



81 



History 13 
Latin 5 
Polit Ec. 1 
German 4 C 



68 



History 12 
Geology 8 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 



Latin 2 
Greek 5 

English 2 
Zoology 2 



7i 



86 
Polit. Ec. 3 
History 9 
History 14 
History 15 



69 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Rom Law 1 
Spanish 1 



87 

History 9 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



86 
Fine Arts 3 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Rom, Law 2 
Geology 4 
Geology 8 



Sophomore 
Year. 



Junior 
Year. 



104 74 

History l k 
Philos. 1 
Greek l h 
Latin 1 
German 1 



105 74 

German 1 
French 1 
Latin 2 h 
Greek 5 
History 2 k 



106 2 ° 69 

Latin 2 h 
Greek 5 
Italian 1 
History 2 
French 2 



10T 1 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
French 4 
History 2 k 
Music 1 



7i 



68 

History 10 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 



75 
German 4 C 

French 8 

Zoology 2 

Polit. Ec. 1 

History 2 



T . ? 2 

Latin 5 

Polit Ec. 1 

Eng.Comp.5 

History 13 



79 



Latin 5 
French 4 
History 11 
Music 3 



108 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
History l k 
German 1 
French 8 



75 



109 

Chem. 1 
Math. 2 
Greek B 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 



68 



110 75 

German 1 
French 1 
Music 4 
Zoology 2 
Chem. 1 



64 

Latin 6 
History 11 
Philos. 2 b 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Senior 
Year. 



81 
History 5 
Ethics 4 
English l a 
Fine Arts 3 



74 
German 6° 
Spanish 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Greek 5 



73 
Latin 5 
Fine Arts 3 
Eng.Comp.5 



79 

Latin 4 
[Philos. 2 
History 12 
Fine Arts 3 



68 
Chem. 3 
Botany 3 
German 3 h 
French 1 



65 



German 3 h 
Philos. 1 
History 1 
Geology 4 d 



111 66 

History 2 
Philos. 2 
Math. 1 
Physics l h 
German 1 



70 
History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 4 d 



68 

Latin 10 
History 14 
Philos. 9 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 7 



rr , 77 

Zoology 2 
Biology 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 3 
History 2 



72 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 2 
History 13 

English 2 
English 8 



83 

History 9 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Rom Law 1 



In Freshman "Sear : — *« German 3^; English 7s. — 19 German 5>>. — 2 « German 6K — 21 French 4. 



16 




CHOICE OF STUDIES. 






Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 

Year. 


Senior 
Year. 


Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 
Year. 


Senior 
Year. 


112 73 

Biology 5 
Chem. 1 
French 1 
Physics 2 


69 
Zoology 6 
Chem. 3 
German 1 
Philos. 1 


76 
Geology 4 
Botany 7 
Polit. Ec. 1 
English 2 
Elocution 9 


120 66 

German 2 
German 3 h 
Chem. 1 
History 2 
French 1 


75 
German 4 C 
Botany 3 
Chem. 3 
History 13 


German 3 
German 6 C 1 
Chem. 4 
[Chem. 5 
Music 3 


113 6 1 

History 2 k 
History 2 
Latin 1 
German 1 
French 2 


7i 
History 11 
History 13 
Philos. 2 b 
Polit. Ec. 1 


82 

History 12 
History 14 
Philos. 6 
Eng.Comp.5 


121 67 

History 2 k 
History 2 
History 3 
Greek 10 
Latin 4 
French 1 


67 

History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 6 


7" 
History 9 

, History 12 

> Music 3 
Spanish 1 


114 73 

History l k 
History 2 k 
History 2 
Greek l h 
German 1 
Philos. 2 


66 

History 9 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 4 d 


7i 
History 12 
History 16 
Eom. Law 1 
Rom. Law 2 
Fine Arts 3 




122 — 

French 8 
German 2 
German 4 h 


67 
French 4 
French 8 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 
History 2 


78 

French 4 
Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Fine Arts 3 
Fine Arts 7 


115 59 

Greek 5 
Greek 10 h 
Latin 2 h 
Math. 
Math. 2 
Math. 3m 


72 
Greek 7 
Greek 8 
Greek 9 
Latin 6 


75 
Greek 5 
Greek 9 
Greek 13 
French 1 


123 58 

Music 1 
(Geology 4 d 
History 2 k 
History 2 
French 1 


72 
Music 2 
Music 3 
History 11 
History 13 
Geology 4 d 


84 

Music 4 
Music 5 
Music 6 
History 12 
French 8 


116 63 

History 2 k 
Spanish 1 
Drawing 1 
Physics l h 
Geology 4 d 


69 
History 11 
Spanish 2 
Drawing 2 
Fine Arts 4 h 
French 8 


80 
History 10 
Fine Arts 3 
Fine Arts 7 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 


124 64 

History 2 
Greek l h 
Latin 1 
French 1 
Music 1 


73 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Latin 5 
Philos. 2b 


75 

History 14 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 7 
Fine Arts 7 
Geology 4 


117 22 60 

Greek 7 
Latin 1 
French 3 
German 2 


7i 
Latin 5 
History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 


70 
Greek 5 
Spanish 1 
French 4 


125 53 

Philos. 1 
(German 1 
French 1 
Geology 4 d 
English 7% 


75 

Philos. 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 13 
Zoology 2 
Fine Arts 6 


83 

Ethics 4 
Philos. 9 
History 9 
Eng.Comp.5 


118 53 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Chem. 1 
History 2 
{Math. G 
French 1 


73 
Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 
History 1 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 


72 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
History 13 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 


126 70 

Botany 3 
German 1 
French 1 
Chem. 1 


69 

Biology 5 
(German 4 C 
French 8 
Chem. 3 
History 2 


58 
Zoology 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Spanish 1 
Fine Arts 3 
History 1 


119 64 

Philos. 2 
History 2 k 
History 2 
German 1 
French 2 


69 
Philos. 5 
Philos. 6 
Geology 4 d 
Polit. Ec. 1 


79 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 9 
Geology 8 
Drawing 1 


127 64 

Philos. 1 
Drawing 1 
French 1 
German 1 
Physics 2 


63 
Philos. 6 
Fine Arts 6 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 


85 

Ethics 4 
Fine Arts 7 
Math. C 
Math. 7 


In Freshman Year : — 22 Greek 5 ; Greek 3. 



i 



CLASS OF 1884. 



17 



Sophomore 
Year. 



L28 
Botany 3 
History 2 
Philos. 2 
English l a 
Greek 5 



68 



73 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 
German 3 h 



Junior 
Year. 



6i 

Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 5 
Chem. 1 



130 65 

Geology 4 d 
Math. 2 
Drawing 1 
Physics 2 
German 3 h 



U 64 

History 2 k 
History 2 
Physics l h 
Physics 2 
Physics 3 



« 63 

History 2 k 
Philos. 1 
German 1 
French 1 
English l a 



» 53 

Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Chem. 1 
|(Fr. German 
Physics l h 



134 

Greek 5 
German 1 
German 4 h 
French 1 
Chem. 1 



67 



135 

Chem. 1 
Latin 1 
German 1 
Italian 1 



74 



136 62 

History 2 k 
Philos. 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 
German 1 
Spanish 1 



75 

Geology 4 d 
Zoology 6 
Botany 7 
Chem. 2 



60 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Math. 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Chem. 2 



Senior 
Y"ear. 



79 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Philos. 10 
Ethics 11 
Chem. 3 



7i 
Geology 8 
Palseont. 14 
Physics 2 
Drawing 1 



73 
History 13 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 



75 

History 9 
Philos. 4 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 



61 

Biology 5 
[French 8 
Chem. 3 
Fr. German 
German 1 
Philos. 1 



64 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Music 1 
History 2 
History 3 
English 7% 



62 

Chem. 3 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 



70 
History 11 
History 13 
Geology 4 d 
Polit. Ec. 1 



65 

Zoology 2 
Philos. 2 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Elocution 9 



79 
Botany 3 
Geology 4 
Botany 7 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
[French 1 



78 
History 10 
History 15 
Pom. Law 2 
French 8 
Botany 3 



76 

Geology 4 
Zoology 6 
Music 3 
Elocution 9 
Ethics 4 



73 
Polit. Ec. 7 
Music 2 
History 12 
Elocution 9 
English 2 



65 



Greek 1 
History 10 
History 12 
History 13 



70 
History 12 
Fine Arts 7 
Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 2 



Sophomore 
Year. 



137 

Greek l h 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 1 
History 2 



65 



138 

Chem. 1 
French 1 
German 1 
German 4 k 
Philos. 1 



59 



Junior 
Y^ear. 



66 



Senior 
Year. 



Greek 7 
Latin 6 
Italian 1 
Polit. Ec. 



69 
Chem. 3 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
(German 4 C 



139 61 

Physics l h 
History 2 
(Math. C 
Chem. 1 
French 1 



140 54 

(History l k 
History 2 k 
Greek 5 

(English 2 
French 3 



141 61 

Greek l h 
Latin 1 
German 4 fl 
History 2 
French 3 
Fine Arts 7 



142 65 

German 1- 

Greek 7 
Latin 1 
Physics 2 



143 63 

Phys. Geo. 1 
French 1 
Greek 5 
Music 1 
History 2 k 



144 23 54 

English 3 
Math. 2 
Chem. 2 
Physics 2 

[Geology 4 d 



77 
Physics 2 
History 13 
Music l n 
Music 3 
Geology 4 d 



69 
History 3 
Fine Arts 6 
Latin 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 



62 

Latin 5 
German 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Music l n 



64 
German 4 C 
French 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 



63 
Geology 4 d 
Fine Arts 5 
Latin 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 



63 

English 2 
English 4 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 



72 
Greek 5 
Latin 8 
Italian 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 



75 

Chem. 4 
French 5 
Polit. Ec. 7 
Eng.Comp.5 
History 5 
Fine Arts 3 



Physics 3 
Math. 2 
Math. 7 
Zoology 2 



52 



68 
History 12 
Fine Arts 7 
Greek 5 
Spanish 1 



Greek 5 



73 



German 3 
History 12 
Music 3 



66 
Geology 4 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 12 
History, 13 



77 
Geology 8 
Fine Arts 7 
Greek 5 
Music 3 



61 

English 1» 
English 2 
Polit. Ec. 5 
Polit. Ec. 7 



In Freshman Yeab : — 23 Chemistry 1; [English Is. 



18 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 



145 

French 8 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 
(Polit. Ec. 
Italian 1 



52 



146 

History 2 
Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Polit. Ec. 



Junior 
Y ear. 



French 3 
Latin 5 
Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. ] 
History 2 
(German 4 C 



52 



147 

French 2 

Philos. 2 

( Greek l h 

(English 2 

Physics l h 



52 



148 

Latin 1 
German 1 
(English l a 
French 1 



5i 



149 24 — 

Fine Arts 3 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 
History 13 



150 25 59 

German 2 
History 2 k 
History 2 
Music 2 
Greek 5 



151 62 

History 2 
French 2 
French 8 
Drawing 1 
Chem. 1 



152 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 
English 2 
History 2 k 



6i 



63 
History 11 
Greek 5 
Latin 5 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Senior 
Year. 



78 
French 8 
Latin 7 
Latin 10 
Fine Arts 3 
History 13 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



Sophomore 
Year. 



6o 



French 3 
Philos. 4 
Philos. 5 
Zoology 2 
Physics 3 
History 1 



57 



62 

Spanish 1 
German 4 C 
History 1 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 



6i 



Drawing 1 
Greek 5 
Latin 1 
German 1 



52 

(German 3 h 
History 13 
Philos. 2* 
Music 3 



„ 73 

History 11 

History 13 

Eng. Com. 5 

Polit. Ec. 1 



68 



Greek 9 
Latin 6 
German 1 
French 1 



History 12 
Greek 5 
Greek 7 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



66 



French 5 
French 8 
Philos. 3 
Philos. 6 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 



76 
Latin 2 
Music 3 
History 2 
Rom. Law 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 



66 
Italian 1 
Greek 5 
Philos. l b 
Polit. Ec. 1 



7i 
German 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Ethics 4 
Fine Arts 7 
Chem. 1 



62 

History 4 
History 12 
Eng. Com. 5 
Spanish 1 



6o 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
German 4 C 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 



153 ( 

Phys. Geo. 

Zoology 2 
Physics l h 
Chem. 1 
Music 1 



154 65 

History l k 
History 2 k 
German 1 
Greek 5 
English 2 



155 

Greek lb- 
Greek 3 
Latin 2 h 
Latin 3 
Phys. Geo. 
History 2 
(English 78 



55 



Junior 
Year. 



66 

Geology 4 d 
Philos. 1 
Physics 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



63 
History 11 
Philos. 1 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 



156 52 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 
Fine Arts 3 



157 52 

History 2 k 
Greek 5 
Greek 10 h 
Chem. 2 
(German 1 



158 49 

History 2 k 
(German 1 
French 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 



159 5 

Latin 1 
Greek 5 
History 2 k 
Philos. 1 
(German 1 



160 51 

Latin 2 h 
History 2 
Physics 3 
Phys. Geo. 1 
French 1 



Greek 5 
Greek 5 h 
Greek 7 
Polit. Ec. 
French 1 



63 



Senior 
Year. 



Geology lg 
Philos. 2 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 



History 12 
History 13 
Rom. Law 
Polit. Ec. 4 



Greek 5 
Greek 8 
History 13 
Zoology 2 



52 

History 1 
History 11 
(Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 



62 
History 11 
History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 



69 

History 11 
German 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Music l n 



61 
Latin 6 
Geology 4 d 
History 3 
History 11 
German 1 



7C 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
History 2 
History 12 
Philos. 2 
Music 3 



66 

History 12 
Zoology 2 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
Fine Arts 3 



Philos. 1* 
Chem. 1 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



60 

Latin 5 
History 13 
Drawing 1 
Geology 4 d 



64 

Latin 5 
Zoology 2 
History 12 
Fine Arts 3 



64 

Latin 2 
Greek 5 
Fine Arts 3 
Spanish 1 



In Freshman Year : — 2 * A Freshman in 1881-82. — 25 (English 7s; Music 1. 



CLASS OF 1884. 



19 



Sophomore 
Year. 



"istorjij 

h kk 



161 

Latin 1 
History 2 k 
History 13 
Music 3 



55 



164 

Phys. Geo 
History 2 k 
Drawing 1 
English 2 
Spanish 1 



Junior 
Year. 



62 

Greek 5 
Geology 4 d 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 6 
French 8 



162 

Latin 1 
German 3 
Spanish 1 
(History 12 



53 



163 54 

Fine Arts 3 
Chem. 1 
(German 1 
French 1 



56 



59 



165 

Philos. 1 
Greek 5 
German 1 
Fine Arts 7 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Music 3 



166 

Botany 3 
Biology 5 
German 1 
(Chem. 1 



[167 74 

History 2 k 
History 2 
Greek 10 h 
German 1 
French 2 



168 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
Chem. 1 
German 1 
History 2 



54 



(Latin 4 
Greek 5 
Philos. 2 b 
Chem. 2 



52 



65 
Fine Arts 4 h 
Chem. 3 
History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Latin 5 



63 
Geology 4 d 
History 11 
History 13 
English 2 



Philos. 4 
Philos. 5 
Chem. 1 
Botany 3 



59 



60 



Zoology 6 
Philos. 2 b 
German 4 C 
History 10 
History 13 



68 
Fine Arts 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 
Latin 5 



69 
Latin 5 
Latin 6 
Geology 4 d 
Philos. 1 



Senior 
Year. 



56 

Latin 2 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
Philos. 2 
Elocution 9 



Latin 4 
English 2 
Drawing 1 
Physics 3 
Zoology 2 
Botany 3 



65 



59 
Drawing 1 
Fine Arts 7 
History 12 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



65 

Zoology 2 
History 10 
Fine Arts 3 
Elocution 9 
Philos. 2 



64 
Philos. 6 
Zoology 2 
Chem. 3 
Fine Arts 3 



7i 
Zoology 2 
Philos. 6 
Fine Arts 3 
History 5 



Fine Arts 7 
History 5 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



63 
Greek 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 
Fine Arts 3 



Sophomore 

Year. 



169 53 

History 2 k 
Drawing 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Greek 5 
Spanish 1 



no 45 

History 2 k 
Spanish 1 
French 1 
Greek 10 h 



m 55 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 
Physics 3 
History 2 k 



172 71 

History 2 k 
History 9 
History 13 
Italian 1 
Pom. Law 2 



173 56 

German 1 
French 1 
Spanish 1 
Fine Arts 3 



174 54 

Phys. Geo. 1 
French 1 
German 1 

Physics 2 



175 

Latin 1 
Greek 5 
(Greek 10 h 
German 1 

Zoology 2 



43 



176 52 

History 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 
English 2 
(Physics 2 



177 58 

History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 
Fine Arts 3 



Junior 
Year. 



^. 59 

History 11 

Fine Arts 4 h 
Geology 4 d 
Chem. 2 



87 

History 13 

Spanish 2 
Geology 4 d 
Greek 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 



52 

Zoology 2 
Geology 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 



55 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 
Fine Arts 6 



53 
Latin 5 
History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 



58 



Zoology 2 
Chem. 1 
German 4 C 
History 1 



5o 
Latin 5 
Latin 6 
German 4 C 
Geology 4 d 



53 

History 1 
Zoology 2 
Philos. 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
[ Greek 10 



56 
History 11 
Latin 1 
French 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Senior 
Year. 



62 

History 12 
Fine Arts 3 
Geology 8 
Zoology 2 



55 

Zoology 2 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 
Fine Arts 3 



74 
Geology 16 
Geology 18 
Polit Ec. 7 
Mec. Draw. 
Surveying 



History 8 
History 12 
French 1 
Spanish 1 



55 



67 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 12 
Zoology 2 
Geology 8 



60 
Botany 3 
Chem. 3 
Fine Arts 3 
History 12 



68 
Latin 2 
French 1 
Italian 1 
Geology 18 
Music 3 



62 

History 12 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 7 
Fine Arts 3 



55 

History 10 
History 12 
French 2 
Fine Arts 7 



20 




CHOICE OF STUDIES. 






Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 


Senior 


Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 


Senior 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


178 28 — 


51 


57 


183" 56 


51 




History 4 


History 10 


History 8 


Latin 1 


Latin 5 


Greek 5 


{History 7 h 


(History 11 


History 12 


Greek 5 


Latin 6 


Spanish 1 1 


History 9 


Eom. Law 1 


Rom. Law 2 


Philos. 1 


Geology 4 d 


Zoology 2 1 


(Philos. 6 


Polit. Ec. 1 


English 8 


(History 2 k 


History 1 


Fine Arts 3 : \ 


Phys. Geo. 1 




Music 3 


German 1 


History 3 




179 40 


5i 


62 


184 27 63 


83 




Phys. Geo. 1 


Zoology 2 


Botany 3 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 2 


Chem. 4 


(Chem. 1 


Geology 4 d 


Geology 8 


Latin 1 


Chem. 3 


Chem. 5 


German 1 


German 4° 


Geology 18 


German 1 


German 4 C 


Music 3 


History 2 h 


History 13 


Music 3 


Italian 1 


Phys. Geo. 1 


Geology 18 


History 2 


Drawing 1 










185 27 87 
History l k 


93 
History 9 




180 55 


62 


50 


History 12 


Greek 10 h 


Greek 5 


Latin 2 


History 2 k 


History 11 


Zoology 2 


Latin 1 


Zoology 2 


Geology 8 


German 2 


Geology 4 d 


Geology 8 


French 1 


Geology 4 d 


Geology 18 


French 2 


Rom. Law 1 


Philos. 2 


History 2 k 
History 2 


Philos. 1 


Music 3 


Math. 1 




Philos. 3 






186 27 76 

History l k 


72 

History 13 




181 55 


52 


55 


History 9 


History 2 k 


History 11 


History 9 


History 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


History 12 


History 2 


History 13 


History 12 


English l a 


English 2 


Spanish 1 


German 1 


(German 4 C 


German 4 C 


German 2 


Italian 1 


Italian 2 


(French 1 
English 2 


Spanish 1 
Geology 4 d 


French 1 
Music 3 


Latin 2 h 












182 27 51 


56 


— 


Phys. Geo. 1 


Zoology 2 


Geology 18 








Geology 4 d 


Geology 8 


History 12 








History 13 


Fine Arts 4 h 


Fine Arts 3 








(Physics 2 


German 1 


Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Spanish 1 








28 A Freshman in 18S1-S2. — " Nos. 132-186 inclusive did d 


ot complete theii 


• course. 



CLASS OF 1885. 



21 



K 



ELECTIVE STUDIES OF THE CLASS OF 1885. 



Greek 5 

Zoology 



Sophomore 
Tear. 

1882-83. 



IStOlTlj 



l 1 

Math. 2 
Math. 3 
Physics 2 
Physics 4 
[Physics 3 



97 



3 93 

English l a 
German 2 
Philos. 2^> 
History 1 



2 2 

Greek 9 
English l a 
German 2 
History 1 



93 



4 

Latin 1 
German 2 
French 1 
History 2 
Chem. 1 



5 



92 



French 1 
Chem. 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 

Zoology 2 



6 9 

Philos. 2 b 
German 2 
French 2 
Zoology 2 



Greek 5 
Latin 1 
Italian 1 
History 1 



92 



8 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 3 
Latin 6 
Math. 2 
[Math. 3 



90 



Junior 
Year. 

1883-84. 



Senior 

Year. 

1884-85. 



Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Math. 8 
Italian 1 
[Drawing 1 



95 



[Greek 5 
English 2 
English 4 
History 9 
History 12 



95 



94 
English 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 9 
History 12 



94 

German 3 
Philos. lb 
History 12 
Phys. Geo. 1 



93 



Philos. l b 
Chem. 3 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



Ethics 4 
Chem. 1 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



94 



92 
Greek 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Italian 2 
Chem. 1 



90 



Greek 7 
Greek 9 
Latin 8 
Math. 5 



93 



Math. 9 

Math. 10 

Physics 6 

Physics 7 

[R. Phil. 11 

[Italian 2 

[Spanish 3 



96 
English 2 
English 3 
[Eng. Com. 5 
[History 11 
History 13 
[Polit. Ec. 1 
Rom. Law 1 



94 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 13 
History 15 



95 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 9 
History 13 



93 
English 2 
Philos. 3 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Zoology 6 



English 7 
Chem. 3 
French 8 
Zoology 6 
Drawing 1 



94 



95 
Greek 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Spanish 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Greek 8 
Greek 11 
Greek 6 
[Greek 9 
Latin 9 
Sanskrit 1 



93 



Sophomore 

Year. 

1882-83. 



9 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 



90 



10 

Math. 2 
Math. 3 
Physics 2 
Physics 4 



9i 



11 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Philos. 1 



89 



Junior 
Year. 

1883-84. 



Greek 9 
Greek 5 h 
Latin 6 
Latin 7 
English 2 



94 



Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Physics 3 
French 2 



12 

Philos. 1 
German 2 
Math. C 
Math. 2 



90 



13 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Latin 1 
[Latin 3 
German 2 



92 



14 

Greek 5 
German 2 
Math. 2 
History 1 



89 



15 87 

German 2 
French 2 
Philos. 2 b 
Zoology 2 



16 87 

[English 3 

German 2 

French 3 
[Math. 1 

Math. 2 

Math. 3 



Greek 7 
Greek 5 h 
Latin 6 
Latin 7 
German 3 



90 



Senior 
Year. 

1884-85. 



Greek 8 
Greek 6 
Latin 8 
Latin 9 
Greek 10 



95 



89 
Math. 9 
[Math. 10 
Physics 5 
Physics 6 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Greek 8 
Greek 6 
Latin 8 
Latin 9 
German 5 



90 



90 
Elocution 9 
Philos. 3 
Ethics 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 13 



92 

[ Greek 5 h 

Greek 7 

Greek 8 

Latin 4 

Latin 5 
[Latin 7 

Comp.Phil.l 



93 



English 8 
German 6 C 
Philos. l b 
Music 1 
Geology 4 



English 2 
Chem. 1 
Ethics 4 
Biology 5 



90 



93 



Physics 2 
Physics 4 
Math. 5 
Math. 8 



9i 
Oral Disc. 6 
Philos. 5 
Philos. 6 
Philos. 12 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Greek 9 
Greek 10 
Greek 13 
[Greek 6 
[Latin 9 



96 



88 



Hebrew 1 
Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 
History 10 



English 7 
French 8 
Chem. 3 
Zoology 6 
Drawing 1 



94 



87 

Oral Disc. 6 
Physics 6 
Physics 8 
Italian 1 
Chem. 1 



In Freshman Year:— 1 [French Z.~ 2 Greek 2; Greek 3; Latin 1; Latin 3. 



22 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 



17 

Greek 2 
Latin 1 
French 2 
History 1 



89 



18 3 

Greek 5 
German 2 
French 1 
Chem. 1 



go 



19 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Math. 2 



9i 



Junior 
Year. 



Senior 
Year. 



Greek 5 
Latin 5 
French 3 
History 9 



9* 



9i 



German 3 
German 4 C 
Zoology 2 
Chem. 3 



83 



20 

Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 
Math. 2 
Physics 4 



87 



21 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 2 



9i 



22 84 

French 2 
History 4 
History 7 
Chem. 1 



23 

Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
French 2 
History 1 



84 



24 

French 8 
French 1 
German 2 
History 1 
History 2 



86 



Greek 8 
Chem. 3 
Biology 5 
Math. 5 



9i 



Math. 3 
Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Physics 2 



88 
Comp. Ph. 1 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 



9i 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Rom. Law 1 
History 11 
History 13 
[History 14 



86 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 
Chem. 2 



82 



Greek 6 
Greek 9 
Latin 8 
Latin 9 
Botany 7 



English 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 13 
Rom. Law 1 



87 
French 3 
Elocution 9 
History 9 
Philos. 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



86 
Philos. 1 
[Philos. 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 12 



84 



French 2 
German 4 C 
History 12 
History 13 



88 
Eng.Comp.5 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
History 13 



84 
Eng.Comp.5 
English 7 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 6 
[Polit. Ec. 8 



85 



Philos. 6 
History 9 
History 13 
History 15 



92 

Elocution 9 
'French 9 
Latin 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 



Sophomore 
Year. 



25 88 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
German 2 
Math. 2 



26 



87 



German 2 
French 2 
Chem. 2 
Geology 4 d 



27 

Greek 2 
Philos. 1 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 



81 



28 4 89 

English l a 
Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Philos. 2»> 



Junior 
Year. 



86 
Philos. l b 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 3 
[History 2 
Chem. 1 



86 

German 4 C 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 8 



Greek 7 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Botany 3 
Polit. Ec. 



87 



Senior 
"Sear. 



Philos. 6 
Ethics 4 
Ethics 11 
History 13 
Geology 4 



History 13 
German 5 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Geology 18 



29 

German 2 
French 8 
History 2 
Math. 2 
Botany 3 



30 87 

Greek 2 
German 1 
Philos. 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 



31 82 

German 2 
French 8 
History 2 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 



32 

Latin 1 
History 1 
Chem. 1 
Biology 5 



84 



English 2 
Elocution 9 
Fine Arts 3 

[Polit. Ec. 1 
Ethics 4 

[Philos. 6 
Geology 4 



84 
German 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 13 

Zoology 2 



86 

Eng.Comp.5 
German 3 
Ethics 4 
Ethics 11 
Zoology 2 



90 
German 3 
French 3 
History 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 



88 
Greek 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Chem. 3 
Zoology 6 



Greek 5 
History 13 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



85 



German 1 
German 3 



Spanish 1 
French 1 
Physics 2 
Chem. 1 



90 

Oral Disc. 6 
Hebrew 1 
Philos. 12 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 2 
Fine Arts 8 



86 

German 5 
History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Oral Disc. 6 



English 2 
Polit. Ec* 4 
German 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 



In Freshman Year : — 3 Greek 2; Greek 3. — * Had leave of absence in the Senior year. 



g;: 



CLASS OF 1885. 



23 



Sophomore 
Tear. 



86 



lister^ 

'■''U.I 
I 

feet 5 
lf %2 



36 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
Philos. 1 

Zoology 2 



Greek 2 
French 2 
Philos. 1 
History 3 



34 



86 



German 4 C 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 2»> 



35 



87 



Latin 1 
German 1 
History 1 
Geology 4 d 



85 



37 

Latin 1 
German 2 
French 2 
History 1 



82 



Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Latin 4 
Music 3 
Music l n 



84 



39 84 

German 1 
Philos. 1 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 



40 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 



83 



Junior 
Year. 



82 

Elocution 9 
Eng. Comp.5 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 9 
[History 4 



9i 

English 2 
Eng. Comp.5 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Rom. Law 2 



86 

Polit. Ec. 1 
German 3 
History 12 
History 13 



Polit. Ec. 
Philos. 3 
Philos. 5 
History 1 
History 2 



85 

Philos. V> 
German 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 9 



83 



Italian 1 
Botany 3 
History 12 
Music 2 



Polit. Ec. 
Philos. 3 
History 1 
History 2 
Physics 2 



86 



Greek 1 
Philos. 1 
Math. 5 
Chem. 3 



Senior 
Year. 



80 

Eng.Comp.5 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 2 
History 13 



90 

English 2 
History 9 
History 11 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Rom. Law 1 



83 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
History 10 
History 11 



84 

Eng. Comp.5 
Ethics 4 
History 11 
History 13 



84 
Oral Disc. 6 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec 8 
History 13 



89 



Italian 2 
Zoology 2 
Music 5 
Music 6 
[Philos. 2 



82 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 13 
Rom. Law 1 



86 



History 11 
Ethics 4 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



Sophomore 
Year. 



41 88 

German 2 
French 1 
History 13 
Chem. 1 



42 86 

Greek 5 
German 2 
[Chem. 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 



43 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 1 



88 



44 87 

German 1 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 
History 2 



45 

French 1 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



82 



46 

Greek 2 
Latin 1 
[Latin 3 
German 4 C 
Philos. 1 



87 



47 

English l a 
German 2 
French 1 
History 13 



79 



48 84 

German 2 
Chem. 1 
Math. 2 
Zoology 2 



49 

Math. 1 
Math. 2 
Math. 3 
Physics l h 



78 



Junior 
Year. 



86 
German 3 
French 3 
Eng. Comp.5 
Elocution 9 
Philos. V> 



89 



Greek 5 
German 4 C 
Chem. 3 
[Philos. lb 
Biology 5 



85 



Zoology 2 
Biology 5 
Chem. 1 
German 3 



81 

Philos. l b 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 9 
History 12 



84 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Chem. 3 
Zoology 6 
Botany 3 



9i 

Greek 7 
Latin 6 
Italian 1 
Fine Arts 3 



81 

English 2 
German 4 C 
Philos. lb 
Polit. Ec. 1 



Physics l h 
Chem. 3 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



84 



82 



Math. 5 
Math. 6 
Physics 2 
Physics 3 



Senior 
Year. 



71 
German 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Biology 5 
Chem. 3 



77 



Latin 2 
History 2 
Zoology 6 



Greek 1 
Greek 5 
Latin 2 
Spanish 1 



76 



75 
Geology 4 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 8 
History 13 



87 

English 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 



75 
Eng. Comp.5 
Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
[Fine Arts 9 
Music 3 



83 

Eng.Comp.5 
English 2 
German 5 
Fine Arts 8 
Fine Arts 9 



Chem. 2 
Chem. 4 
Chem. 5 
Zoology 6 



73 



Math. 9 
Math. 10 
Physics 5 
Physics 7 



85 



24 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Year. 



50 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 1 
Math. 2 



77 



77 



51 

Greek 2 
German 2 
Math. 2 
Math. 3 

52 73 

German 3 
{French 8 
French 3 
History 1 
History 2 
Rom. Law 2 



Junior 

Year. 



79 
Greek 9 
Philos. l b 
Eng.Comp.5 
History 2 
German 3 



82 
History 9 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 6 



German 3 
German 4 C 
French 2 
History 9 



53 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
History 1 



72 



54 

Greek 5 
History 1 
German 1 
French 2 



82 



55 

German 1 
Math. 2 
Chem. 1 
Chem. 2 



56 

German 1 
Philos. 1 
History 1 
Chem. 1 



76 



57 

Greek 5 
German 1 
Math. O 
Math. 2 



79 



58 75 

German 2 
Philos. 1 
Italian 1 
Botany 3 



8i 



Greek 9 
Latin 6 
German 4 C 
Spanish 1 



78 
English 2 
History 12 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 



82 



German 3 
Physics 2 
Chem. 3 
Chem. 4 



Senior 
Year. 



8 4 

Greek 8 
Philos. 6 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 13 



82 
Hi story 11 
History 15 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 3 



81 



English 1 
English 2 
French 4 
History 13 



88 

Rom. Law 1 
R. Philol. 11 
Italian 1 
Spanish 3 



87 
English 2 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 



82 

English 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 5 
History 9 
Geology 4 



72 
Greek 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 1 
Math. 3 



Ethics 4 
Philos. 6 
Zoology 2 
Biology 5 



85 



German 5 
French 8 
Chem. 5 
Chem. 6 
Geology 4 



77 



79 
Oral Disc. ( 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 8 
History 10 
History 13 



Greek 5 
English 2 
French 1 
History 1 



87 



Ethics 11 
Philos. 12 
Botany 7 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 



Sophomore 
Year. 



59 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 1 
French 1 



82 



60 83 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Physics 2 
German 1 
Chem. 1 



Junior 
Year. 



77 



Senior 
Year. 



Greek 9 
Latin 6 
Philos. P> 
German 4 C 



73 



61 

French 8 
History 1 
History 2 
Chem. 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 



62 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 



81 



63 

Greek 2 
English l a 
German 1 
Philos. 1 



66 



64 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
German 1 



72 



65 

Greek 2 

( Greek 3 

Latin G 
(Latin 3 

English l a 



60 



66 

Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Greek 5 
GV<?e& 2 
GVee/fc 3 
French 2 



79 



78 
Geology 4 
French 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 3 
History 2 



Philos. I* 
Biology 5 
Zoology 2 
Chem. 3 



84 



79 
Greek 5 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 4 
Philos. 1»> 



84 
Greek 5 
English 2 
[History 2 
History 13 
Fine Arts 3 



78 
Greek 1 
Greek 5 
Greek 5 h 
Latin 7 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Greek 9 
History 2 
History 13 
German 5 
French 8 



Geology 8 
French 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Chem. 3 



84 
Philos. 3 
Philos. 12 
Zoology 6 
Chem. 4 
Polit. Ec. 4 



81 

Greek 7 
History 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Latin 2 



9i 

Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Poft*. Ec. 8 
History 11 
History 15 



82 

Greek 5 
French 8 
History 4 
History 2 
Fine Arts 3 



79 



67 

Latin 1 
French 1 
Rom. Law 2 
Philos. 2 b 
History 2 



81 

Eng.Comp.5 
Greek 7 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 
French 8 



84 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Eng.Comp.b 
Ethics 4 
Ethics 11 



85 

Greek 9 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Geology 4 
Geology 8 



81 
Greek 11 
Rom. Law 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 3 
English 2 



79 
Latin 2 

English 7 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
History 14 
History 15 



77 
Latin 2 
English 2 
Oral Disc. 6 
Philos. 12 
History 13 
Pme Arts 9 




CLASS OF 1885. 



25 



Sophomore 
Tear. 



73 



38 

Biology 5 

Zoology 2 

German G< 

4! ChemJ_ 

69 a 79 



Polity 



[00% 
'hem. | 

WtfcJ 

reei ' 
rtoiyi 

-■ Jx 
ill 3 



German 2 
Latin 1 
Philos. 1 
Math. 5 



TO 75 

French 1 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 
History 2 



ra so 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Philos. 1 



72 



69 



Greek 5 
German 2 
Philos. 1 
Math. 2 



73 

Philos. 2*> 
German 2 
French 1 
Italian 1 



76 



T4 75 

French 8 
Philos. 2b 
German 1 
History 1 
History 2 



75 e 



73 



German 5 
Philos. 1 
History 4 
Geology 4 d 



IT6 69 

German 2 
Music l n 
Chem. 1 
Physics 2 



Junior 
Year. 



Botany 6 
Zoology 7 
Geology 8 
Palaeontol.14 



76 
German 3 
French 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 6 
[History 2 



86 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. He. 6 
History 9 
Geology 4 



76 
Eng.Comp.5 
Elocution 9 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Rom. Law 1 



79 

English 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Ethics 4 
Geology 4 
History 13 



73 

Ethics 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 12 
Italian 2 



72 



Polit. Ec. 1 
History 12 
History 13 
Zoology 2 



75 

Fine Arts 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Chem. 1 
Geology 8 



Senior 
Year. 



86 

Anatomy 13 
Geology 15 
Geology 17 
Geology 18 



Sophomore 
Year. 



78 
German 5 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Rom. Law 1 
History 13 



87 
Polit. Ec. 3 
[Polit. Ec. 8 
History 13 
History 14 
History 15 



86 

Eng.Comp.5 
History 9 
History 10 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Fine Arts 9 



82 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Ethics 11 
Philos. 3 
History 9 



77 



Ethics 11 
Philos. 6 
Philos. 12 
History 10 
Spanish 1 



84 
Oral Disc. 6 
Philos. 12 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Ethics 11 
History 11 
Phys. Geo. 1 



82 
Philos. l b 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Chem. 3 
Zoology 2 



84 
English 7 
Fine Arts 9 
Ethics 4 
History 13 
Palaeontol.14 



77 
Eng.Comp.12 

Polit. Ec. 3 
Palaeontol.14 

Biology 5 



77 



73 



Greek 5 
German 2 
Philos. 1 
Geology 4 d 



78 

Greek B 
Greek 5 
Latin 1 
Chem. 1 



75 



79 74 

German 2 
French 2 
Philos. 1 
Chem. 1 



80 

Greek 5 
German 1 
French 2 
History 1 



77 



72 



81 

Greek B 
Latin 1 
History 2 
Rom. Law 2 
German 1 



82 

Music 1 
Music 3 
French 1 
German 1 



66 



83 76 

German 2 
French 2 
French 8 
History 1 
History 2 



84 71 

German 1 
French 1 
Chem. 2 
Geology 4 d 



Junior 
Year. 



83 

Elocution 9 
History 1 
Ethics 4 
Ethics 11 
Zoology 2 



Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Latin 2 
[(LatinS 
Chem. 3 



76 



68 

English 8 
Elocution 9 
Philos. 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 2 
Geology 4 



Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
German 4 C 
English 2 
History 12 



73 



76 

Elocution 9 
Philos. 2 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
German 3 



81 

Music 2 
Chem. 1 
Physics 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



64 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. lb 
History 9 
History 12 



76 

German 3 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 



Senior 
Year. 



73 
Eng.Comp.5 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
[Phil. 10 



Greek 5 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Chem. 4 
Chem. 5 



73 



83 

Oral Disc. 6 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 13 
Palaeontol.14 



75 
Geology 4 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 4 
English 2 
Fine Arts 
Fine Arts 9 



77 
Oral Disc. 6 
English 2 
History 9 
Phys. Geo. 
Geology 4 



80 



Music 5 
Music 6 
Physics 6 
History 2 
Geology 4 



77 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 6 
French 9 
History 13 
Music 3 



7i 
German 5 
French 8 
Polit. Ec. 6 
PoZtY. Ec. 8 
History 13 
Drawing 1 



6 As Special Student in 1881-82 had taken Mathematics 2. In Freshman Year : — 6 German 1. 



2G 




CHOICE OF STUDIES. 






Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 


Senior 


Sophomore 
Year. 


Junior 


Senior 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


Year. 


85 59 


80 


76 


94 63 


79 


8- 


English 7s 


Drawing 1 


Eng.Comp.12 


Greek 5 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 6 1| 


History 2 


History 9 


History 14 


German 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Polit. Ec. 8 1 


(German 1 


History 12 


Philos. 1 


History 3 


History 1 


History 2 


French 1 


History 13 


Polit. Ec. 6 


Geology 4 d 


Fine Arts 3 


History 11 | 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Polit. Ec. 8 






History 13 j 
Philos. 2 


86 63 


79 


80 


German 1 
History 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 
History 8 


Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 






Philos. 3 


95 65 


67 




History 3 


[History 9 


History 10 


Greek 5 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Biology 5 


History 4 


History 12 


History 14 


History 1 


History 2 


[ Geology 4 




Spanish 1 


Music 3 


Math. 2 


Math. 1 


Geology 8 


87 64 


68 


79 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 3 


Geology 16 


Greek 2 
Latin 1 


Greek 7 
Latin 6 


Eng.Comp.5 




Mec. Draw. 


Geology 18 


96 70 


74 


80 


French 2 


History 1 


History 10 


History 1 


History 2 


History 11 


Math. 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Biology 5 


History 3 


Philos. 2 


Greek 10 




[ Geology 4 


Geology 8 


Physics 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Palaeontol.14 






[ Geology 4 


Geology 4 d 


Geology 8 


Geology 18 


88 67 

English 7% 


74 

English 8 


75 
Eng.Comp.12 




Fine Arts 3 




97 47 


80 


73 


History 2 


History 13 


History 11 


German 1 


German 4 C 


Philos. 1 


Drawing 1 


French 8 


Polit. Ec. 6 


French 1 


Spanish 1 


Spanish 2 


Math. 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 8 


History 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


History 2 


Geology 4 d 


Philos. 2 


Philos. 5 


(Math. 2 


Zoology 2 


Botany 3 




Philos. 3 






Biology 5 


Geology 4 


89 78 


7i 


78 


98 62 


78 


74 


Greek 5 


Fine Arts 3 


Greek 10 


Latin 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Spanish 1 


Spanish 2 


Spanish 3 


German 1 


Fine Arts 3 


Zoology 2 


German 1 


Zoology 2 


[Polit. Ec. 4 


History 1 


History 12 


[History 8 


History 1 


History 12 


History 7 
History 11 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 3 


History 13 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 


90 7 62 

English 78 


81 

English 8 


82 

Eng.Comp.12 


99 72 


65 


70 


French 4 


French 4 


Polit. Ec. 6 


Latin 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


English 2 


Latin 3 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 8 


German 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Music 3 


Fine Arts 4 h 


Fine Arts 3 


History 13 


French 1 


French 8 


History 11 


Geology 4 d 


History 2 




History 1 


History 2 


History 13 


91 72 

Greek 5 


74 
History 2 


72 
Greek 10 




Philos. l b 




100 56 


78 


80 


History 1 


History 12 


History 11 






Philos. 2 


Latin 1 


French 8 


Polit. Ec. 4 


Latin 1 


History 1 


History 2 


Geology 4 d 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 6 


German 1 


Phys. Geo. 1 


Botany 3 




Fine Arts 3 


Polit. Ec. 8 


Math. 1 


Zoology 2 


Biology 5 


92 78 

Latin 5 


69 
Polit. Ec. 1 


66 
Polit. Ec. 4 


Chem. 1 


Chem. 3 


Chem. 4 


101 62 


76 


78 


German 2 


History 10 


History 8 


Greek 5 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Greek 10 


French 1 


History 13 


History 14 


Latin 1 


Spanish 1 


Spanish 2 


Philos. 1 


Ethics 4 


History 15 


Phys. Geo. 1 


History 12 


French 8 


93 71 


72 


79 


Geology 4 d 


Zoology 2 


French 9 


Greek 5 
Latin 1 


English 8 
History 1 


English 7 
History 11 






Music 3 


102 61 


78 


82 


History 2 


History 13 


History 14 


Latin 1 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Polit. Ec. 4 


French 2 


Polit. Ec. 1 


Philos. 2 


German 1 


History 13 


History 8 


German 1 


Geology 4 


Philos. 3 


Philos. 2b 


Bom. Law 1 


History 9 




[(Physics 2 


Ethics 11 


Phys. Geo. 1 


Zoology 2 


Geology 8 


In Freshman Year : — 7 French 4. 



CLASS OF 1885. 



27 



Sophomore 
Tear. 



iitory 

kikt. 

Ology 



turji; 
:ek 10 

tuntol! 
' 'J 



103 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
German 1 
French 2 



74 



104 

Greek 2 
Greek 5 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 



77 



Junior 
Year. 



Senior 
Year. 



7i 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Spanish 1 
German 4 C 
French 4 



68 



55 



(German 2 
Chem. 1 
Philos. 1 

Zoology 2 



106 

Latin 1 
German 1 
Philos. 1 
History 1 



67 



107 65 

Philos. 1 
Pine Arts 4 h 
Physics 2 
Geology 4 d 



75 



108 

Greek 3 
French 8 
History 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 



109 



65 



History 1 
History 3 
Philos. 2 b 
Phys. Geo. 1 



110 55 

German 1 
French 1 
Physics 2 
Geology 4 d 



111 63 

Greek 5 
German 1 
Philos. 2 b 
Phys. Geo. 1 



Greek 5 

Greek 7 

(Arabic 7 

Latin 2 



70 



German 1 
Chem. 3 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



7i 

Polit. Ec. 1 
German 3 
Ethics 4 
History 13 



66 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 3 
Physics 3 
Geology 8 



53 

Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
(History 13 
Fine Arts 3 
Geology 4 



63 

Elocution 9 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 4 
Zoology 2 



English 8 
Latin 2 
History 2 

Geology 8 
Zoology 2 



7i 



69 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 12 
Fine Arts 3 
Fine Arts 7 



Greek 10 
Spanish 2 
German 3 
French 9 
Music 3 



67 



Greek 8 
Greek 9 
Greek 10 
Latin 5 
Latin 6 



56 



73 

History 2 
French 1 
French 8 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 6 
Geology 4 



76 
Oral Disc. 6 
German 7 
Ethics 11 
Philos. 6 
Philos. 3 
Philos. 12 



74 

Polit. Ec. 4 

Drawing 1 

Eng.Comp.12 

Palaeontol.14 



73 
Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 5 
Music 3 
Botany 3 



74 
Oral Disc. 6 
History 9 
History 14 
Philos. 12 
Rom. Law 1 



81 

English 7 
Fine Arts 8 
History 11 
Geologyl8 
Palaeontol. 14 



Greek 10 
Music 3 
Philos. 6 
Chem. 2 



7i 



Sophomore 
Year. 



112 

Greek B 
Greek 5 
German 1 
Chem. 1 



74 



113 63 

German 2 
German 5 
French 8 
History 1 
History 2 



114 

(German 1 
French 1 
Spanish 1 
History 1 



61 



Junior 
Year. 



67 

Greek 1 
Greek 5 
Spanish 1 
History 2 
[(History 12 
Geology 4 



58 

Greek 5 
Greek 10 
(Greek 9 
Fine Arts 8 
Music 3 



63 



German 6 C 
English 2 
French 1 
Philos. l b 



115 67 

German 1 
French 1 
Physics 2 
Chem. 1 



116 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
(German 1 
Physics l h 



53 



111 8 61 

German 1 
French 1 
Philos. 2 b 
Drawing 1 



118 73 

Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



119 52 

English 2 
(German 1 
Physics 2 
Geology 4 d 



120 



56 



(English 2 
German 1 
Physics 2 
Geology 4 d 



English* 2 
German 1 
French 2 
Spanish 2 
Italian 1 



66 



62 

German 4 C 
English 8 
Music 1 
Math. 2 
Mec. Draw. 



Greek 5 
Latin 2 
(German 1 
Music 3 
Zoology 2 



63 



[Latin 2 65 
English 2 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 3 
Geology 4 

[Botany 3 



Senior 
Year. 



78 
German 7 
Eng.Comp.12 
Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 



75 

English 2 

Eng.Comp.12 

Polit. Ec. 4 

Music 3 



74 

Polit. Ec. 1 
Music 3 
Geology 4 
Surveying 



83 
Greek 1 
Greek 5 
Greek 10 
Chem. 2 
Phys. Geo. 1 



72 

Palaeontol. 14 
Zoology 6 
Chem. 1 
History 1 



Latin 2 59 
English 8 
History 1 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Geology 8 



78 
History 2 
Philos. l b 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Geology 8 



67 

English 2 
Italian 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 



66 
Geology 8 
French 2 
Chem. 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 



66 

English 7 

Eng.Comp.12 

History 13 

Polit. Ec. 8 

Palaeontol.14 



61 

History 11 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 2 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 
Palaeontol.14 



Had leave of absence during the Senior year. 



28 



CHOICE OF STUDIES. 



Sophomore 
Tear. 



121 

French 1 
History 1 
History 2 
(Latin 1 
{Latin 3 



48 



122 9 65 

English l a 
■English 78 
History 1 
History 2 
Physics 2 
123 1(r ~ 



French 1 
Drawing 1 
Physics 2 
Chem. 1 



57 



124 55 

German 2 
French 8 
Philos. 2 b 
History 1 
History 2 



Junior 
Year. 



57 



Philos. l b 
History 9 
History 12 
Math. G 
Chem. 1 



62 

English 2 
English 8 
History 12 
Philos. 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



63 



English 2 
Philos. l b 
History 2 
Math. 2 



Senior 
Year. 



Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 
Math. 3 
Chem. 3 



81 



7i 
English 2 
Eng.Comp.5 
Oral Disc. 6 
Elocution 9 
Polit. Ec. 4 



125 

French 1 
Philos. 2b 
History 1 
Math. 2 



66 



126 



62 



Greek 5 
Drawing 1 
(History 4 
Geology 4 d 



53 



127 

(Latin 1 
French 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 1 



128 



63 



Polit. Ec. 1 
History 3 
History 13 
Geology 4 d 



129 

Greek 5 
Greek 7 
German 1 
Zoology 2 



57 



56 

English 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 3 
History 12 



63 

Elocution 9 
French 8 
Ethics 4 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 



66 

Latin 2 
Fine Arts 3 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 



German 1 
French 4 
Spanish 1 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Botany 3 



70 



67 



Polit. Ec. 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 8 



English 8 
Greek 2 
Spanish 1 
Botany 3 
History 2 



54 



63 
German 1 
Philos. 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Math. 5 



78 
Music 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Fine Arts 9 
Chem. 2 
Geology 4 



64 
Eng.Comp.12 
French 9 
Philos. 10 
History 9 
Polit. Ec. 4 



67 

Eng.Comp.12 
Spanish 1 
History 11 
History 13 
Music 3 



66 



French 8 
Spanish 2 
History 2 
Philos. 5 
Geology 4 



65 

English 7 
Oral Disc. 6 

Eng.Comp.12 
Spanish 1 

Palaeontol.14 



Greek 5 
Greek 8 
Greek 9 
German 3 
[History 13 



78 



Sophomore 
Year. 



130 

(Greek 5 
German 1 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 2 



42 



131 65 

German 1 
French 1 
History 1 
Philos. 1 



132 

Greek 3 
History 2 
Drawing 1 
Physics 2 
Math. 1 



68 



133 

Greek 5 
German 1 
History 1 
History 3 



54 



134 

(Greek 5 
(Latin 5 
History 1 
Chem. 1 



43 



Junior 
Year. 



66 

Greek 5 
German 4 C 
French 1 
(Polit. Ec. 1 
Music 1 



Senior 
Year. 



63 

(Elocution 9 
(Polit. Ec. 1 

Fine Arts 3 

Philos. 3 

Ethics 4 



63 

Spanish 1 
Zoology 2 
Fine Arts 3 
Physics 3 



66 

Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 12 
Fine Arts 3 



135 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
German 1 
(History 1 



50 



136 



64 



Greek 5 
Latin 5 
History 1 
Geology 4 d 



137 

Greek 5 
French 8 
Philos. 2 b 
History 1 
History 2 



59 



70 
Polit. Ec. 1 
French 1 
History 2 
Fine Arts 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 



66 

English 2 
Latin 2 
Geology 4 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 3 



53 

Fine Arts 3 
History 12 
History 13 
Geology 8 



57 

Spanish 1 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Fine Arts 3 
History 12 



Greek 10 
History 2 
(French 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 2 
Botany 3 



F 



Elocution 9 
Italian 1 
Fine Arts 9 
Philos. 6 
Ethics 11 
Philos. 12 
English 2 
(English 1 



63 

Italian 1 
Geology 4 
Music 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 



72 

Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 11 
Music 3 



69 

Polit. Ec. 4 
History 7 
History 11 
Fine Arts 9 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 8 



65 

Eng.Comp.12 
Music 3 
Geology 8 
Geology 18 



68 

Greek 10 
Music 3 
Zoology 2 
Palaeontol.14 
Geology 18 



69 

Eng.Comp.12 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Fine Arts 9 
History 8 
Music 3 



Allowed to take English 2 as a half-course. Ix Freshman Year : — 10 Fine Arts 7 ; Zoology 2. 






CLASS OF 1885. 



29 



Sophomore 
Year. 



138 

Greek 5 
German 1 
History 1 
(Physics 2 



40 



139 56 

Philos. 1 
Historyl 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 



140 



55 



German 2 
French 2 
(History 4 
History 13 



141 66 

English 7% 
French 1 
History 1 
History 2 
Geology 4 d 



142 

Greek 5 
Spanish 1 
History 3 
Geology 4 d 



58 



143 



59 



144 

Latin 5 
German 1 
History 3 
Geology 4 d 



German 1 
French 1 
History 1 
Geology 4 d 



55 



145 57 

German 1 
French 2 
French 8 
History 1 
History 2 



146 55 

German 1 
French 1 
Spanish 1 
Geology 4 d 



Junior 
Year. 



67 
Philos, 2 
Philos. 3 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 
Fine Arts 3 
Zoology 2 



62 

English 8 
History 2 
Spanish 1 
Zoology 2 
Fine Arts 3 



47 

(Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 9 
History 12 



60 
English 8 
French 8 
History 12 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 



66 
Fine Arts 3 
Spanish 2 
History 1 
Zoology 2 



62 

English 8 
German 3 
Fine Arts 3 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 



60 



Music 3 
German 3 
History 1 
History 12 



60 
German 4 C 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 
History 12 



62 

Latin 2 
Italian 1 
Spanish 2 
Fine Arts 3 



Senior 
Year. 



68 
Eng.Comp.12 
Philos. 5 
History 1 
Polit. Ec. 6 
Polit. Ec. 8 



7i 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 11 
Music 3 
Botany 3 



74 

Elocution 9 
Eng.Comp.12 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 11 
Music 3 
Philos. 1 
Ethics 11 



54 
Eng.Comp.12 
Spanish 1 
History 11 
Phys. Geo. 1 



66 
Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. 4 
History 11 
Music 3 



65 

Eng.Comp. 12 
Ethics 11 
French 8 
History 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 



63 
Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Drawing 1 
Geology 18 



64 



English 2 
English 7 
History 10 
History 11 
[History 13 
Geology 4 



62 

Eng.Comp. 12 
Italian 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 
History 2 



149 63 

German 1 
Physics l h 
Chem. 1 
Zoology 



150 

Greek 5 
Latin 1 
Philos. 1 
Geology 4 



Sophomore 
Year. 



147 52 

German 1 
French 1 
Philos. 2 b 
Zoology 2 



148 

Latin 1 
(German 1 
History 1 
Geology 4 d 



53 



54 



151 54 

Greek 5 
German 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 



Junior 
Year. 



53 

Italian 1 
(Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 6 
Geology 4 
History 2 



69 
Latin 2 
English 2 
Elocution 9 
Zoology 2 
Philos. 3 
Polit. Ec. 1 



English 1 
Philos. V> 
Botany 3 
Biology 5 



60 



59 

History 2 
Latin 2 
Philos. 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Zoology 2 



54 



Philos. 2 
(Spanish 1 
Zoology 2 
History 13 
History 2 



152 48 

German 1 
French 8 
History 2 
(Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 



153 



46 



(German 1 
History 1 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 d 



154 

German 1 
Spanish 1 
History 1 
Drawing 1 



50 



155 45 

German 1 
French 8 
History 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
(Geology 4 d 



58 

Greek 5 
Spanish 1 
History 13 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Music 3 



65 

Philos. 2 
History 2 
History 12 
Zoology 2 
Geology 8 
Fine Arts 3 



59 

French 8 
Spanish 2 
History 2 
(History 12 
Fine Arts 3 



53 

Fine Arts 3 
History 1 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Geology 4 



Senior 
Year. 



65 

Greek 10 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Botany 3 

Geology 8 
Palaeontol. 14 



48 
Latin 6 
English 2 
History 13 
Phys. Geo. 1 



5i 

(Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 3 
History 2 
Music 1 
Music 3 



59 
History 1 
History 11 
Ethics 11 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Polit. Ec. 8 



Greek 10 
Spanish 1 
Music 3 
History 1 
History 11 



63 



58 
Philos. 1 
Italian 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Drawing 1 
[Geology 4 



62 

Greek 10 
History 11 
Polit. Ec. 1 
(Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 



53 

French 9 
(English 2 
Eng.Comp. 12 
Italian 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Phys. Geo. 1 



65 

Eng.Comp. 12 
French 1 
French 9 
History 11 
Music 3 



30 



THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. HEADS OF DISCUSSION. 






Sophomors 
Year. 



Junior 
Year. 



156 



56 



History 1 
Drawing 1 
Zoology 2 
Geology 4 d 



157 



45 



German 1 
Geology 4 d 
(History 1 
Fine Arts 4 h 



158 11 91 

Philos. 1 
Physics l h 
Physics 3 
French 1 
German 2 



48 
Latin 2 
History 2 
Fine Arts 3 
English 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 



54 
Greek 5 

Latin 2 
Spanish 1 
History 1 
Fine Arts 3 



93 

Ethics 4 
Philos. 5 
Polit. Ec. 1 
History 4 



159 u 

French 1 
German 1 
History 1 
Math. 2 



Senior 
Year. 



55 

History 11 
Music 3 
Eng.Comp.12 
Polit. Ec. 4 



60 

Eng Comp.12 
Italian 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
Music 3 



90 

Ethics 4 
Philos. 10 
Ethics 11 
Eng.Comp.5 
English 6 
Elocution 9 



78 



160 u 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
History 1 
[Math. 2 



89 



80 

French 8 
History 2 
History 12 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Philos. 1 



Greek 5 
English l a 
Philos. 1 
Physics 2 
[History 2 



87 



French 3 
English 2 
Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 4 



Greek 7 
English 2 
Chem. 1 

History 11 



Sophomore 
Year. 



161 n - 12 76 

English l a 
English 7% 
Philos. 1 
German 1 
Greek l h 
Greek 10 



162 11 

Greek 2 
Greek 3 
Latin 1 
Latin 3 
Polit. Ec. 



85 



163 11 56 

(Zoology 2 
Philos. 2 b 
History 2 
Bom. Law 2 
Math. 1 



Junior 
Year. 



86 

English 2 
Eng.Comp.5 
Ethics 4 
Polit. Ec. 1 



85 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Zoology 2 
Botany 3 
[Geology 4 
Biology 5 



Senior 
Year. 



91 

English 6 

Eng.Comp.5 
Elocution 9 
Polit. Ec. 3 
Polit. Ec. 4 



164 n - 13 65 

Chemistry 1 
Zoology 2 
English 2 
German 4 C 



55 

Zoology 2 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Polit. Ec. 4 
(Polit. Ec. 5 
Po&iJ. Ec. 7 



74 
Chemistry 3 
History 2 
English 8 
Polit. Ec. 1 
Italian 2 



Nat. Hist. 11 
Zoology 6 
Botany 7 
Palaeontol.14 



54 
Phys. Geo. 1 
Geology 4 
(Polit. Ec. 3 
Spanish 1 
Math. 2 
English 6 



History 11 
History 13 
French 8 
Philos. 2 
Philos. 3 
Ethics 11 



11 Nos. 158-164 were not ranked in the class. No. 158 was a Sophomore in '79-'80 and a Junior in 
'80-'81. — ^ A Sophomore in '81-'82; and a Junior in '82-'83. — In Freshman Year: — 13 German 1. 



These three hundred and fifty choices of studies, each of 
which covered three years, suggest many different reflections 
and lines of inquiry and discussion. It is proposed to discuss 
them here under six separate heads : 1 . The degree of spe- 
cialization in study which liberty of choice has produced. 
2. The wisdom of the choices as regards continuity of study 
or persistency in the same or kindred studies from year to 
year. 3. The supposed prevalence of a disposition to choose 
easy subjects. 4. The expediency of limiting choice by pre- 
scribing groups of cognate studies. 5. The effect of diversity 
of studies upon the intellectual life of the College. 6. The 
meaning of the Bachelor's degree. 

1 . It is a principal advantage of the elective system that it 



SPECIALIZATION OF STUDIES. 31 

permits the student to concentrate his work upon the subjects 1 
in which his capacity is greatest, and so to be thorough in a ' 
chosen line of study. This freedom for the student to spe- 
cialize has the incidental advantage of effectively developing 
the advanced instruction of the College, for zealous teachers 
are always ready to lead ambitious students on. Now, the 
freedom which has. these great uses might conceivably admit a 
serious abuse, — namely, a specialization so extreme as to im- 
pair that general cultivation and openness of mind which may 
reasonably be expected in educated men. It is therefore an 
interesting inquiry, is specialization extreme or too common in 
the above recorded 350 cases? 

The following table gives by number all the cases of special- 
ization of studies sufficient, or more than sufficient in quan- 
tity to qualify the student as a candidate for "Honors" at 
graduation in one or more of the several departments in which 
Honors are given. (For the qualifications required for Honors 
in these subjects respectively see Appendix, p. 185. A few 
elementary courses in languages, philosophy and history can- 
not be counted for Honors. See the annual list of courses 
of instruction.) In general it may be said that the student 
who seeks Honors must devote about half his time during 
three years to studies within the department in which he 
seeks them ; but this restriction to studies within the chosen 
department is by no means absolute, as will be seen in the 
regulations just referred to. In the Class of 1884, fifty out 
of the sixty-eight persons who specialized their work enough, 
or more than enough, for Honors, devoted not more than 
-j^- of their time for three years (excluding the little time 
given to prescribed subjects) to studies within a single depart- 
ment, or counting for Honors in that department ; v and only 
fifteen devoted § or more of their time for three years to the 
subjects of a single department, or to cognate subjects in 
closely related departments. These last fifteen cases are nos. 
2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 28, 31, 32, 34, 36, 48, 85, 115, and 129, 
and among these cases nos. 31, 32, 34, and 48 are cases of 
extreme concentration of work, three of the four being in 
Classics and one in mathematics and physics. In the Class of 
1885 there were only thirty cases in which study was special- 



32 



THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. — SPECIALIZATION. 



ized even to the moderate degree required for Honors ; and 
eighteen out of these thirty persons gave not more than T v 
of their time for three years to studies which could be counted 
for Honors in a single department. The other twelve per- 
sons—namely, nos. 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 49, 68, 70, 86, 104, 
and 162 — gave § or more of their time to one subject or to 
closely related subjects ; and eight of these twelve cases are 
cases of extreme concentration of work, — namely, nos. 1, 8, 
9, 10, 13, 49, 68, and 104 — four of the eight being in 
Classics, three in mathematics and physics, and one in natural 
history. 

All the Cases (in the preceding Table) op Specialization of Studies 
sufficient, or more than sufficient in quantity, to qualify for 
"Honors." 





1884. 


33. 


Polit. Science. 


88. 


Nat. History. 


10. 


Phys. & Math. 


No 




34. 


Classics. 


96. 


Nat. History. 


11. 


Classics. 


1. 


Philosophy. 


36. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist 


. 97. 


Classics. 


13. 


Classics. 


2. 


Semitic Lang. 


37. 


History. 


101. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist. 19. 


Classics. 


3. 


Classics. 


39. 


Polit. Science. 


111. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist. 34. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist 


4. 


Nat. History. 


40. 


Nat. History. 


114. 


History. 


48. 


Chemistry 


5. 


Nat. History. 


42. 


Polit. Science. 


115. 


Classics. 


49. 


Mathematics. 


8. 


Classics. 


45. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist 


. 121. 


History. 


55. 


Chemistry. 


9. 


Polit. Science. 


48. 


Classics. 


123. 


Music. 


62. 


Classics. 


10. 


Chemistry. 


52. 


Nat. History. 


129. 


Nat. History. 


64. 


Classics. 


11. 


Nat. History. 


53. 


Chemistry. 


137. 


Classics. 


68. 


Nat. History. 


12. 


Classics. 


55. 


Music. 


146. 


Classics. 


70. 


Polit. Science. 


14. 


Classics. 


58. 


Polit. Science. 


154. 


Polit. Science 


78. 


Classics. 


15. 


Polit. Science. 


59. 


Mathematics. 


155. 


Classics. 


82. 


Music. 


17. 


Chemistry. 


60. 


Nat. History. 


171. 


Nat. History. 


86. 


History. 


18. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist. 62. 


Polit. Science. 


178. 


History. 


92. 


History. 


19. 


Nat. History. 


63. 


Chemistry. 


179. 


Nat. History. 


104. 


Classics. 


20. 


Polit. Science. 


66. 


Chemistry. 


184. 


Chemistry. 


105. 


Nat. History. 


21. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist. 67. 


Classics. 






109. 


History. 


23. 


Classics. 


69. 


Nat. History. 




1885. 


112. 


Classics. 


24. 


Mathematics. 


70. 


Classics. 


No. 




116. 


Classics. 


26. 


Philosophy. 


72. 


Pol. Sci. & Hist 


. 1. Phys. & Math. 


118. 


Nat. History. 


27. 


Chemistry. 


81. 


Nat. History. 


2. English. 


129. 


Classics. 


28. 


Classics. 


83. 


Physics. 


3. Pol. Sci. & Hist. 


145. 


History. 


31. 


Phys. & Math. 


85. 


History. 


8. Classics. 


162. 


Nat. History. 


32. 


Classics. 


87. 


Chemistry. 


9. Classics. 










AMOUNT OF SPECIALIZATION. 33 

Classification of the Above Cases of Specialization. 

Honors awarded.} 

In 1884 68 cases out of 186 34 

In 1885 30 " " 164 12 

Division of these Cases by Departments. 

Honors awarded. 

1884. 1885. 1884. 1885. 

Classics 16 . 12 10 4 

Political Science* 16 3 6 

Natural History 14 4 - 4 1 

History 5 4 3 2 

Chemistry 8 2 3 

Physics f 2 2 1 2 

Mathematics 2 1 2 1 

Music 2 1 2 1 

Philosophy 2 2 

Semitic 1 1 

English 1 1 

68 30 34 12 

Among the whole 350 recorded cases it appears that there 
are only twenty-seven cases (less than eight per cent) of highly 
specialized work (at least J of three years in the same sub- 
ject), and that of these twenty-seven only twelve are cases 
of extreme concentration. One would have supposed that 
more than one student in thirteen would have found it 
expedient to specialize his work to a high degree during 
the last three years of the College course. It is one im- 
portant function of a university to produce educated spe- 
cialists ; and all experience shows that young men of re- 
markable capacity in a single direction wish and need to 
concentrate their work by the time they are twenty years 
old, and often before that age. On the other hand, it clearly . 
appears that ninety-two per cent of the 350 students whose I 
choice of studies is recorded in the above tables did not 
use their freedom in order to specialize their work to any de- 

* Including 9 in History not given under "History." 

t Including 3 in Mathematics not given under " Mathematics," one of whom 
took Honors in Physics and Mathematics, and is therefore counted twice in the 
table of "Honors awarded." 

X Honors were awarded to two students in 1884, and five students in 1855 who 
were graduates of other institutions, or of Harvard previous to 1884, and the 
work of these students is not counted in this table, as it does not enter into the 
table "Choice of Studies," etc. 



34 THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. 



gree which could seem inexpedient even to persons who doubt 
the wisdom of specialization. The instructors who have charge 
of advanced courses all complain that the number of students 
in such courses is unduly small ; and the same fact appears 
conspicuously in the figures which accompany the lists of 
courses of instruction in the Dean's annual reports. These 
are indeed courses which cannot be given at all except under a 
wide elective system ; but they are the very courses Avhich 
characterize a university, and make it serviceable to capable 
and vigorous students. The ordinary college student does 
not wish to specialize much ; and the opportunities offered to 
specialists at the University, being of recent creation, are not 
yet widely enough known to draw to Cambridge in consider- 
able numbers those graduates of other institutions, or those 
advanced students from other parts of the country, who have 
the wish and the capacity for specialized study. The liberty to 
specialize is as yet barely used. Certainly it is not abused.* 

* The regulations concerning Honors may seem to some persons too technical 
or artificial to afford a satisfactory criterion of specialization of study, certain 
courses of study being excluded from the Honor groups for reasons which are 
not always obvious. A variety of tests of specialization can easily be applied 
to the table of choices. For example, if a student pursued six full elective 
courses, counting both the elementary and the advanced, in the same depart- 
ment of study, — Latin and Greek being treated as separate departments, — most 
persons would say that he had specialized his work, six full courses represent- 
ing half the elective work of the student during his Sophomore, Junior, and 
Senior years. The table gives fifty cases of this sort, divided among the depart- 
ments as follows : — 



' 



Greek . . . . 
Semitic .... 
English . . . . 
Philosophy . . 
History .... 
Mathematics . . 
Physics .... 
Chemistry . . . 
Natural History 



5 


5 


1 






1 


1 




7 


1 


3 


3 


1 




4 


1 


13 


4 



Total, 35 15 

Every one of these cases is included in the table on page 32. In applying any 
such test, it should be remembered that the department called Natural History 
is really a group of studies comprising physical geography and meteorology, 
botany, zoology, and geology. 

A test which no two persons would apply in the same way, — its results de- 
pending upon individual judgment, — is, of course, not available for statistical 
purposes. 



COHERENCY OF CHOICES. NATURAL AIDS. 35 

2. The inquiry whether students free to ehoose their studies 
exhibit generally in their choices some intelligible plan, and 
a reasonable degree of persistency, is one of the most inter- 
esting inquiries connected with the working of an elective sys- 
tem. If the free choice of studies frequently resulted in a 
capricious selection for trivial motives of heterogeneous, dis- 
connected elementary studies, that one fact would be, in itself, a 
serious objection to an unrestricted application of the principle 
of election. A careful inspection of the table of 350 choices will 
satisfy any candid mind that the elective system produces no 
such evil, but on the contrary results in consistent plans of 
individual study throughout the College course. Inconsecutive 
or aimless selections are hard to find in that table. It is not 
probable that any two persons would perfectly agree in the 
selection of the cases of incoherent or motiveless choice ; for 
opinions differ considerably as to what constitutes reasonable 
coherency. Two experts, both familiar with the courses of 
instruction during the period 1881-1885, carefully examined 
er,;li: the entire series of 350 choices, independently of each other, 
to pick out those which in their judgment lacked coherency or 
consecutiveness. One selected sixteen cases and the other 
twenty, but the two agreed only upon seven — namely, 1884, 
nos. 76, 149, and 162; 1885, nos. 29, 111, 126, and 132. A 
third expert was then called in to make an independent search, 
with the result that two of the three experts (not the same 
two in every case) agreed in considering the following num- 
bers deficient in coherency of plan — 1884, nos. 74, 76, 82, 
117, 130, 135, 149, 158, 161, 162; 1885, nos. 20, 29, 46, 60, 
101, 111, 115, 126, 132, 149, 157, being twenty-one cases in 
all ; but the three agreed only upon six cases — namely, 1884, 
nos. 76, 149, and 162; 1885, nos. 29, 111, and 126. When 
experts cannot agree that a given selection of studies lacks co- 
herency, it may w^ell be that knowledge of the circumstances 
and conditions under which the individual selection was made 
would explain or justify it. To make a plan of studies for a 
young man, or to criticise fairly a plan which he has made for 
himself, requires a very thorough knowledge of his tastes, ca- 
pacities, inheritances, circumstances, and purposes. The gen- 
eral result is that incoherent choices are very few, and that the 



»L' 



36 THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. 






intelligence in selection is nearly as great in the lower half o 
a class as in the upper half. 

There must exist, therefore, some guiding principles or de 
marcations, natural or artificial, which, avail to make free choic 
judicious in the main, and particularly to make it coherent 
A just appreciation of these determining principles, or natura 
limits, goes far to interpret the working, and account for th< 
success of the elective system. The purely natural guides foi 
the student making his plan of studies are, indeed, so obvious 
and authoritative that the most thoughtless youth can hardly 
help seeing and following them. In the first place he cannot 
help taking up a new subject at the beginning and not at 
the middle. Secondly, if he would continue a study which 
he has already pursued, he must take it up again from the 
point where he left it off. Thirdly, he finds that many subjects 
taught at a university involve other subjects not in the same 
department, and cannot be advantageously studied without a 
previous knowledge of those other subjects. Fourthly, he 
perceives that every advanced course presupposes acquaint- 
ance with some elementary course or courses in the same 
department. Lastly, he recognizes and obeys the general 
tendency to pursue a congenial subject of study once entered 
upon. So effective are these natural safeguards against fickle- 
ness and inconsecutiveness in the choice of studies, that it 
seems chiefly necessary that the student should be informed 
about the inevitable sequence of studies in each department, 
and the mutual dependence cff related departments. This 
information the Faculty undertakes to give. The depart- 
ments of Sanskrit, Classics, mathematics, history, political 
economy, French, music, botany, and physical geography, 
geology, and palaeontology issue each a printed description of 
all its courses of instruction, setting forth the nature and sub- 
ject-matter of each course, the method of instruction, the fa 
sequence of the courses, and the special preparation, if any, * 
needed for each course, preparation either within or without 
the department. The absence of these descriptions in several 
important departments points to one of the present defects 
of the College — namely, inadequate organization in some of 
the principal departments of instruction. The list of courses 












: i 



INFORMATION AND ADVICE GIVEN. 37 

of instruction for the ensuing year, which is published every 
spring, contains many explanations and injunctions concern- 
ing the proper order of studies and the preparation needed for 
particular courses.* These directions undergo some modi- 
fication from year to year, in consequence of changes in the 
courses themselves or in the mutual relations of different 
courses, or in the demands of the students ; and their number 
' (l$ te [might be considerably increased, if need appeared. With re- 
lfl i gard to about one quarter part of all the courses of instruction, 
it is stated in the list that they cannot be chosen without the 
previous consent of the instructor, which is made contingent 
upon adequacy of preparation. These courses are generally 
starred (*). In addition to all official announcements, the 
eighty teachers of the College give a great deal of private 
advice to students who consult* them about plans of studies, 
and this advice is compared by the students with that of 
parents, school-teachers, comrades, and older friends. In con- 
nection with the annual list of College courses of instruction 
the Faculties of Law, Medicine, and Science respectively give 
advice to undergraduates who are expecting to enter some one 



'iiiiin 



nfli 

HI 

nit 






* As specimens of these explanations and injunctions the following sentences 
are taken from the list for 1884-85 : — Spanish. " Course 1 is open to those only 
who have not before taken a course in Spanish. Courses 1 and 2 cannot be taken 
together. Course 3 is open to those only who have taken Courses 1 and 2 with 
marked success." " Students are not permitted to elect Italian 1 and Spanish 1 
in the same year." 

Political Economy. " Course 4 requires no previous study of Political Econ- 
omy." "It is recommended that Courses 6 and 8 be taken together." "As a 
preparation for Courses 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 it is necessary to have passed satis- 
factorily in Course 1." 

Physics. " Course A and Course 2 are suitable for Freshmen." " Course A is 
adapted for Freshmen who have passed on the Prescribed Physics only in the 
examination for admission. It may be taken by those who presented the Elec- 
tive Physics for admission, but for such students it will count only as a half- 
course." " Freshmen who wish to take Course 2 must consult the instructor in 
advance. It is open to those only who have passed satisfactorily in Physics — 
either Prescribed alone, or Prescribed and Elective — at the examination for 
admission." " Courses 1 and 4 can be pursued only by students who are able to 
solve readily problems in Algebra and Trigonometry, and Course 4 will in ad- 
dition require similar familiarity with Analytic Geometry. The same requisi- 
tions are made for Course 5, together with some knowledge of the Calculus." 
■ Course 9 is open to those only who have already taken Physics 2 and Mathe- 
matics 2. Students taking this Course are strongly urged to take with it 
Mathematics 5." 



38 THE ELECTIVE SYSTEM. SECOND-YEAR HONORS. 

of these professions, concerning the best courses of instruction 
for them to take while in College. The advice of the Medical 
Faculty is very specific, and is generally followed by under- 
graduates who propose to study medicine in after years. 
The influence of this Faculty can easily be traced in the table 
of 350 choices ; for the special subjects usually selected by 
undergraduates who intend to study medicine are French, 
German, chemistry (Courses 1 and 3), physics (Course 2), 
and natural history (Courses 2, 3, and 5). (See, for example, 
1884, nos. 43, 50, 60, 64, 133, 174; 1885, nos. 5, 18, 42, 100, 
149.) On the other hand, the Law Faculty recommends so 
many subjects that its influence cannot be traced in the table. 

Although no professional subjects or applied sciences find 
place in the College courses of instruction, it is, nevertheless, 
an important advantage of the elective system that it permits 
undergraduates who know what profession they are to follow 
to select those College subjects which afford the best foundation 
for their future professional studies. For the future minister, 
lawyer, physician, teacher, or engineer there is a special motive 
for decided and coherent choice among the 200 courses of in- 
struction offered by the College ; and a wise choice will take 
great account of the intended profession. On the other hand, 
there are some students who, knowing the professions for which 
they are destined, think it best to take in College studies of a 
character quite unlike that of their future professional studies. 

Such, in brief, are the measures which the College Faculty 
has taken to give effect to the natural principles which deter- 
mine coherence and consecutiveness in individual choices of 
studies which extend through several years. These measures, 
though fairly effective, are far from being complete ; they can 
be both improved and extended without change of fundamental 
plan or policy. 

The Faculty has, however, gone beyond giving appropriate 
information, in order to promote continuity of study ; it has 
offered two distinct inducements to moderate concentration of 
work. The first of these inducements is " Second-Year Hon- 
ors" in Classics and in mathematics, the second is "Honorable 
Mention " at graduation. The effect of Second-Year Honors is to 
concentrate not quite one year's entire work upon Classics or 






HONORABLE MENTION. EASY COURSES. 39 

mathematics as the case may be (for the present regulations 
see Appendix, p. 187). They are most frequently taken at the 
end of the Sophomore year, but Juniors also take them. In 
the table of choices, the persons who arranged their studies 
with reference to Second- Year Honors in the Classics may be 
recognized by the choice of the composition courses in Greek 
and Latin (Greek 3 and Latin 3) in the Sophomore year. (See, 
for example, 1884, nos. 3, 8, 12, 13, 14; 1885, nos. 62, 64, 
66, 71, 104.) Candidates for Second- Year Honors in mathe- 
matics may be recognized by their choice of Mathematics 2 and 
3, or 2 and 4, or 2, 3, and 4 in the Sophomore year. (See, 
for example, 1884, nos. 4, 24, 31, 35, 51; 1885, nos. 1, 10, 
16, 51, 57.) Persons not infrequently aim at Second- Year 
Honors in Classics at the end of the Sophomore year, and 
thereupon drop the study. (See 1884, nos. 13, 15, 22; 1885, 
nos. 21, 28, 38.) The number of persons who took Second- 
Year Honors in 

1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 

The Classics was 24 24 13 15 

And in mathematics was 5 8 5 8 

By its regulation concerning Honorable Mention* at gradu- 
ation the Faculty offers an inducement to concentration of work 
to the extent of three courses (one quarter of three years' work) 
in a single department. The offer of this modest distinction, 
which is probably within the reach of three quarters of the stu- 
dents, affects the choice of studies of a large proportion of 
every class. The effect of the regulation is very conspicuous 
in the table of choices. In the class of 1884, one hundred and 
fourte